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Y 1268. 



East India Company 

Jrom its Servants in tbe East 


1613— 1615 



loint Editor of ' The Register of Letters of the E. India Co., 1600-19.' 





St. E>unstan's "ffjousc 





124. Tempest Peacocke to the Company. Firando, Decem- 

ber 2, 1613 1 

125. Instructions left by Captain John Saris on his departure 

from Japan. P'irando, December 5, 161 3 ... 4 

126. Richard Cocks to William Adams and Richard Wickham 

at Jeddo. Firando, December 24, 161 3 .... 9 

127. Instructions from Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, for 

a trading- expedition to Jeddo and other places. Firando, 
January [ ], 1613-14 10 

128. John Jourdain to the Company. Bantam, January 31, 

1613-14 14 

129. Declaration by Peter Floris concerning a sum of money 

belonging to the Seventh Voyage. Masulipatam, Feb- 
ruary 1, 1613-14 . 17 

130. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando, 

February 5, 1613-14. ....... 17 

131. The same to the same. Firando, February 17, 1613-14 . 18 

132. Captain Essington and Peter Floris to Thomas Aldworthe 

at Surat. Masulipatam, February 18, 161 3-14 (Missing) 19 

133. William Eaton to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Osaka, 

March 1, 1613-14 20 

134. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando, 

March 7, 1613-14 21 








135. The same to the same. Firando, March 9, 161 3-14 . . 22 

136. Captain Downton's instructions to his fleet for keeping 

company, March 14, 161 3-14 

137. William Eaton to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Osaka 

March 22, 1613-14 

138. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando 

April 1, 1614 

139. Instructions from Captain Larkin and others to Sophony 

Cozucke, proceeding to Landak. Sukadana, April 11 

140. William Eaton to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Osaka 

April 20, 1614 

141. The same to the same. Osaka, April 21, 16 14 . 

142. Letters received by John Jourdain at Bantam : — 

(1) From George Cokayne at Macassar, April 24 and 

May 7 & 24, 1614 31 

(2) From Richard Welden at Macassar, May 23, 1614 35 

(3) From Robert Larkin at Sukadana, June 10, 1614 . 37 

(4) From the same at Patani, July 24, 16 14 . . . 38 

(5) From Peter Floris and George Chauncey at Masu- 

lipatam,July 10, 1614 . ..... 40 

(6) From John Gourney and others at Patani, July 28, 

1614 44 

(7) From George Cokayne at Macassar, July 17, 1614 45 

143. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando, 

May 12, 1614 46 

144. William Eaton to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Osaka, 

May 12, 1614 48 

145. Instructions from John Gourney and others to John Jourdain 

and Richard Cobb for the disposal of goods from the 
'James,' June 1, 1614 49 

146. William Eaton to Richard Wickham. Osaka, June 3, 1614 50 

147. Richard Cocks to William Adams at Jeddo. Firando, 

June s, 1614 51 



148. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando, 

June 5, 1614 S3 

149. Benjamin Farie to John Jourdain [at Bantam]. Sukadana, 

June 11, 1614 54 

150. Nathaniel Courthope to John Jourdain [at Bantam]. 

[Sukadana], June 14, 1614 57 

151. Peter Floris to Thomas Aldworthe at Surat. Masulipatam, 

June 17, 1614 59 

152. William Eaton to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Osaka, 

June 17, 1614 62 

153. Thomas Brockedon to Sir Thomas Smith. Patani, 

July 23, 1614 63 

154. Captain Larkin to Sir Thomas Smith, Patani, July 24, 

1614 65 

155. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando, 

July 25, 1614 67 

155A. William Nealson to [Richard Wickham. Firando, about 

February, 161 3-14] 7 1 

156. William Eaton to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando, 

July 26, 1614 74 

157. William Adams to Richard Wickham at Jeddo. Firando, 

July 26, 1614 75 

158. Benjamin Farie to [the Company]. Patani, July 26, 1614 . 77 

159. John Gourney to the Company. Patani, July 28, 1614 . 80 

159A. Invoice of goods left in Patani for the Ninth Voyage, 

July 25, 1614 88 

160. Duplicate of No. 159 88 

161. John Gourney to Sir Thomas Smith. Patani, July 28, 1614 88 

162. Thomas Herode to Sir Thomas Smith. Patani, July 28, 

1614 9 1 

163. Thomas Aldworthe and William Biddulph to the Company. 

Surat, August 19, 1614 96 


164. Thomas Aldworthe to Peter Floris at Masulipatam. Surat, 

August 19, 1614 I01 

165. Thomas Keridg-e to the Company. Ajmere, Septem- 

ber 20, 1614 I0 3 

166. Thomas Keridg-e to Sir Thomas Smith. Ajmere, Sep- 

tember 20, 1614 ' IO 

167. Adam Denton to the Company. Patani, October 5, 16 14 . 112 

168 & 169. Consultations held at Svvally and Surat, October 15 
to November 28, 1614 

170. Thomas Aldworthe to Thomas Keridge at Agra. Surat 

October 22, 1614 

171. William Eaton to Richard Cocks at Firando. Osaka 

October 27, 1614 

172. Nicholas Withington to Thomas Aldworthe at Surat 

Agra, October 29, 1614 

173. William Eaton to Richard Cocks at Firando. Osaka 

October 30, 1614 

174. John Jourdain and George Ball to the Company. Bantam 
October 31, 1614 

175. A note of the ports in Persia, obtained by Thomas Keridge 

Ajmere, October [1614] 

176. List of papers sent home by William Nicholls from Tiku 

November 7, 1614 ....... 






177. Wiliiam Edwards to the Company. Ahmedabad, Decem- 

ber 20 [1614] 148 

178. Thomas Keridge to Thomas Aldworthe and William 

Biddulph at Surat. Ajmere, November 15, 1614 . . 156 

179. Opinions of the factors concerning the behaviour of 

Richard Cobb. Bantam, November 16, 1614 . . 1 59 

180. Peter Floris and George Chauncey to Thomas Aldworthe 

at Surat. Masulipatam, November 16, 1614 . . . 164 

181. Captain Nicholas Downton to the Company. Svvally Road, 

November 20, 1614 167 



182. Particulars learned from a native skipper regarding - Sind 

[November 20, 16 1 4] (Missing) 172 

183. List of goods desired from England by Mukarrab Khan 

for the Great Mogul 173 

184. Captain Downton to Sir Thomas Smith. Surat, Novem- 

ber 20, 1614 174 

185. Duplicate of No. 181 177 

186. Thomas Keridge to Captain Downton [at Swally]. Ajmere, 

November 22, 1614 178 

187. Abstracts of letters received by the ' Hope/ November, 

1615: — 

(1) From Captain Downton. Swally Road, Novem- 

ber 22, 1614 182 

(2) From John Young. February 25, 1614-15 . . 183 

(3) List of goods desired by Mukarrab Khan for the 

Great Mogul 183 

(4) From Edward Holmeden. Surat, March 7, 

1614-15 ' . .183 

(5) From Thomas Keridge. Ajmere, September 20, 

1614 183 

(6) From William Edwards to Sir Thomas Smith. 

December 26, 16 14, and March 14, 1614-15 . 183 

(7) From Richard Baker. Saldania, June 20, 1615 . 183 

(8) From Thomas Keridge to Sir Thomas Smith. 

Ajmere, September 20, 1614 .... 185 

(9) From Captain Downton to William Edwards at 

Agra. Swally [March, 1614-15 ?] . . .185 

(10) From George Uffington. Saldania, June 20, 1615 185 

(11) From Captain Downton. Surat (or at sea), 

March 7, 1614-15 185 

(12) From William Biddulph. Surat, February 28, 

1614-15 1S7 

(13) From William Edwards. Ahmedabad, Decem- 

ber 20, 1614 187 

(14) From Thomas Mitford. December 26, 1614 . . 187 



(15) From Edward Dodsworth. Killybegg Harbour, 

November 5, 16 15 188 

(16) From Captain Keeling - . Saldania, June 19, 1615 . 189 

(17) From Thomas Keridge. Ajmere, January 20, 

1614-15 191 

(18) From John Sandcrofte. Surat, November 29, 16 14 191 

(19) From Ralph Preston. Before Dabul, March 9, 

1614-15 191 

(20) From Robert Gipps. Saldania, June 19, 1615 . 192 

(21) From Thomas Elkington. Swally, February 25, 

1614-15 192 

(22) From Thomas Keridge to Captain Downton. 

Ajmere, November 22, 1614 .... 192 

(23) From Thomas Aldvvorthe and William Biddulph. 

February 28 and March 2, 1614-15 . . . 193 

(24) From Thomas Arthington. Saldania, June 18, 

1615 194 

188. Thomas Keridge to William Edwards [at Surat]. Ajmere, 

November 23, 1614 195 

189. Richard Cocks to the Company. Firando, November 25, 

1614 . 196 

190. Richard Cocks to Adam Denton at Patani. Firando, No- 

vember 25, 1614 202 

191. Commission and invoice of goods shipped in the 'Sea 

Adventure ' for Siam. Firando, November 25, 1614 . 204 

192. Consultation at Surat, November 28, 1614, regarding the 

discovery of trade in Persia ...... 208 

193. Captain Downton to Sir Robert Sherley. [Surat, Novem- 

ber, 1614?] 209 

194. John Sandcrofte to the Company. Surat, November 29, 

1614, and Ahmedabad, December 19, 1614 • • • 212 

195. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham aboard the ' Sea 

Adventure.' Firando, December 2, 1614. . . .215 

196. The same to the same. Firando, December 3, 1614 . .216 



197. Japanese receipt for certain parcels. August 22 [1613] . 216 

1 97A. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham aboard the ' Sea 

Adventure.' Firando, December 3, 1614 . . . . 217 

198. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Broach. Surat, 

December 8, 1614 218 

199. Thomas Aldworthe to John Oxwicke at Broach. Baroda, 

December 9, 1614 218 

200. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Broach. Surat, 

December 10, 1614 219 

201. Duplicate (with slight variations) of No. 189 . . . 220 

202. Richard Cocks to the Company of Merchant Adventurers 

of England resident in Middelburg. [Firando, Decem- 
ber 10, 1614] 220 

203. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham aboard the ' Sea 

Adventure.' Firando, December 10, 1614 . . . 222 

204. The same to the same. Firando, December 10, 1614 . 223 

205. The same to the same. Firando, December 12, 1614 . 223 

206. Memorandum of goods to be claimed from the custom 

house at Surat by William Biddulph on behalf of John 

Oxwicke 224 

William Biddulph to John Oxwicke at Broach. [Surat], 
December 12, 1614 225 

207. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Broach. Surat, 

December 14, 1614 225 

208. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham aboard the ' Sea 

Adventure.' Firando, December 15, 1614 . . . 227 

209. The same to the same. Firando, December 15, 1614 . 227 

210. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke and Christopher 

Farewell [at Broach]. Surat, December 16, 1614 . . 228 

211. Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham aboard the 'Sea 

Adventure.' Firando, December 16, 1614 . . . 230 

212. Jeronimo de Varrada to the English at Firando. Nanga- 

saki, December \ £, 1614 (Missing) 230 



213. Ralph Preston to John Oxwicke at Broach. Ahmedabad, 

December 17, 1614 2 3 ! 

214. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Broach. Surat, 

January 17, 1614-15 232 

215. Memorandum by [Thomas Mitford ?] for Christopher 

Farewell, proceeding to Broach. Baroda, December 19, 

216. [Richard Wickham] to Richard Cocks at Firando. Amami 

Oosima, December 23, 1614 

217. Thomas Mitford to the Company. [Ahmedabad], Decern 

ber 26, 1614 ........ 

218. John Crouther to the Company. Ahmedabad, Decern 

ber 26, 1614 

219. William Edwards to Sir Thomas Smith. Ahmedabad 

December 26, 16 14, and Ajmere, March 14, 16 14-15 

220. Thomas Aldworthe to the Company. Ahmedabad, De 

cember 27, 1614 

221. William Edwards, Thomas Aldworthe, and Edward 

Dodsworth to John Oxwicke and others at Broach 
Ahmedabad, December 29, 1614 .... 

222. Edward Dodsworth to the Company. Ahmedabad, De 

cember 30, 1614 ....... 

223. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke and Christopher 

Farewell at Broach. Surat, December 31, 1614 

224. Ralph Preston to the Company. Ahmedabad, January 1 


225. Instructions to Richard Steel and John Crouther for their 

mission to Persia. Ahmedabad, January 2, 1614-15 

226. John Jourdain and others to the Company. Bantam 

January 2, 1614-15 ....... 

227. Christopher Farewell to John Oxwicke at Broach. Jam 

busar, January 3, 1614-15 . 



228. Thomas Aldworthe to John Oxwicke and others at Broach 

Ahmedabad, January 4, 1614-15 

229. John Oxwicke to Thomas Elkington [at Surat]. Broach 

Januarys, 1614-15 

230. Resolution by a court of merchants at Bantam, January 9 


231. Thomas Aldworthe to John Oxwicke and others at Broach 

Ahmedabad, January 12, 1614-15 .... 

232. [William Nicholls ?] to the Company. Bantam, January 14 


233. George Chauncey to the Company. Bantam, January 15 


234. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Broach. Surat 

January 19, 1614-15 

235. Thomas Keridge to the Company. Ajmere, January 20 


236. George Chauncey to the Company. Bantam, January 21 


237. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Broach. Surat 

January 21, 1614-15 

238. The same to the same. Surat, January 23, 1614-15 . 

239. The same to the same. Surat, January 24, 1 614-15 . 

240. Instructions to George Ball for a voyage to Macassar and 

Amboyna. Bantam, January 24, 1614-15 

241. Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Broach. Surat 

January 31, 1614-15 

242(1). Duplicate of No. 226 

242 (2). John Jourdain to the Company. Bantam, February 10, 

243. John Yates to William Greenwell, Deputy Governor of the 

Company. Bantam, February 17, 1614-15 

244. Samuel Boyle to the Company. Bantam, February 18 















245. Captain David Middleton to the Company. Bantam, 

February 20, 1614-15 324 

246. John Millward to the Company. Bantam, February 20, 

1614-15 327 

247. Edward Blitheman to Sir Thomas Smith. Bantam, Feb- 

ruary 20, 1614—15 328 

248. Richard Rowe to the Company. Bantam, February 21, 

1614-15 333 

249. Richard Westby to the Company. Bantam, February 21, 

1614-15 .... 33s 

250. John Jourdain to George Ball, cape merchant of the 

Concord. Bantam, February 23, 1614-15 . . . 339 


Page 49, line 23, after very insert acceptable 
»» 77. >> 17, for 26 read 36 
,, 291, „ 8, for Kataping ? read Kola Teugah 


HE documents of the ' Original Correspondence' series 
printed in the present volume are numbered 124 to 
250, and, with a few exceptions, belong to the period 
between the 2nd December, 1613, and the 23rd Feb- 
ruary, 1615, or nearly fifteen months. The exceptions, it may be 
well to note, are Nos. 2, 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 20, 23 and 24 of the 
abstracts ranged under No. 187. These were mostly written from 
the Cape by the factors, &c, of Reeling's fleet of 1615, and are 
mingled with letters of earlier date owing to the fact that they 
were received by the Hope, which was met at Table Bay on her 
homeward voyage. 

In all, nearly one hundred and fifty separate documents are 
included in this instalment. Roughly speaking, one-half of these 
are dated from Surat, Agra, or other places in the dominions of 
the Great Mogul ; while the remainder may be almost equally 
divided between Japan and Bantam (with its subordinates). 

The importance of the first of these three groups is certainly 
commensurate with its bulk ; for the period in question was one 
in which the fate of the English attempt to settle in Western 
India hung more than once in the balance. As noted in the 
Introduction to the preceding volume, the Portuguese, in the 
autumn of 1613, to mark their displeasure at the favourable 
reception accorded to the English, had seized a native vessel 
of great value ; and Jahangir had thereupon given orders to 

Y 1268. a 


imprison all the Portuguese in his dominions, and had sent an 
army under Mukarrab Khan to besiege the city of Damaun 
(p. 96). Meanwhile the handful of Englishmen whom Best had 
left behind him under Thomas Aldworthe had been well treated, 'all 
these people here generally much more affecting us than the Por- 
tingals, and showing us kindness in what they may ' (p. 97). Their 
sales, however, were inconsiderable, and their discouragements 
many. The spring and summer of 1614 passed away without any 
tidings of the expected fleet from England ; the natives began to 
weary of the hostilities with the Portuguese and the consequent loss 
of trade,and to doubt whether it were not wiser to yield to the 
Viceroy's demands and expel the English from the Mogul's terri- 
tories. At last, however, in October, 1614, Captain Downton 
reached Swally ' with four gallant ships and four hundred gallant 
men,' as Aldworthe wrote joyfully to Keridge (p. 137). The news 
of their arrival roused the Portuguese to a supreme effort ; and, 
as soon as he could collect his entire force, the Viceroy sailed 
to the north with the intention of first crushing the English 
intruders and then punishing their native allies. Alarmed at 
the prospect of an attack upon Surat, Mukarrab Khan demanded 
the active co-operation of the English vessels (p. 149). Downton, 
however, was forbidden by his commission (First Letter Book of 
the E. India Co., p. 451) to commence hostilities against the 
subjects of other Christian powers, and he would therefore 
undertake nothing unless he were first attacked (pp. 149, 
168). Mukarrab Khan was greatly incensed at this and showed 
his displeasure in many ways, until the approach of the 
Viceroy's armada warned him not to alienate his only sup- 
porters. To the ensuing engagement, which, as is well known, 
ended in the entire discomfiture of the Portuguese, the refer- 
ences in the present volume are curiously meagre; and the 
student who wishes for details of the fight must still go to the 
journals preserved among the India Office Marine Records or 
to the pages of Purchas. It is interesting, however, to notice 
that Downton himself testifies to the bravery shown by the 


Portuguese. ' The gallants of the Portugal's army were in this 
business,' he writes ; in fact they nearly succeeded in their first 
attack, and he had never seen men fight with greater resolution 
(p. 186). 

Meanwhile more peaceful pursuits were not forgotten. It 
was arranged that one ship should be sent home direct from 
Swally, and factors were told off to proceed to Ahmedabad, 
Broach, Cambay, and other places to procure a lading of indigo 
and calicoes. Before they separated, a series of consultations 
was held (Nos. 168, 169, 192), at which the position of affairs 
was fully discussed. The Company had intended that William 
Edwards, the principal of the newly-arrived factors, should 
assume the direction of affairs at Surat ; but this was vigorously 
opposed by Aldworthe, who almost unaided had maintained the 
English hold on the port, and was not inclined to give place 
to a new-comer when events had taken a more favourable turn 
(Dodsworth's Journal, I. O. Mar. Rec). The need of someone 
' of good fashion and esteem ' at Ajmere, in the place of Keridge, 
suggested an honourable compromise ; and ultimately Aldworthe 
was recognised as chief at Surat, while Edwards was appointed 
to proceed to the Court. A question which caused some difficulty 
was that of the capacity in which the latter was to present 
himself. The Company had expressly forbidden any of their 
servants to imitate Captain Hawkins in assuming the title of 
ambassador ; and yet those on the spot agreed that ' whosoever 
should go up to the king under the title of a merchant should 
not be respected .... for that merchants generally are 
not regarded by the king' (p. 133). In the end it was determined 
that Edwards should call himself ' a messenger sent by our 
King to the Great Mogul ' (p. 137), and under this title he set 
out from Surat in December, 1614. A letter which he sent 
from Ajmere to Sir Thomas Smith (p. 243) states that their 
' entertainment by the Great Mogul hath been very honourable,' 
and that they look forward with confidence to ' a contenting 
trade hereafter without obstacle or impediment.' 


Another question debated at the consultations among the 
factors was the advisability of endeavouring to open a trade with 
Persia. When the English factors first repaired to the Mogul 
Court their broadcloths found a ready sale, and in consequence a 
large quantity was ordered from England ; but when once the 
novelty had disappeared, the demand fell to a mere fraction of 
the estimate (p. 97), and it seemed probable that the expected con- 
signment would be far beyond their requirements. This prospect 
quickened Aldworthe's interest in other possible markets, par- 
ticularly Persia, concerning which he had already ' made diligent 
enquiry' (Vol. I., p. 307). There, he was told, they might be 
sure ' of the vent of much cloth, in regard their country is cold, 
and that men, women, and children are clothed therewith some 
five months in the year' (p. 98). This information he obtained 
from an Englishman named Steel, who had come overland from 
Aleppo in pursuit of a runaway debtor, and had been persuaded to 
await at Surat the coming of the expected fleet. When Downton 
arrived the matter was brought before the council of merchants, 
and it was resolved to despatch Steel to Ispahan, accompanied by 
a factor named Crouther, to procure further information and to 
solicit a firman ' for the fair and peaceable entertainment of our men 
ships, and goods in all such parts as they shall arrive at ' (p. 267). 
This obtained, they were to separate, Crouther returning to 
India and Steel pursuing his journey to England to report to 
the Company. As a further means of obtaining the desired 
object, they were furnished with letters of commendation to 
Sir Robert Sherley, who had recently returned to Persia (by 
way of Lahori Bandar and Ajmere) from a roving mission to 
various European courts (1608-13) as the Shah's representative. 
With these letters and a supply of money for the needs of the 
journey the two travellers set out from Ahmedabad shortly before 
the date on which the volume closes. 

Such were the main events affecting the English in Western 
India during this period. Before quitting the subject, however, 
attention may be directed to two points which are clearly 


brought out in these letters. The first is that the agreement 
concluded by Best with the Governors of Surat and Ahmedabad 
was far from possessing the importance which was then and 
since has been ascribed to it. Keridge, writing from Ajmere 
in November, 1614, says that ' none here will take notice ' of the 
articles (p. 180) ; and it is clear, from the instructions given 
to Canning ' to procure the king's seal to the articles ' (p. 103) 
and from other references, that the so-called treaty, in spite 
of its confirmation by the Mogul, had not (as was at first hoped) 
established the English position on a secure basis. The second 
point is that the founding, or at least the maintenance, of 
an English factory at Surat was due quite as much to Thomas 
Aldworthe as to Captain Best, though to the latter is generally 
awarded the whole credit. In the preceding volume (p. 301) 
William Biddulph bore testimony that ' the greatest cause 
and means of our settling here was Mr. Aldworthe, for 
our General [Best] would have been gone three or four times 
and left this place .... but Mr. Aldworthe stood out 
with him and would not go aboard ' ; and now we find Keridge 
equally emphatic (p. 157) : ' had not Mr. Aldworthe directly 
refused to follow his [Best's] will, we had left this place and 
trade.' Best, however, had the opportunity of telling his story 
first and of ' attributing all good services to be done by himself 
(p. 157) ; and consequently less than justice has hitherto been 
done to the energy and persistence of the first English agent 
in Western India. 

The documents relating to the factory in Japan need not 
detain us long. The principal events of the period were Saris's 
departure for England, recorded in the first two documents (which 
really belong to the group of letters from Firando with which the 
previous volume concludes) : a trading journey to Jeddo early in 
1614, which met with scant success : and two ventures to Cochin 
China and Siam in country junks. The former of these two 
voyages was disastrous, for both of the factors lost their lives 
and the junk was cast away; the latter was likewise unsuccessful, 


though the last we hear of it in the present volume (No. 216) 
is that the junk has been forced by a storm (of which a lively 
description is given) to put into one of the Liu-Kiu Islands. 
As regards outside events, mention is made (p. 20) of the 
proscription of tobacco, and (pp. 201, 221) of rumours of wars 
between the Emperor (as Cocks calls the Shogun) and the son 
of his predecessor ; we also hear of the persecution of Christians 
and the banishment of ' papist Jesuits, friars, and priests ' 
(p. 19), ' so as now there is no more Christians of Japan- 
ners in these parts ' (p. 20). An amusing incident of this 
outbreak of hatred against the new religion was the objection 
raised (pp. 21, 52) to the display (on Sundays, ' as our custom 
is') of the English flag on the factory at Firando. The 
St. George's cross on the national emblem was an offence, and 
1 down it must,' in spite of the protests of the agent. 

Cocks himself, the head of the factory during the ten years 
in which the English vainly strove to establish themselves in 
Japan, is already a familiar figure, and these letters add 
little to the portrait drawn in his Diary, edited by Sir E. 
Maunde Thompson for the Hakluyt Society in 1883. Easy- 
going and unpractical, he was a singularly inefficient head 
for a factory where the strenuous competition of the Dutch 
and many other difficulties had to be encountered. The will-o'- 
the-wisp idea of opening up trade with China from Japan was 
ever in his mind ; and he somewhat prematurely bespeaks 
(p. 199) the credit of pursuing it to a successful issue. Still 
his letters contain many interesting passages, such as, for 
example, his account of Corea (p. 201) and his description of 
the sailing waggons used there, which recalls a well-known 
passage in Paradise Lost. 

A special characteristic of this group of letters is that most 
of them are familiar epistles from one factor to another, 
and so afford many glimpses of domestic life not to be 
found in documents of a more formal order. Such are the 
notes from Cocks to Wickham, requesting the return of the 


buckets in which some live fresh-water fish have been sent for 
his consumption and expressing a wish that Wickham could 
be with him to see the soldiers mustered, ' and eat your part 
of a neat's tongue to dinner ' : the notice (p. 23) of the purchase 
by Cocks of a slave wench, at a cost of three taels (15s.), ' for 
which she must serve five years and then repay back the three 
taels, or some friend for her, or else remain a perpetual captive ' : 
and especially the extraordinary document numbered 155A. 

Bantam, the oldest and for a long time the most important 
station of the English in the East, is represented in the present 
volume by comparatively few documents ; and half of these are 
of about the same date, being, in fact, a bundle of letters sent 
home by one ship, the Globe. It is not difficult, however, to 
trace the main course of events. In January, 1614, Jourdain, 
the recently appointed agent, writes that the goods have been 
collected into one warehouse and that similarly the factors, 
who up to that time had been keeping separate establish- 
ments for the different ' Voyages,' are now ' all in one house 
at bed and board.' From a later letter we learn that they 
have commenced to build their new factory on the site 
granted to them, ' a place very convenient and near the river,' 
but have been stopped by the Pengran's unreasonable behaviour 
(p. 276). On the 8th September, 1614, arrived the Concord 
from England, bringing, no doubt, the important news of the 
formation of what afterwards came to be known as the ' First Joint 
Stock.' The system of opening a separate subscription for each 
voyage, and of sending out factors whose sole concern was to 
provide cargoes for those particular ships, led not only to a great 
waste of energy and complication of accounts, but to a competition, 
and sometimes an antagonism, which was very prejudicial to the 
general interests of the trade. Moreover, as the rivalry of the 
Dutch in every Eastern market made itself felt more and more 
each year, it became evident that the only means of enabling the 
English to hold their own was to make a sustained effort backed 
by increased resources. A sum of 429,000^ was accordingly 


subscribed, which was to be employed in setting forth four 
fleets, one in each of the next four years. The Court Minutes 
for 1610-13 and the letters to Bantam are no longer extant ; 
and therefore the details of this transaction and the resulting 
instructions sent out to Jourdain and his fellow factors 
cannot be known with certainty. We may, however, infer 
that they included orders for opening up commerce with the 
Moluccas ; and Jourdain, who had already declared (p. 16) 
that this trade afforded the only chance of making Bantam a 
place of profit, entered heartily into the project. The Concord 
was prepared and despatched in January, 1615, to Macassar, 
with orders to proceed thence to Amboyna and Banda ; and, 
upon the arrival at Bantam, a fortnight later, of Captain 
David Middleton's fleet, the Thomasine was ordered to follow 
the Concord. This was an important step forward in the 
rivalry between the English and the Dutch, as the latter claimed 
an exclusive right to trade in those regions, based upon treaties 
concluded with the native chiefs. Jourdain attached little 
importance to their hostility ; ' as for the Hollanders ' (he said) 
1 I know they will do you no harm, only threaten you and the 
country people' (p. 309). But he was mistaken; to pass a 
little beyond our present limits, both vessels ' were beaten from 
the Moluccas by the Flemings ' (O. C. 289), and the attempt 
thus inaugurated to assert the English right to trade in the 
Moluccas led in time to the fight off Patani in July, 1619, in 
which Jourdain himself was killed, and so on to the Massacre 
of Amboyna (1623) with its momentous consequences. 

Besides these three fixed points of Bantam, Surat and Firando, 
we hear of other factories of a more or less temporary character 
at Masulipatam, Siam, Patani, Priaman, Tiku, Sukadana, Sambas, 
Macassar, and other places. Many of these were in connection 
with the ships of the Separate Voyages still left in Indian waters. 
Thus the Darling of the Sixth Voyage was still plying from port 
to port, though her crazy timbers were ' complaining sore ' (p. 38). 
The James (Ninth Voyage), with her drunken and domineering 


captain, is found first at Masulipatam, next at Bantam, then at 
Patani, and finally at Bantam again, whence in January, 1615, 
she spreads her sails for home. The Osiander of the Tenth Voyage 
is chiefly engaged in opening up trade at Tiku, in Sumatra, but as 
the volume closes she is ordered to proceed to Japan. Finally, the 
Globe (Seventh Voyage) spends the greater part of the period on 
the Coromandel Coast, returning to Bantam at the close of 1614, 
and sailing for home in the following February. One curious 
incident of her stay at Masulipatam may be noted. The 
Governor was one of those local tyrants whose unscrupulous 
exactions made 'poor men bring their paintings [patterned 
calicoes] in hugger-mugger and in the night, as thieves do their 
stolen cloaks to brokers ' (p. 85) ; and he had contracted a heavy 
debt to the English which he had no intention of paying. He 
was, however, soon brought to reason, for Floris seized his son, 
carried him on board, and kept him there till payment was made 
• in spite of 1,000 of his people, to the Company's benefit, the 
honour of our king and country, and to the great content of 
all the Moors ' (p. 294). 

Of references to other matters of interest the book is full. 
Valuable information is afforded with regard to the course of 
trade, not only that of the English and Dutch but also that 
carried on by native vessels, such as the export of tin from 
Tenasserim to the Coromandel coast (p. 86), of Chinese silks to 
Patani (p. 271) and Bantam (pp. 118, 315), of calicoes, rice and 
gold to the Moluccas (pp. 33, 273). Many useful particulars are 
given to as to the coins, weights, and measures in use in various 
localities. The dangers and difficulties of a factor's life are abun- 
dantly illustrated, especially in the accounts given of the attacks 
on the English factory at Tiku (p. 288), the march of Edwards' 
party to Ahmedabad (p. 260), and the adventurous voyages of 
Sophony Cozucke up the Landak river (pp. 92, 93). The 
destruction by fire of the Trades Increase, ' the goodliest ship 
of England and never made voyage before,' 1 is described on 

4 Chamberlain's letter to Dudley Carleton, Dom. S, P., Jac. I., Vol. LXXVII, No. 36. 
Y 1268. b 


p. 279 ; and on p. 325 David Middleton utters his lamentation 
over her commander, his brother Sir Henry. Opium is twice 
mentioned : the Surat factors in October, 1614, determine to 
buy two tons at fifty pounds per ton (which seems both a 
large quantity and a low price) ; and in the same month a 
factor writing from Patani tells how the Masulipatam bleacher 
' to get affanan [opium] ' hires out for a month's wear the calicoes 
entrusted to him and then ' beats them to pieces to make them 
clean ' (p. 127). Finally, one may notice an early specimen of 
' Hobson-Jobson ' in the word 'erzed,' which occurs on pp. 178 and 
179, and should probably be read for ' urged ' on p. 157 (line 32). 
It is, of course, the Hindustani arzi (a petition) turned into an 
English preterite. 

As in the case of the preceding volume, the necessary 
transcripts have been made by Miss Ethel Sainsbury, daughter 
of the late Mr. W. Noel Sainsbury, in whose Calendar of State 
Papers (E. Indies) this important series of records was first 
made known to historical students ; and the index has been 
compiled by Miss M. H. James. An independent comparison 
of each transcript with its original has been made, and the 
whole work has been executed under the direction of the Record 
Department of the India Office. 







Tempest Peacocke to the East India Company. 
2nd December, 1613. 

'IGHT Worshipful, my duty remembered unto you, etc. 
My last was from Bantam per the Thomas, men- 
tioning a former from Cape Bon Esperanza. In my last 
I certified you of 312,154!- catties pepper laden in the 
Thomas at Priaman, which cost with charges 6685 rials f ^ as per 
the account thereof now sent you per the General at large 
particularly appeareth, which then time permitted me not to send. 
Since which departing from Bantam the 15th of January and 
arrived at the town of Bachan the 24th of February, in the 
Molluccoes, where the Flemings have a fort furnished with eleven 
pieces of ordnance, where we had no trade, by reason that the 
Flemings bear such sway there ; the people, as we judge, willing 
thereunto and divers of the Flemings would willingly have 
forsook their fort and proceeded with us. Having stayed there 
15 days and finding no trade but encouraged by a chief man 
of the Island of Machan of some part of our lading in cloves at 
Y 126S. I. 815. B 

■«'•' ''-'.'• : '•. KA'7 IX D.I A COMPANY'S RECORDS 

the aforesaid Island of Machian, which Island at Sir Henry 
Middleton his being here, was offered, and the inhabitants 
expected his return for three years, which expired they perforce 
were constrained to yield to the Flemings. Presently upon our 
coming to anchor, which was the 17th of March, the people 
brought cloves aboard, selling them at 60 rials the bahar, taking 
our Cambaja cloth at good profit. At first we had good hopes of 
getting some good quantity of cloves and vent good store of cloth, 
but in the chief of our trade the Flemings sent a great ship from 
Marieco to hinder our proceedings, who so threatened the people 
of that Island with the fear of punishment, and punishing some, 
that none durst bring us a clove, yet in the night time some 
would adventure aboard us. In the end there came another ship 
which cut off all our hopes either by night or day ; insomuch that 
they would not suffer any provision of victuals to be brought 
aboard us. The shore they fortified with men in arms night and 
day so that except we had gone together by the ears there was 
no hope for us of any good. I am verily persuaded that had we 
not been hindered by them we had both procured some quantity 
of cloves and vented much of our Cambaya cloth, which in- 
supportable injuries I hope your Worships will neither endure nor 
put up, whereby such evident damage doth proceed. The people of 
this place have promised not to suffer them to build any more forts 
upon the Island for [there] is but this one place called Tahanna, 
free from under their forts whereat [ ] ride. Seeing 

ourselves thus crossed our General determined to go for Tidore, 
to try what might be done with the Spaniards. So the first of 
April we set [sail] from this Island, and being under sail some few 
boats came off to us with some small parcels of cloves, promising 
more ; but going ashore were by the Flemings snatched up, that 
they could not return. The 8th we were thwart of Tidore, and 
being near the Spanish fort, after some shot past at us, answering 
them without any shot, they sent a boat and flag of truce aboard 
us, to know what we were, and having understood our intent of 
trade, offering them both munition and victuals, they seemed glad 
thereof. Staying there the space of five days expecting their 
answer, in the end the Governor of Ternate desired our General to 
come thither, and there he would, having taken the advice of his 


council, at our coining before the town, send such of his principal 
men aboard as should accord for such things as he wanted. 
Hereupon the 13th ditto we set sail thither expecting the coming 
of some of his chief followers aboard, according as he sent word 
he would. One he sent who seemed to be but a common man ; 
supposed that they meant nothing less than [trading ?] with us ; 
so that we came not to an anchor, but proceeded on our voyage 
for Japan. But seeing the wind contrary we were forced to seek 
out a place to ride in, and the 23th ditto came to an anchor at the 
unfortunate Island of Doy, where we tarried till the nth of May. 
Unfortunate it may be called for there we lost unfortunately three 
men, Mr. Crawly, the carpenter's mate, drowned, and Meridith 
by the fall of a tree. From thence we set sail the nth of May 
towards Japan, where we arrived the 12th of June ; where we found 
the people of that place very glad of our coming. As soon as we 
were arrived our General despatched letters to the court to 
Mr. Adams, advising him of our arrival and that we expected 
him with the first. We stayed his coming the space of 48 days, 
he arriving the 29th July : after whose coming we made no long 
stay at Ferando, but with all expedition fitted ourselves for the 
voyage up to the Emperor's court ; unto whom your present was 
delivered and we obtained all such privileges as we desired. 
Three months we were upon our journey, being both costly and 
tedious. As touching the hope of any benefit here which may 
answer your expectations, I have small hopes of this place. What 
benefit may be made from Siam and Pottany (Patani) as yet I 
know not, but there is good hope that from these two places afore- 
said good benefit may be had. As for our English commodities 
here, it will not yield cent, per cent, all things considered, and 
small vent thereof for what I can perceive, yet our hopes is good. 
Since our coming hither the Flemings have sold broad cloth at 
130 mass, which formerly they sold at 240 and 230 mass the 
matt, which is about two yards ; our cloth much inferior to 
what I have seen of theirs, being very much wormeaten (which 
proceeded from the ill drying and dressing thereof) which will be 
a great hindrance in the sale, neither can I see how you should 
prevent it, except in taking that course the Flemings take in 
enbaling their cloth in lead as our General can inform you. I 

b 2 


wish your Worships may find such profit in this place as you 
have and do expect, and for my own part I will endeavour what 
in me lieth to procure the same. I would it might stand 
with your Worships' good liking to give order that we might 
receive our wages in this place, for what is allowed us by our 
General towards our maintenance is so small that it will hardly 
maintain me in apparel ; besides to live in this place is very 
chargeable and to receive no more but what will here defray 
charges will make us return home with empty purses. I hope 
your Worships will consider hereon, and take such course therein 
that at the end of our seven years' service we may have cause to 
think our time well spent. Thus, craving pardon for my bold- 
ness and what herein is amiss you will censure the best thereof, 
I humbly take my leave, resting 

Yours in all service, 
Ferando in Japan, Tempest Pcacocke. 

December the second, 1613. 

P.S. — At my return hither from the court, being the 6th of 
November, it pleased God to visit me with sickness, insomuch 
that as yet not being recovered thereof I was constrained to 
desire help of another in the writing hereof; therefore what 
wanteth herein [which ?] your Worships may expect to hear from 
me, I desire may be imputed to the weakness of body and not to 
the want of a willing mind. 


Captain Saris' remembrance left with Rich. Cocks at Japan, 
December 1613. 

OVING friend Mr. Richard Cocks, the long-wished-for 
time of my departure being come, and desirous of 
your good success in this business, committed wholly 
to your charge and good government, the Company 
worthily appointing you captain and cape merchant of their 
factory here in Japan, I thought it not amiss to leave you these 


few lines as remembrance of such principles as they decreed of in 
England, as also what, by experience, I find fitting and likely to 
be beneficial for them, having no doubt but you will not only 
kindly accept hereof, but also willingly observe what hereafter 
follows. The first is the present buying and fitting of a junk for 
Siam and Pottannye with such quantity of broad cloth, cloth of 
Cambaia, elephants' teeth and rials as hath been conferred upon, 
and that all diligence possible may be used to get thither by the 
fine of February, for about that time the China junks will be 
there and trading with them is the greatest hope of benefit : for 
their commodities are to be bought reasonable which here will 
yield great profit. Give order if the junk come thither before them 
that she be dispatched for Pottannye, if the time will permit, I 
mean the monsoon to carry her thither, to procure such China 
wares as may there be had and to return to Syam time enough to 
take in such lading as in their absence hath been provided ; and, 
finding not sufficient to lade her, to take freight and passengers, 
which will produce much profit. But I hope there will be pro- 
cured silk, skins, and Brazil wood sufficient to lade her. I leave 
with you six English besides yourself and Mr. Adams, viz. 
Mr. Peacocke, Mr. Wickham, William Eaton, Walter Carwarden, 
Edward Saris, and William Nealson, so that the whole number 
is eight persons. It is necessary that you disperse them for the 
better understanding what benefit is to be made in these parts 
by sale of our commodities, or transport of such of theirs as 
may be found fitting [for] England. I think Mr. Peacocke and 
Walter Carwarden are the fittest to be employed in the junk for 
Siam and Pottany, for the one is well experienced in merchandis- 
ing, the other in the knowledge of gold and silver, whereof may 
be great use. Mr. Wickham and Wm. Eaton to Soronga 
(Surunga) and Ozacka (Osaka), with each of them a cargazon and 
juribasso which will be sufficient, and by advice of sales so to 
shift places, or continue as you shall see fitting. Edward Saris 
with [ ] cargazon of pepper and such com- 

modities as you shall understand fitting for Tushma, with order 
to inquire what commerce may be had with the people of Core 
(Korea). Wm. Nealson to keep the buttery, post your books ; 
and what other necessaries you see fitting, may be employed. 


Frugality is to be used, the place requiring great charge and our 
knowledge as yet producing little profit. The course the Flemings 
hold here touching their expenses both at home and abroad you 
have heard of, yet will I not prescribe you any course herein, 
knowing that your care hath been and will be what in you lies for 
the Company's benefit. It hath not been a little discontent unto 
me to hear Mr. Peacocke, but especially Mr. Wickham, complain 
of their poverty and small entertainment the Company had given 
them, desiring some allowance of me, which I have refused in 
respect the Company hath been heretofore much displeased with 
others in my place for amending the wages of such as they had 
formerly made agreement with. Yet finding by experience the 
chargeableness of the place and the occasion each man employed 
here shall have to use his wages, contrary to their expectations, 
their order being to pay them but one third of their wages at 5s. 
per rial of eight, which will not pass here for 4s. or 8 mass, I will 
that you pay them the one half of their wages in the coin of 
the country, the same course to continue till further order from 
the Company, unto whom, if it please God to lend me life, I will 
do my best that a larger allowance may be appointed. And for 
Mr. Adams he is only fitting to be master of the junk, and to be 
used as linguist at court, when you have no employment for him 
at sea. It is necessary you stir him, his condition being well 
known unto you as to myself, otherwise you shall have little ser- 
vice of him, the country affording great liberty, whereunto he is 
much affected. The forced agreement I have made with him, as 
you know, could not be eschewed, the Flemings and Spaniards 
making false proffers of great entertainment, and himself more 
affected to them than his own nation, we wholly [destitute ?] of 
language. In any hand let him not have the disbursing of any 
money of the Company's, either for [the] junk or otherwise, for his 
usual speeches is so large and his resolution so set upon getting 
as I entreat you he may have always one with him to pay 
out and to write the particulars of what is disbursed in all such 
matters as you shall employ him in. You shall not need to send 
for any further order to the Emperor for the setting out of the 
junk, it being an article granted in the charter, as by the copy 
thereof in English left with you will appear. Yet will Mr. Adams 


tell you that she cannot depart without a licence, which will not 
be granted except he go up. Believe him not, neither neglect 
that business ; for his wish is but to have the Company bear his 
charges to his wife. Yet rather than he shall leave you and be- 
take him to the Spaniards or Flemings, you must make a virtue 
of a necessity and let him go, leaving his brother-in-law to follow 
the business. Give him order to receive the king's debt and 
finish accounts with him at return. I leave with you 4 chests 
of rials, each chest containing eight bags, each bag 500 rials, 
which is 16,000 rials. It is more than I could well have spared 
being doubtful how matters stand at Bantam, if the Flemings 
have prevailed against the Javans, the ship unladen and but two 
chests [ofj rials in her. Hold good correspondency with the 
king and nobles of this place. Be not too bountiful but observe 
this decorum, rather pleasure them often with small matters than 
seldom with things of worth. For [you are ?] not ignorant that 
they crave much but give little. Use the Flemings kindly, and 
if you can pleasure them, do ; but in matters of merchandise let 
them pay what the country people will give you for anything they 
shall desire. I leave with you the Emperor's privileges for trade, 
a blank of his Majesty's, and the Emperor's command for a junk 
to carry up such goods to Edo (Jeddo) or those parts as you 
shall think fitting. The blank, if you see any good to be done in 
Corea, you may send thither with such presents as you shall 
think fitting to procure trade. I pray make as few debts as you 
can and trust not Simma Dono further, for he is held a bad pay- 
master. You are to remember the great charge this Eighth 
Voyage hath disbursed for the obtaining of these privileges, so that 
the hereafter voyages that shall make use thereof are to con- 
tribute to the charge. If the commander of the next ship shall 
not be willing to leave the ordering of his business in your discre- 
tion contest not with him, but such use as he shall make of the 
house let him contribute as shall seem reasonable. Hold not 
your commodities at too high a rate, for so the Flemings will 
spoil your market ; but get what money you can into your hands. 
Make away your broad cloth be it at 130 mass the matt, for the 
Flemings hath great store which he seeks to make away albeit for 
the money it cost ; and ours is very evil conditioned. What the 


cargazon of goods and money left with you amounts unto I can- 
not say, for that the invoice is not summed, yet am I assured it is 
sufficient for trial what may be done in these parts. And for that 
the wages of Wm. Eaton, Walter Carwarden, and Edward 
Saris is so small that the one half paid them here will not find 
them apparel with other necessaries needful, wherefore there is 
consideration to be had of them, and to pay them more than the 
half if their need require. And for Mr. Wickham, who saith that 
he is not the Company's servant, his time now out, and peremp- 
torily saith he will not serve them under fourscore pound the 
year, which I refuse to give him, the Company's express order 
being to make the factors' wages themselves, who if I could per- 
suade him no doubt will, as he shall deserve, be more bountiful 
unto him than myself can, yet to be free of the exceeding and 
intolerable trouble I have daily with him I have offered to double 
his former entertainment, which was 20/. per year, and to make 
it 40/. per annum till further advice out of England, which albeit 
he unthankfully hath refused in your hearing protesting to allow 
himself wages out of such goods as you shall deliver him to make 
sale of for the Company, which I desire you carefully to prevent, 
for the Company and myself, their unworthy substitute in this 
place, will that no man under your command be his own carver 
in any such fashion, referring the prevention thereof to your care- 
ful discretion, and notwithstanding his absurdity I will that you 
pay unto him here 20/. per year, which is the one half of what hath 
been offered, and he refuseth. But [if] at [the] coming of the first 
ship [he] will return, as he protesteth, you may let him go, 
advising the Company as per occasion. And for that we are all 
mortal I will that if it shall please God to take you out of this 
life, Mr. Richard Cocks, I would have you give your place to 
Mr. Peacocke, and if Mr. Peacocke die then to Mr. Wickham, if 
apparent disorder in him enforce not the contrary ; and he dying 
then to Mr. Eaton ; if he die then to Walter Carwarden ; if he 
die then to Edward Saris. I pray be careful to leave your 
business in the amplest manner you can. And thus referring all 
what is here said or by haste omitted to the government of 
your good discretion, whereof I have had good experience, 
to the Company's profit, desiring you all to live and agree 


together I leave, praying God to bless you and us in all our 

Your loving friend, 

as I acknowledge to have good occasion, 

J. Saris. 
The 5th December, 1613. 

Road of Ferando in Japan. 

I pray forget me not in your love to Walter Carwarden and 
Edward Saris, whom upon my life you shall find dutiful, honest, 
and true, both to the Company and yourself. Vale. 


Richard Cocks to Captain Adams and Rich. Wickham, in 
Edow or elsewhere, the 24th December, 1613. 

APTAIN Adams and Mr. Richard Wickham, when shall 
please God to send you to Edow or Miaco and that 
you have received money for such goods as you carry 
up, either of the Emperor, or any other, then I pray 
you furnish the young king of Firando, Tome Samme, with a 
thousand taels, or what he stands in want of, in taking a re- 
ceipt of his hand for the repayment thereof in Firando at 
demand. Thus much the said king willed me to write in this 
note for the more certainty of his furnishing there, which I pray 
you both have a care to perform. And so I commit you to God. 
From the English house at Firando in Japan the 24th December, 

Your loving friend, 

Ric. Cocks. 

On the same sheet is a letter in Japanese from Cocks to Adams 
and Wickham, dated Keicho, iSth year, 12th month, 21st day, em- 
powering them to pay to Matsuura Hizen no Kami [i.e., the Tome 
Samme referred to above'], against his bill for repayment in Firando, 


10,000 mass of silver in ready money, or more if he requires it. The 
prince is travelling to Edo, and wants the money on his way from 
Surugo to that place. Cocks has been obliged to repeat the request in 
Japanese in order to satisfy the prince. 1 


Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham. 
January the [ ] , 1613. Firando in Japan. 

. WICKHAM, it being generally agreed upon (with 
your own consent) that you make a voyage for Edow, 
Sherongo, and those parts of Japan, with such a 
cargazon of goods and merchandise as I should think 
fitting, being assisted with Captain Wm. Adams for the better 
despatching your business with the Emperor, with whom you 
know he hath good entrance, and no other employment for him 
at present ; yet those matters of the Emperor's being past, I 
pray you detain him not there, but will him to make as much 
speed as he can back for Firando, where there will be necessary 
use of him. 

And being arrived in those parts my opinion is that you take 
up your lodging in the best merchant's house in the town where 
you may have a gadonge (godown) fire-free to prevent the danger 
thereof, which is not unknown unto you this country is much 
subject unto, and to live under the roof of a natural Japan is better 
than to be in the house of any stranger, be he Dutch, Spaniard, 
Portugal, or of any other nation whatsoever ; and the better man's 
house you lie at, the more credit it will be for you and the more 
security you will live in what occasion soever happen. I myself 
speak this per experience, as having made proof thereof. And 
have an especial care not to trust any man with the Company's 
goods without making ready payment ; for I am informed these 

1 Communicated by Dr. Riess, of Tokio University. 


country people are not to be trusted, neither will any merchant 
of account seek to buy upon credit, and for others, they are to be 

And in my opinion it will be your best course to make choice 
of some one man in those parts to assist you in making choice 
and receiving of your monies, a thing much to be regarded in 
these parts per means of the great deceit is used therein ; and 
no doubt you may procure such a one for a small matter. And 
make much of friends when you have them, and use these country 
people kindly both in word and deed, for fair words will do 
much and as soon are spoken as foul, and always good will come 
thereof ; for these country people are not to be used neither with 
bad words nor blows, no, not so much as servants entertained for 
necessary uses ; but rather put them away if they be not to your 
liking, and make choice of others. 

And to use any speeches to persuade you from gaming I think 
it is needless, for I hold you no gamester ; yet notwithstanding 
the admonition of a friend is not to be rejected, and to say the 
truth, many inconveniences happen and fall out per means of 
gaming, although it be but to pass away the time for trifles ; and 
therefore it is not amiss to forswear gaming. 

It is good to use both Dutch, Spaniards, and Portugals kindly, 
as also all other strangers ; and learn from them what you can, 
but make them not partakers of your secrets or pretences. 

And for sales or despatch of your commodities I know you will 
use your best endeavour for our employers' benefit ; and there- 
fore I will set you no stinted rate or price, but wish you to sell 
away as time shall serve, at all prices, to turn all into ready 
money before any other shipping come out of England that it 
may not be said we lie still and do nothing but eat and drink 
without taking care for anything. I hope you will not let the 
Dutch go beyond you in this point. 

You know that as yet we have not sold our English cloth under 
8 taels the English yard, and cloth of Cambaia under four for one 
profit ; but stand you not upon that matter, but sell away both 
the one and other as you can, as also gunpowder, although it be 
under 20 taels the barrel, which is a low price, yet you must 
consider it is a dangerous commodity to be kept, and therefore 


make despatch. Once use your best endeavour both for that and 
the rest, as aforesaid, etc. 

And for the two parcels of commodities left in the custody of 
Andreas alias Zendoque Dono of Uringo and Quedoquea Stibio 
Dono, at Edow and Sherongo, you are to take account of it as 
being part of your cargazon. 

And if Tome Samme, the young king of Firando, come unto you 
with a note or remembrance of my hand, to lend him one thou- 
sand taels or more, as Captain Adams will advise you, I pray you 
take in my note and let him have the money, in giving you a bill 
of his hand to repay it me here again in Firando at demand ; 
which Captain Adams tells me I need not to stand in doubt of, 
for that the Dutch have done the like heretofore and have re- 
ceived good payment. But this must be done when you have 
received money of the Emperor. 

And having any overplus of that money lying by you, or that 
is received for any other commodity, use your best endeavour to 
send it to me per first sure conveyance (which I think will be per 
Captain Adams) that it may not be dead, but be employed to the 
Company's use, as occasion shall be offered. 

And for your diet or such as shall be with you, I will not 
prescribe you any rate, because I am unacquainted with the 
place, but leave that to your own discretion, not doubting but you 
will use frugality, etc. 

And because you are to go overland from Osekey to Shrongo 
in company of Captain Adams about the Emperor's business, and 
that it is fit someone of trust go in the bark with the rest of the 
goods per sea for that place, I have thought good to send John 
Phebe with it, a man well known to Captain Adams, whom you 
may entertain there as the Company's servant under you if you 
find him capable or that it be fitting. 

And forget not to write me per all conveyances what you do, 
and learn out what you can touching trade into any place we yet 
know not of; and God willing you shall not want to hear from 
me so often as I find fit conveyance. And it is good you write 
continually to Mr. Eaton for Osekey as I have willed him to do 
the like to you ; for so may we from time to time understand of 
each other's proceedings, and I be ready to supply your wants 


with such commodities as lie by me, if in case you can sell them 
you have there. And for a juribasso, if he which promised you 
come from Langasaque (Nangasaki), you shall have him with 
you, otherwise you must get one at Edow or Shrongo, and in 
the meantime Captain Adams hath promised me that Andreas 
shall help you, and tells me that you cannot want to find one 
there to your content. 

I know not what else to advise you of for present ; but if any- 
thing come to my remembrance hereafter, you shall understand 
thereof per first. And so the Lord send you a prosperous voyage 
and safely to return. Amen. 

Your loving friend, 

Ric. Cocks. 

The cargazon or invoice of goods, viz. : 

The sum total of the whole cargazon amounts to 748/. 06s. old. 
The numbers and poise of 173 bags of pepper as followeth, 
viz. : 


Summa totalis 173 sacks pepper poise 8383 Catties cost 
sterling 82L 17s. Old. 

Mr. Wickham, I pray you have due care to give Captain 
Adams content ; which you may easily do, if you use him with 
kind speeches, and fall not into terms with him upon any 
argument. I am persuaded I could live with him seven years 
before any extraordinary speeches should happen betwixt us. 
And the necessary use we have of him is as well known to you as 
me. I hope a word will suffice for that matter. 

Ric. Cocks. 

The poise of 600 bars of lead as followeth : 


Summa totalis 600 bars of lead poise 16,083 lbs. at [ ] per 
c n cost sterling ml. $s. lod. 



John Jourdain to the East India Company. 
Bantam the 31st day of January anno 1613. 

IGHT Worshipful, per the Expedition, who departed 
from hence the 2nd ditto, I wrote at large of what 
then passed and of the lading of 3972 sacks of pepper 
for the account of the Sixth Voyage, amounting unto 
the sum of Sxy^bh 1 rials of eight, custom and all charges, as per 
an abstract sent home may appear. And the next day after her 
departure out of this road came General Saris from Jappan in 
the Clove, unexpected to have come this monsoon ; which was 
the occasion that the factors of that voyage were unprovided of 
pepper for her lading. Notwithstanding with much trouble and 
diligence it was very soon effected and bought to the quantity of 
6vooo sacks, at 15 rials of eight per 10 sacks, as per account, etc. 
And- concerning the Darling who departed for Mossapotam 
(Masulipatam) with the Dragon out of this road of Bantam the 
10th of December, thinking to have gone through the straits of 
Mallacca, was put back again and is gone through the straits of 
Sundy, but she came not into the road, but had news from them 
by a Holland ship which met with them some 17 leagues out of 
Bantam 14 days past, doubting much of her putting back for 
that she had many of her men sick. Also since my last writing 
by the Expedition it hath pleased God to take Edward Langley 
out of this miserable life, leaving in money 700 rials of 8 and 
one great chest with divers commodities as per invoice in the 
same chest may appear ; all which money and commodities is 
delivered by General Saris' order unto the purser of the Clove, 
Mr. Melsham, to be delivered to the Worshipful Company, as 
also his will made and legacies given goeth in the little box 
within the chest, also the copy of a confession made by the said 
Edward Langley after his will ended, which the General will 
deliver your Worships ; by the which confession you shall 
perceive the bad consciences of some of the factors and the ill 
carriage of this business formerly. And since this confession was 

1 See note, Vol. I., p. 76. 


made per Edward Langley I have understood that, after the 

inventory of the whole goods was taken, that the said Ed. 

Langley, having the keys of the warehouses in his hand, did 

divers times fetch out cloth which maybe he had forgotten to 

put to account, as also he trusted the keys in divers men's hands 

which had nothing to do with the goods, after inventory was taken. 

Therefore I doubt that some subtlety may be as well used in 

this as in former matters, which I cannot certainly know until I 

take a new inventory of all the loose goods, which as yet I have 

had no time to do until this ship be gone ; then, God willing, I 

mind to bring all the loose goods into one warehouse, for it lies 

most confusedly and in great danger both for thieves and fire, 

and especially with fire, which we have been in great danger 

three times within ten days, the town being burnt, yet God be 

thanked we have not received any harm, only some small charge 

in covering the godowns with straw. And as for the plot of 

ground which was given per the king to General Best, we cannot 

get as yet the writing of the king to build upon it, but [he] doth 

drive us off from day to day, hoping of some bribe besides the 

1500 rials which was promised by General Best. The General, 

Mr. John Saris, hath done his best in obtaining of this writing, 

but he hath been put off by delays. Both General Best and 

General Saris hath done their endeavours to effect that business, 

being a matter of so great importance, both for the safeguard 

of the goods, as also to avoid the great charge that we are at in 

the hire of warehouses and portage, which if we can be permitted 

to build, the extraordinary expense which we are now at will 

free the charge of building within a short time. Now concerning 

the business here it stands in the like manner as General Best 

left it ; only we are, per appointment of General Saris, to be all 

in one house both at bed and board, not doubting but we shall 

hold that decorum as shall be fitting both for the profit of 

the Worshipful Company and not scandalize our nation as 

formerly it hath been in keeping so many houses, to the glory of 

the Hollanders, who in their trade are our mortal enemies, and 

to the profit of the Chinese and Javas, which doth look for such 

opportunities to have one to cross another that they may the 

better encroach upon us in the sale of their commodities, as it 


was the last year about the buying of China commodities, hoping 
that this year it will be carried in another manner. For I will do 
my best endeavours to bring all things to right as well in 
providing of China commodities as also for the lading of such 
ships as we expect to be here in September next or thereabouts. 

And as for the building of the house which the king hath 
promised, if I see that we may build it upon a sure foundation I 
will proceed therein ; otherwise I will leave it until further order 
from your Worships. For that if the trade at the Moullucas be 
not supplied I do not see what profit can be made here, having 
trade in Guzerat and Coromandel ; for this place will not vent 
the one half thereof, besides nothing to be had here but pepper ; 
and a most unhealthful country; the Moullucas being a very 
healthful place and the people willing to trade with us. But now 
in regard that there is not any ship gone this year they will be 
out of hope ; for that they did depend much upon the English 
this year, which now they will be frustrate of their hopes and 
hold the Hollanders' words to be true, who tells them that they 
shall never see any English ship there but once in four years, and 
then some small ship which can do them no good nor succour 
them with anything, but only to induce them to be enemies with 
the Hollanders, who do protect them from the Portugals and 
others ; which, if any ship had gone this year thither, there had 
been no doubt of her lading, and would have kept them in hopes 
until better opportunity. Thus not having else at present to 
enlarge I rest, commending your Worships to the protection of 
the most Highest, whom bless and prosper all your proceedings. 


Your servant to command, 

John Jourdain. 
Herewith I send the receipt of Sir Robert Sherley for 250/., 
this being the second, the first being gone in the Expedition. 
The first of this month of February came in the Darling into this 
road, having spent their mainyard and cracked their foremast ; 
whereupon the General, Mr. John Saris, called a council and 
doth determine to leave orders that she shall go for Cacadanha 
(Sukadana), from thence to Pottany and Syam, to visit the 
factories there [ ] returns hither. 




1st February 1613. 

HEREAS Mr. John Gourney, principal merchant, to- 
gether with the rest of the merchants in the James 
have required in the behalf of the Worshipful Com- 
pany at the hands of Mr. Peter Floris, principal 
merchant in the Globe, the account of 852 rials f, which the 
said Mr. Gourney and merchants in the James do find by 
account to have been short employed ; to which Mr. Floris 
answers that whereas that sum of 852 rials f was by a general 
confer of the principal merchants of the Globe given unto Mier 
Shumelo at their first being at Masulpatam, whereby to have 
procured a cowl for such ships as should come hither after them : 
he therefore doth refuse to give any other account thereof unto 
the foresaid Mr. Gourney, but refers it unto the Worshipful 
Company our masters in England. Dated in Musilpatam 1st 
February anno 1613 in Musilpatam. 

Per me Peter Floris. 


Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham in Edow or elsewhere. 
5th of February 1613. 

R. WICKHAM, Although I have no matter of im- 
portance to write you, yet having fit conveyance I 
would not want to let you hear from me. At this 
instant the master of the junk is come from Langa- 
saque to this place, I mean of the junk bound for Cochin 
China, and Mr. Peacock will be ready to go along with 
him for Langasaque within 4 or 5 days, God permitting, for 
all things are ready. God send them a prosperous voyage. 
I am given to understand that Ushian Dona, the old king's 
Y 1268. c 


governor, is laid up and all he hath seized upon, and told he is 
well dealt withal if he escape with life. Also the Captain 
Chinesa is fallen at square with his new wife and hath given 
her his wacadash bidding her cut off her little finger, which she 
had done had she not been prevented per Maria, Harnando's 
woman, who paid dear for it, having her left thumb almost cut 
off. Also the king hath given Signor Zanzebar a new name 
viz. Yasimon. Other matters I have not to write of at present ; 
only you did ill to carry the key of your chamber along with you, 
for now must I break off the lock to deliver your four fowling 
pieces to Mr. Peacock, according as you gave me order, he being 
willing not only to pleasure you in that, but to assist Walter to 
put away your other matters. And so I commit you to God. 
From the English house at Firando in Japan the 5th of Feb- 
ruary 1613. 

Your loving Friend, 

Rio Cocks. 


Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, in Edow or Shrongo 
per Sr. George Droit. 

Firando in Japan the 17th of February 1613. 

R. WICKHAM, My last unto you was of the 5th 
present sent per Oyen Dono, the young king's gover- 
nor, with other two for Captain Adams and Mr. Eaton, 
which young king and his train departed from hence 
the 9th ditto, and the morrow after I received a letter from you 
per the Dutch juribasso, dated in Anuxma the 4th current 
which came in time, otherwise all your four guns had gone along 
to Cochin China, for they were made up and delivered to Mr. 
Peacock, according as you willed me at our departure, but now 
two are taken back at hazard, because they would not stand to 
unlap them again. Your other three letters to Mr. Peacock, 
Mr. Nealson and Walter Carwarden I delivered and had taken 
back the knife and sheath before your letter came to my hands, 


for I knew it. Mr. Peacock and Walter Carwarden departed 
from hence for Langasaque the 14th present, and Signor Yasi- 
mon Dono (alias Zanzebar) did accompany them, in respect it is 
doubtful whether Koyngero's junk go this year for Cochin China 
or no, for that the owners are much indebted, and the junk 
arrested for payment ; so I have given Mr. Peacock directions to 
look out if she will be sold at a reasonable rate, and to strike up 
a match for the one half of her, and to be at his choice to have 
the whole per rato at her return from Cochin China, to the intent 
she may serve our turn for Syam. In my next I will advise you 
what is done therein. Captain Brower doth send goods for 
Cochin China because we do, for that the States shall not tax 
him of slothfulness, they having been here so long before us. 
He will go himself for Langasaque some 4 or 5 days hence, at 
least he giveth it out so. It is said that his kinsman Cornelius 
the glazier shall go along with the goods for Cochin China, but 
as yet he is not come to town. Here is reports that all the papist 
Jesuits, friars and priests shall be banished out of Japan as well 
at Langasaque as elsewhere, but I doubt the news is too good to 
be true. I know not what else to write but hope you will have a 
care to despatch away your commodities as price goeth, for that 
Captain Adams may bring store of money along with him. I 
pray you sell away as you can as time serveth. And so I 
commit you to God. 

Your loving friend, 

Ric. Cocks. 


Masulipatam, February 18th, 1613. T. Essington, Captain, and 
P. Floris, Merchant of the Globe, to Thos. Aldworth, Chief 
at Surat. 


c 2 



William Eaton to Richard Wickham in Edo. 
In Ozekey the first of March 1613. 

OVING and good Friend Mr. Wickham, I commend 
me unto you etc. You shall understand that since 
your departure I have showed my goods to divers 
merchants, but have not as yet sold anything, being 
offered no more but 6 taels for pepper, 5^ taels for broadcloth a 
yard, and for baftas I2| mass per piece, and for allejas according 
to the rate of the country cloth, and for tin 16 taels a pecul and 
for gunpowder the barrel 10 taels ; so as at these rates I am not 
minded to sell as yet, before I heard further from Mr. Cocks. 
Some four days since I received a letter from him wherein he 
wrote me that Mr. Peacock was upon departure for Langasaka 
and so for Cochin China. God send him a prosperous voyage. 
Also he wrote me that the Captain Chenesa and his new wife 
were not friends, and how that he had given her his wacadash or 
little cattan to cut off her little finger, the which she had done 
had she not been prevented per Maria, Harnando's woman, who 
paid dear for it, having her left thumb almost cut off. Also how 
that Ushian Dono, the old King's governor, was laid up and all 
he hath seized upon, and withal like to have lost his life. Some 
galls by the bearer hereof, who is the King's secretary of Ferando, 
I have sent you. News here is not any, but that all the houses 
and churches that did belong to the friars and Jesuits are all 
pulled down and burnt, besides all those that were Christians 
are recanted and be of the same religion as they were of in 
former time, so as now there is no more Christians of Japanners 
in these parts. Here of late hath been divers to the number at 
the least 150 persons apprehended for buying and selling of 
tobacco contrary to the Emperor's commandment, and are in 
jeopardy of their lives, besides great store of tobacco which they 
have here burnt, etc. And thus for the present being in haste 
I end, committing you and your affairs to the protection of the 
Almighty God ; resting 

Your friend to command, 

Wm. Eaton. 



Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, in Edow, Shrongo, or 
elsewhere, per Sr. George Droit. 

Firando in Japan the 7th of March 1613. 

R. WICKHAM, George Droit, the Portuguese, being 
here till this instant for want of a good wind, I 
thought good to write you these few lines, referring 
me for the rest to my former of the 17th ultimo, sent 
per same conveyance etc. Mr. Peacock is now agreed with 
them of Chongro's junk to go in her and will be ready to depart 
within 5 or 6 days. A lying friar (or Jesuit) lately come 
from above to Langasaque told him that Captain Adams was 
dead at Miako ; and had I not received a letter from Captain 
Adams dated in Ozekey the 16th ultimo, advising both of his, 
yours and Mr. Eaton's arrival in that place I should have stood 
in doubt. But as yet I have not received any letter from you nor 
Mr. Eaton but that you sent me from Anuxma at your departure 
from hence. It is generally reported here that all the padres 
are to avoid out of Japan, and as it should seem the name of 
Christian is odious to them, for yesterday being Sunday we put 
out our flag, as our custom is, but after noon Foyne Same, the 
old King, sent me word to take it in because it had a cross in it, 
which at that instant I did not ; but after twice sending I went 
to him myself and excused the matter in the best sort I could, 
telling him that this cross was not made in form of the cross of 
Christ, but rather for a badge or token whereby the English 
nation was known from all others, as the Hollanders were by 
their colours of orange, blanc and blue ; yet all would not serve 
but down it must, full sore against my will, Foyne telling me it 
was the Emperor's will it should be so, only we might put out 
any other mark we would, a cross only excepted, and that ships 
coming might bear a cross upon the water but not on land. 
This much thought I good to advise you of, and have writ the 
like to Captain Adams wishing him to know the Emperor's 
pleasure whether we shall not be permitted to bear or put out 


our colours as well as the Hollanders. It should seem these 
people are generally bent against all Christians, and therefore not 
good you use overmuch speeches herein, only let Captain Adams 
know the Emperor's pleasure, and for the rest I end with the 
English proverb, that it is not good to wake a sleeping dog, etc. 
and so rest 

Your loving friend, 

Ric. Cocks. 


Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham in Yedo, Shrongo, or 
elsewhere ; per George Droit. 

Firando in Japan the gth of March 1613. 

R. WICKHAM, yours of the 13th etc. kept till the 
1 Gth ultimo from Ozekey I have received with another 
from Mr. Eaton. I much commend your diligence in 
learning out what you have done, and advising so 
largely thereof. Yesterday I received a letter from Tushma 
(Tsushima) from Ed. Sayer dated the 22nd ultimo. He writes 
that he hath sold but for 31 taels of cloth of Cambaia with 
5 peculs pepper, and that the King and another man will take 
some 24 yards of broadcloth as he thinketh. He is out of hope 
of any good to be done there or Corea, and very desirous to go from 
thence for Focaty (Fukuoka), per means of the persuasions of a 
great merchant of that place who is now at Tushma. Mr. Peacock 
is now ready to set towards Cochin China. Captain Brower came 
from Langasaque two days past, having made ready all matters to 
send Adrian and Cornelius with a juribasso for that place. I 
make account Mr. Peacock and they will depart from Langasaque 
within this two or three days but in diverse junks. I think you may 
better provide you of a boy there than here, for as yet I can get 
none. George was willing enough to have let you have had that 



boy Mr. Eaton had, but his parents would not, being informed 
by some Flemings (as I understand) that you would continually 
be beating of him. Once I will do what I can. I bought a 
wench yesterday cost me 3 taels, for which she must serve five 
years and then repay back the three taels, or some friend for her, 
or else remain a perpetual captive. She is but 12 years old, over 
small yet for trade; but you would little think that I have another 
forthcoming that is more lapedable, yet it is true, and I think a 
gentlewoman of your acquaintance. You must be no blab of 
your tongue, yet I make no doubt but Sturton and you either are, 
or else will be provided shortly. I know not what else to write, 
George being ready to depart. Here is reports that the Emperor 
is dead, as a lying friar gave out the like of Captain Adams, but I 
hope both the one and other will prove false. I do not per- 
ceive neither per your letter nor Mr. Eaton's that you delivered 
Sr. Albartus the bottle of Spanish wine I sent him by you. 
Mr. Eaton writes me he delivered him the bottle of oil I sent per 
him. If you delivered not the wine, I shall take it unkindly. 
And so I leave you to the protection of the Almighty, resting 

Your loving friend, 

Ric. Cocks. 


Articles for keeping of Company. 
Hector. To Mr. Arthur Speight. 

NPRIMIS. You shall strive to follow your 

Admiral with all carefulness, the better to 

keep company together, with a vigilant looking 

81 out both by day and night. 

2. Item. The Admiral towards evening will fit such sail as 

he will speak with the fleet, that you may receive order according 

as the wind and weather shall offer occasions, and that no ship of 


our Company shall press to go before the Admiral and especially 
by night or in foul weather. 

3. Item. If the Admiral will have conference with the rest of 
the ships, and have the chief merchants or masters come aboard 
of him, the weather fitting, he will put out in his aftmost main 
shrouds a flag of St. George and shoot off a piece. 

4. Item. If any ship be distressed by any means in the 
night, he shall put out two lights a good height one above 
another in the main shrouds or on his poop, and shoot off two 
pieces. If it be by day he be distressed he shall shoot off one 
piece and hoist and strike his mizen three times, to the end the 
rest may repair unto him. 

5. Item. If the Admiral come to an anchor he will put out 
two lights of equal height and shoot off a piece ; but by day he 
is to be seen. 

6. Item. If he weigh anchor again in the night, the Admiral 
will shoot off a piece and put out two lights one directly above 

7. Item. If the Admiral cast about in the night or alter his 
course he will put out three lights of equal height, and fit such 
sail as the rest may come to him, and then shall each ship keep 
out one light till they come to the Admiral, to the end he may 
perceive them all to follow him. When at any time there shall 
be no light at all carried out by the Admiral you shall then have 
especial care to keep your lights close that they be not seen. 

8. Item. If in the night any storm do arise, then you shall 
put out in every ship a light for the most part ; and the Admiral 
twain, to the end she may be known. 

9. Item. If the Admiral strike sail in the night or lie a-try 
or a-hull, he will put out two lights, one upon the poop and 
another as far forward as the forecastle, if he set sail ; and to use 
the like when he weigheth, being at an anchor. 

10. Item. If it happen by any storm or thick weather any of 
our Company to be separated, or if we be all one from another 
out of sight, and then by any means we have sight of one an- 
other again, and would at first know one another, if the weather 
be such as you may use your main topsail, you shall hoist and 
strike it three times together, and so continue hoisting and 


striking till we shall perceive ourselves to know one another. But 
if the winds and weather will not permit any such sail, you shall 
then do it with any other sail most fit for the weather and time. 

Nich. Downton. 

From aboard the 

New Year's Gift, 

the 14th March 1613. 


William Eaton to Richard Wickham in Yedo, Shrongo, 
or elsewhere. 

In Ozekey the 22nd of March 1613. 

OVING Friend Mr. Wickham, I commend me unto 
you etc. You shall understand that my last letter 
unto you was the first of March by Owendona, the 
young King's governor of Ferando, by whom likewise 
I sent you all the galls I had. In which said letter I wrote you 
of all matters that had here passed since your departure from 
hence, not doubting but that you have received it before this 
time, whereunto I refer me etc. Since which time I have here 
sold all my baftas saving ten pieces for 16 mass a piece, the 
which is a poor price but more I could not get for them. Also 
I have sold some eleven matts length or fadoms of broadcloth, 
but very cheap, the best not above fifteen taels the matt and 
some for fourteen and a half. Signor Albertus would have sold 
finer cloth than any I have under fourteen taels. He knoweth 
not that I have sold anything as yet, neither would I wish you to 
let Captain Adams know at what prices I have sold broadcloth 
at ; for when he once knoweth thereof the Dutch shall have 
presently intelligence. I have written him a letter but not 
one word of the sale of any broadcloth. Here arrived George 
Droit the Portuguese two days ago, by whom I received divers 
letters from Mr. Cocks and Mr. Nealson both for yourself and 


Mr. Adams, the which said letters I have sent by him, who 
goeth thither to recover that he lost here in Japon. So as I 
shall not need to write you of what hath passed in Ferrando, for 
I make account Mr. Cocks hath at large written you thereof by 
his letters, whereunto I refer you etc. And thus for present 
I end, committing you and your affairs unto the protection of 
the Almighty God ; resting 

Your friend to command, 

William Eaton. 


Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham in Edow, Shrongo, 
or elsewhere. 

Firando in Japan, the 1st April, 1614. 

R. WICKHAM, by George the Portugal (who departed 
from hence the gth ultimo) I wrote you several 
letters, advising for the present. Since which time I 
have received two letters from Mr. Eaton, of the 1st 
and 13th ultimo, wherein he adviseth me he hath sold all his 
white baftas at sixteen mass the piece and certain matts broad- 
cloth at fifteen taels the matt. I wish all the rest were gone at 
same or like rate, both that I have here and others elsewhere. 
He saith that some of his commodities they will not look at, 
namely selas, blue byrams, and candequis maweez. Once do what 
you can to sell away, although something under cento per cento, 
for it is better to have money by us than commodities, what- 
soever shall happen, for here are many reports given out of 
troubles like to ensue in Japan. But keep that to yourself and 
learn out what you can and advise me thereof per first sure 
conveyance. I make account Captain Adams will be come 
away before this come to your hands ; otherwise give him 
counsel to take heed of one Pedro Guzano, a papist Christian, 
who is his host at Miaco, for a lying friar (or Jesuit) told 


Mr. Peacock at Langasaque that Captain Adams was dead in 
the house of the said Guzano, which now I know is a lie, per 
letters I received from Mr. Eaton, for the said friar rep [orted] 
he was dead before the date thereof. Once I would wish 
Captain Adams to look to himself, for these villainous papistical 
rabble at Langasaque do give it out behind his back that he is a 
Lutrano, and one that they make account hath incensed the 
Emperor against them. I wish [ed ?] Captain Adams, at his being 
here, to look to himself and take heed of them ; and so would I 
wish you to do the like. Mr. Peacock departed from Langasaque 
towards Cochin China the 18th ultimo, as he advised me in a 
letter of that date written from aboard the junk he goeth in, 
called the Roquan. We have had much northerly winds since 
their departure so I doubt not but they will have a speedy 
passage, which God grant them with a prosperous voyage. 
Upon some occasion I have noted that you may esteem I love 
you not, or that I bear some secret grudge against you, which 
here I do protest (before God) I do not, but rather do esteem 
much better of you since your coming hither, then I did before. 
And so shall you find by proof, if it lie in my power to do you 
good ; for I regard not, but rather have quite put out of my 
memory any words which have passed betwixt us hereto [fore] . 
I wish you could make despatch of your business to be here 
ag[ainst] the jSyam voyage, and then shall you see what I 
will do. And trul [y] I would not wish you to stay there upon 
small occasions, but rather to leave them with your host or some 
other good friend that is assured. And in the meantime sell 
away what you can ; stand not upon price, but turn what you 
can into money and bring it along with you. I can say no more, 
nor give you no larger commission than I have done. And so 
with my hearty commendations to yourself, Signor Andrea and 
the rest of our acquaintance, I commit you to God, resting 

Your loving friend, 

Ric. Cocks. 

P.S. — Your Juribasso Simon's letter I delivered to his host 
at Firando for his host Bastian is gone for Cochin China. 



Instructions from the Captain and merchants of the Darling to 
Sophony Cozucke, proceeding on a mission to Landak. 
April nth, 1614. 

EFORE this our arrival with the Darling in Succo- 
dania we had understanding by sundry the letters of 
you Mr. Sophony Cozucke and Mr. Greete, of the 
great desire the people of Landacke had that our 
nation should come and settle a factory with them, whereby they 
might be free from the slavery of the Sukadanians, who suffer 
them not to sell anything but what they list, having the first 
view themselves ; and we, at our coming, finding things agreable 
to former reports, and that our case is no better than those of 
Landacke, and in consideration the junk Patience with John 
Williams departed four months past for this place and is not 
yet arrived, and for that the winds will be this month variable 
and with much foul weather, so that without prejudice to our 
voyage intended for Pottania, we may both spend some time 
here to be truly instructed touching these parts, and by God's 
assistance see the safe arrival of the junk ; and not to spend this 
time of our stay here idle, we think it good to send you, 
Mr. Sophony Cozucke, with a sufficient mariner along the river 
to Landacke, with an especial charge that your absence be not 
above six and twenty or thirty days and that you speedily confer 
with the governors or chief of those parts, touching our nego- 
tiation, upon what security we may settle a factory or leave 
goods of charge with them, and that you acquaint them of the 
arrival of our ship in this place, whose chief hath sent you truly 
to understand their minds, whereby he at his coming be not 
mocked withal, and find such good dealing at their hands as they 
shall be sure to find at his; and withal it would not be amiss you 
privately to learn whether they stand in fear there of the Sucko- 
danians, or not, for if so I see not how our people can be in 
safety with them, and above all things be not flattered with 
fruitless hopes, but if possible, bring their chaps, their firms, for 
what they say or promise, that so at your return, I may the 



bolder leave former business and undertake a new ; not doubting 
your wise and discreet carriage in remembrance what may be 
here forgotten. And for depths and soundings I doubt not but 
Richard Newell, sent along with you, will be careful of, touching 
whose opinion if you do ask at any time I hold it not amiss, for 
that I have sufficiently had proof thereof. We send herewith 
musters of our cloth with indifferent prices, which I pray under- 
stand how will be the vent of the like. And so the Almighty add 
blessing to your endeavours. We rest, 

Robert Larkin, 
Nathaniell Courthope, 
Sophony Cozucke, 
In Suckodana Hugh Greete. 

this nth of April, 1614. 


William Eaton to Richard Wickham in Edo or elsewhere. 
In Ozekey the 20th April, 1614. 

OVING friend Mr. Wickham, I commend me unto 
you, etc. My last letter unto you was the 22nd 
ultimo by George Droit the Portuguese, wherein I 
wrote you of all matters that had here passed to that 
present time, not doubting but that you have received it before 
this time, whereunto I refer me, etc. Since which time I have 
been at Meaco with several sorts of goods to see if I could find 
any sales for any of them, but I could not sell anything there but 
only four matts of broadcloth and 12 pieces of cassidie nills, and 
32 pieces of allejas, the which I sold at poor rates, as for 15 taels 
the matt broadcloth, and for the cassidie nills at 26^ mass the 
piece, and for the allejas 15 mass a piece, which are poor prices; 
but howsoever I must do as I can and not as I would. Here is 
come from Captain Brower to Albertus at least 30 broad cloths, 
the which, part of them is to be sent to Lorenco : so as in regard 


whereof I would wish you to make despatch of those broad- 
cloths you have, although at a reasonable rate, rather than to 
keep them lying upon your hands. For my own part I have 
minded to put away all that I have although but for small profit, 
rather than I will keep them, etc. At my being in Meaco I 
received a letter from Mr. Adams the 3rd present, being dated in 
Edo the 17th ultimo, whereby I understand that the Emperor 
hath taken 43 fadome of broadcloth, and all the lead at 6 taels 
the pecul. I wish he had all mine at the same rate, for here it 
is not worth above 45 mass the pecul. Also he wrote me that 
as then the Emperor had not given any direct answer for the 
having of the ordnance and gunpowder, but that he is in good 
hope that he will take them. The bark that carried the goods 
for Edo it seems is not yet there arrived. I wonder I received 
never a letter from you for Captain Cocks, who I know would be 
glad to hear from you. I pray you to send me Mr. Peacock's 
book which I lent you, in that he hath written unto me for it to 
send it to Ferrando by Capt. Adams ; and I will send you yours 
by the first conveyance. And thus for the present, being in 
haste I end, committing you and your affairs unto the protection 
of the Almighty God, etc. ; resting 

Your friend to command, 

William Eaton. 


William Eaton to Richard Wickham in Edo or elsewhere. 
In Osaka the 21st of April, 1614. 

[OVING friend Mr. Wickham, I commend me unto 
you, etc. You shall understand that yesterday I 
wrote you, by this same conveyance, of all matters 
that had here passed to that present time ; but 
since, even at this present, having received a letter from 
Mr. Cocks dated in Ferrando the 1st present, and likewise one 


for yourself, so as I shall not need to write you of what business 
hath passed in Ferrando, for that I know Mr. Cocks hath written 
you at large by his said letter, whereunto I refer you, etc. And 
thus for present being in haste in regard of the departure of this 
bearer who is a Dutchman, I end, committing you and your 
affairs unto the protection of the Almighty God, etc. ; resting 

Your friend to command, 

William Eaton. 


Letters received by John Jourdain at Bantam. 


From George Cokayne, at Maccasser. 

The 24th April, 1614. 

APTAIN JOURDAIN, in hope of your good health 
with the rest of our good friends, which God grant, 
we do heartily commend ourselves unto you. This is 
to give you to understand of our proceedings here in 
Maccasser since your departure from Maccasser, which time we 
used our best means for to put away our cloth at any reasonable 
rates, it being from August till January but a dead time of year, 
and few, or none at all, that would deal for any quantity, only the 
country people for a small matter, which was in rice according to 
order in November. Merchants some three or four were divers 
times [ ] beating the prices of sundry sorts of clothing to 

deal for great quantities and were within a small matter of our 
price, for it was thought that this year no Portugals would come 
from Mollacco. The prime of December arrived here one junk of 
Mallacco with Portugals, viz. 9 merchants. The 5th ditto came 
in a ship from Mollacco with 28 Portugals and 36 blacks, with a 
small junk in his company freighted per Portugals, that then 
there was such a glut of all sorts of goods, both of Guggeratt and 
Corramandell, besides the junks of Puttany, Johore and Siam, 


which brought great store of commodities, as well of China as 
elsewhere ; whereby we were dismissed of the sales of our cloth 
at any reasonable rates, for that the Portugals they would sell 
howsoever, for their present return, although they sold as cheap 
as they bought in Mallacco, viz. Sela red, 24 rials the corge, 
candequees, 8 rials, Bafta, 30 rials, Biramy nills, 32, 35 and 36, 
cassamera of Coramandle, of the second at 50 — the best at 70 
rials, serras of Corramandell at 80 and go rials the corge, sarras 
gobar of the best sort at 100 and no the corge ; with other divers 
sorts at such reasonable rates that I durst not make any such 
cheap price of our clothing. The 7th of December arrived here a 
junk of the King of Maccassar's that came from Pottany, which 
brought a capital of the Seventh Voyage from our factory there, 
according to Captain Peter Floris's direction, which clothing 
came but to a reasonable market this year, yet you shall under- 
stand, that the clothing of the Coast fits best for the country of 
Maccasser, viz., Sarras, Chury mollay, Sarras gobar, being of the 
best sort, dragams, salampora, being a broad white cloth, casa- 
meras of either sort, and petas striped with silk. The steel of the 
Coast we sell here at n rials the hundred, though great store 
doth not quickly vend as yet ; the reason is so much of all other 
goods this year is come to this place, and all foreign commodities 
very cheap. The 9th December arrived here the God's Gift with 
Francis Kelly, John Darby, and six other Englishmen, John 
Williams being departed. Herein we received 4 chests China 
raw silk, 10 pieces velvets, 10 pieces satins, 10 pieces of girdling 
of Taffaty, with a parcel of goods for Sukadana. This silk came 
here to a good market. We had broke the price at 450 rials the 
pecul China, and sold to the quantity of one pecul, after the rate 
aforesaid. The 12th ditto unhappily arrived here a junk from 
China, being the first that ever came to this place, which brought 
great store of China commodities of all sorts, viz. raw silk of 
Lannkyn (Nanking) at 150 rials the pecul, velvets 6, 7 and 8 the 
piece, grograines 4, 5, 6 and 7 ; damasks from 2 to 6 rials, and the 
like low prices of all other sorts of their China wares ; so that 
this year falls out very bad for our proceedings. God send the 
next better. Now considering the long time the God's Gift was 
to stay here before she could return, we thought it good to have 


her something better built and to employ her to Banda, having 
good means ; hoping to have met with some English shipping 
there ; if not, to have landed goods on the Poolawaya and there 
to have left Benjamin Farieand two other Englishmen, which the 
Poolawayans and all the other Orancayas doth much desire, 
which this King, and divers principals of this country, have often 
demanded wherefore we have not people there, the Bandanese 
so much desiring the English, and plainly disannul and dislike 
the Hollanders. The 27th February our people departed from 
hence in hope to have a monsoon enough to carry to Banda. 
The prime of February last arrived here a Dutch ship, wherein I 
did receive your letter dated the 5th February, being glad to hear 
from you. Here doth divers passengers come from Bantam, yet 
I cannot receive letters as the Dutch doth, and if there were 
better correspondence kept, I think it would be better for our 
honourable masters' profit. The 21st present came into this 
road the God's Gift, not being able to fetch Banda, but put into 
Buttowne (Boeton) with 34 junks, Mollays, Maccassers, and 
Javas, to the great hindrance of a number of poor people. There 
is great lamenting here in Maccasser with all merchants, as well 
the Christians as heathens, for that there is but two junks this great 
monsoon to get to the Mallocees, but all fain to return with their 
merchandise provided for those places ; that this year here will 
not be any spice to be had at any rates, but the country full of 
clothing. Our people keeping it up to windward in sight of 
Borreo (Boeroe) in great distress of weather, the small vessel 
labouring much fell to be extraordinary leaky insomuch that it 
was impossible to free her, and keep her above water that it did 
prove to be [ ] in the cargazon of clothing, the particulars 

whereof shall be brought to Bantam per the God's Gift, God will- 
ing. Our people being arrived here, and at present ready to de- 
part for Succodana, it is therefore thought fitting that Benjamin 
Fary should go along thither, and, if occasion be, there to leave 
him, if Francis Kelly and he together do see it requisite as it is 
thought it will be needful ; but if it be not, I do then appoint 
B. Farie to come to Bantam to advise with you of anything that 
may be for the Company's good, as also the furthering of boards, 
nails, and two carpenters for the building of the Company's 
v 126S. D 


house here in Maccasser, if you think to have their goods 
secure both from fire and thieves. The King of Maccasser hath 
given to the English Company 32 great 8 squared posts of a great 
length, to build their house, and therefore I refer it to your good 
understanding to consider what a thing it is to have so great a 
charge inclosed with bamboos, which will last but one year, and 
subject to be set on fire with every spark. Some fifty days after 
vour departure with the Darling, here was burnt 1,260 houses, to 
my great fear of losing of all. Here is provided 46 coyans [?] of 
rice, but keeping it, expecting of our shipping to come, it lies on 
our hands until the next year, to the loss of much thereof; for per 
the prime of February all merchants, that goeth to the Molloccoes, 
is provided, and after that, here is no vent for rice. Here hath 
been two Dutch ships which hath laden 300 coyans of rice, and 
landed here 36 fardels of Corramandel clothing. The 13th of this 
present departed out of this life Samuel Dennys. I do intend, 
if it be possible, to send home that honest man, Francisco 
Campayo, to Bantam then you may understand of the proceed- 
ings of a filthy renegade, and what it is to leave such a discon- 
tented fellow in a strange country where the Company hath 
trading, he not being brought to the place where he was enter- 
tained according to his agreement. Philip Badmedg arrived here 
the 20th December who from Succadana did embark himself for 
Bantam, but the junk not able to fetch it up, put for Greessed 
(Gressik) and from thence in a Macasser junk came for Mac- 1 
casser. Thomas Brett and his junk arrived safe at Succadana 
and had determined a voyage, per Sophony's order, for Sambas. 
And thus at present not having further time to enlarge, wishing 
you, as to myself, all happiness, Vale. 

Kept till the yth May, 1614. 
The copy above written is sent in a Dutch ship called the Old 
Zealand per Jacob Speck, merchant, since which time here hath 
little passed worth the noting, save only I must relate of the 
infinite abuses passed per that Francisco Campayo, the Spaniard, 
which was here left per Captain Jourdain, to my vexation and 
much grief, to be abused and no remedy, this lewd and riotous 
gamester being instigated by the Hollanders to exclaim of our 
nation and Company of the base using him, which I with much 


patience did pray him oftentimes to take heed of speaking ill of 
our King's Majesty or Company, or otherwise it would redound 
to his disgrace and overthrow to use any such speeches. He hath 
bad all our power to do their worst, for were not the Hollanders 
and King of Maccasser sufficient to maintain him in whatsoever 
he doth in this place ; but because this business will ask some 
relation at large, I do refer you to the Articles. Vale. 

Kept till the 24th May, 1614. 
The 19th present here arrived a Dutch ship called the Grey- 
hound which had in her great store of sandalwood, and hath 
sold it to the Chinese for 100 rials the bahar. The 22nd present 
came here Mr. Welden from Button to certify me of what passed 
in his voyage this year at Banda, the Bandanese having open 
wars with the Hollanders, and much grieved that the English 
hath forgot them, that may be received there as in their own 
country. Mr. Welden had thought to have come for Bantam, 
but, not finding a speedy passage here at Macasser, doth here 
resolve to stay till this monsoon be ended, and per the first 
change of the winds it is thought fitting by him and myself that 
he with one or two Englishmen shall go for Banda. Hoping to 
have a present supply from you at Bantam in the same monsoon. 

Geo. Cokayne. 

P.S. — Mr. Cokayne was so sick at the sealing hereof that he 
was not able to come from his bed, etc. 


From Richard Welden at Maccasser, 
23rd May, anno 1614. 

|IND Captain Jourdain, remembering the great love and 
kindness that I have received from you, makes me bold 
to write these few lines unto you acknowledging and 
giving thanks for the same. This last monsoon I set sail 
from Bottone for Banda, where when I arrived and had made sale 
of such things as I had, I was fully resolved to return for Bantam, 

d 2 


because there was then this ship, the bearer hereof, in Banda, 
which was to come thither ; whereupon I gave my prow to the 
Captain of the Castle and went aboard the ship with my folk ; 
and setting sail the ship was to touch at Bootone, where when I 
came I was put from my foresaid determination by reason that I 
found a young daughter which I was unwilling to leave in the 
Moors hands to be made a Moor, or to fall as a slave into the 
King's hands ; where also I heard that there had been a small 
English ship, but had neither left me letter nor any news of 
anything. But afterwards I received a letter from Mr. Cokayne, 
which when I had read and understood the state of things, I 
stayed no longer than 10 days in Bootone, only to provide some 
provisions for my house, and came to Macasser, where I now am, 
and mean to remain for a time. For I do purpose to return in 
haste to Bootone and fetch all that I have to Macasser. For the 
news of Banda, only this, the Bandanese do much marvel that in 
so long a time there have come no English shipping there, 
protesting if they come they will live and die with the English, 
for now all the Bandanese hath open wars with the Hollanders 
and have slain many of them ; wherefore, if you please to send 
any order for me and those places, I rest till it come, or if there 
come none, at the first of the next monsoon it is resolved per 
Mr. Cokayne and I, that at the turning of the winds to send 
me with one or two English more back to Banda to settle some 
business there, hoping that you, soon as possible may be, will 
relieve us with a fresh supply in the same monsoon. And so 
having nothing else to write I end, leaving you to the protection 
of Almighty God. 


From Maccasser, Rich. Welden. 

this 23rd May, 1614. 


From Robert Larkin, at Succadana, 

10th of June, 1614. 

R. JOURDAIN, After our departure from Bantam we 
had indifferent passage, so that the 3rd April we 
arrived in safety at Soccodana, but could hear no news 
of the junk with John Williams till the 21st May, 1614. 
But you will marvel why I should stay all this time in this place, 
for which I would at large deliver you by these, but that this bearer, 
Sophony Cozuck, can resolve you of all particulars, and how 
I found them indebted to the Hollanders, and without a penny in 
the house, yet having these stones sent herewith that moved my 
present supply ; also considering I could not leave them so, and 
haply the junk might be at Maccasser, as since I have heard, 
expecting daily her return ; which were reasons, with a great 
many more, of my stay here so long ; but now the coming of the 
junk I find no ways according to the supply sent to this place, for 
of 4,000 rials ready money here cometh but 2,000 rials, and I 
understand the raw silks were sold at great rates at Maccasser ; 
but as of that, so the ill disposing of all things I find to be resting 
in Maccasser. What benefit will arise I know not. John 
Williams being dead, all that was his I understand is delivered 
per exchange to the Hollanders to be paid in Bantam ; only his 
writings, sealed as they be, are sent herewith so that I am forced 
to break that small stock of the Darling's to supply this place, for 
that they may not justly (as formerly) complain of the great 
hindrance the Company have had for want of monies. And 
finding wax at a reasonable rate I have employed of our stock 
290 rials which is sent herewith. And the old junk not able to 
be kept longer above water, I was forced to buy a new ; so that 
all things considered, with my pretences of further going to be to 
little purpose, meeting with the value 308 rials of gold of the 
deceased Edward Langley's, I am not so unwise but to take that 
up for the Company's use, to right myself of those wrongs which 
I am sure the Company will demand at my hands. And now 
I am forced to send you an untoward spirit whom George 
Cokayne allegeth to be per mc sent for, because upon his 



exceeding complaints, I writ only he should per his honest 
endeavours prevent his harm in all matters. The articles 
George hath drawn against him, I send herewith, although his 
picture to yourself is best known, but I have made bold, for the 
Company's use, to lighten him of some of his monies, for which 
I have given my bill, which I entreat you to pay accordingly. 
And touching accounts in this place, I have sent you the man 
and them, not for any dishonesty in the party, but for that it is 
thought so most fitting. And for my confederates in my pre- 
tended voyage, they have already taken up their rests out of the 
wormeaten vessel, for Nathaniel Courthope stays in Succadana 
with such goods as per invoice sent per this bearer, but too 
tedious to send herewith all reasons ; as likewise that Cassarian 
David is to proceed to Sambas, and his invoice sent herewith, out 
of all which you may perceive what monies I have disbursed 
here ; notwithstanding I want not an assistant, occasion so falling 
out, whom you know, Benjamin Farie, who proceedeth with me 
to Puttaney ; and I hope all is for the most profit and credit of 
our employers. The Darling complaineth sore, but I hope to 
God she will carry us well to Puttani, and further tediousness I 
omit. But I wish to God I were well rid of my captainship, or 
the Darling a sounder vessel to carry me in. So in haste, with 
my respective love and commendations to Mr. Ball and the rest, 
I cease. 

Yours to be commanded, 

Robert Larkin. 


From Robert Larkin, at Puttania, 
24th of July, anno 1614. 

|R. JOURDAIN, From Succadana I writ, but since 
that my usual fortune continueth, so that I met with 
the James the 24th June and I may say, I thank God 
for it, that the Darling hath been fortunate to all 
voyages but itself. In Puttania we arrived the 29th June, but 
truly the reasons being not small with the passage from port to 


port, as 24 days from Bantam to Succadana, and 25 days from 
thence to Pattana, was the occasion I arrived not here sooner, 
but had I so early [?] in this place, I could neither have laid 
forth this small stock in silk, or ought else that is good, nor at 
such prices as you writ of; besides 856 rials should have been 
paid for anchorage. Think but what monies I might have had 
left to have employed here if I had come away from Maccassar 
before the arrival of the junk, considering the great matter I 
should have left, besides imprest money and other charges paid 
forth. So this in brief I thought good to acquaint you with. 
And further for our proceeding here, we have taken in the goods 
of the James and now bound we are for Siam, finding here neither 
means to lay out our money, or vent for our cloth such as we 
have brought. But I could wish we had all those shashes, or 
that per the next conveyance you would send for these parts the 
most part of them, both fine and coarse, whereof I know to be 
great store of them in Bantam and there not vendible ; and some 
part of the finest white cloth and the sort of cloth which is for 
handkerchering of the finest, but I pray forget not the remem- 
brance of this extreme charge of anchorage, that with better 
advice the ships may proceed for these parts, wherein you may 
confer with Captain Marlowe of a place called Segora (Sungora?) 
which the Flemings make use of, so as it may be said a second 
Jaccatra. I have great encouragement that our coarse goods will 
be very vendible at Siam and Camboja, which if I find true, I shall 
if possible per the James certify, as of our further proceedings ; 
all things of certainty referred till our arrival at Siam, where I 
refer it for my best course how I may lay out our monies this 
year to be with you and that to some purpose, 01 jointly proceed, 
the ship being so able, upon the former course of the Globe, 
which I have understood to be to great profit, or otherwise as 
best we may take for our present benefit. And to digress a little, 
what great devil possesseth those barking dogs, who, in my 
absence, ceaseth not to scandal me with unjust dealing with the 
goods of the deceased Sir Henry Middleton, when I take God to 
witness I am so far from doing wrong both in thought and con- 
science that I would willingly rather give 10/. out of my own 
means therein to satisfy my ignorant proceedings than to gain a 


halfpenny; but if you will prove a friendly enemy, still them, 
for perchance they think they please you. I have taken order 
for two quilts of Puttania, for which I think you were much de- 
luded with in commending thereof; they will stand you in about 
24 rials. The 308 pieces of gold I had at Succadana, being 
Jahore (Jahor) gold, proves much short here of so many rials I 
writ they were esteemed at ; and with the help of the James's 
carpenter we are so encouraged for future proceedings with our 
ship, either for the James's business or our own, that it hath caused 
the taking up of six barrels of powder, for which I pray let Cap- 
tain Marlowe be satisfied for with the like quantity or money. 
Notwithstanding so proceedings may fall out, it may be wholly 
paid for out of their voyage. For the lead, had you never writ 
thereof you may be sure it had not been forgotten, but let the 
negligence thereof remain to the faulty, and each party more 
heedful. My hopes are per this bearer yet more at large to write 
you from Succadana, therefore in this I am the briefer ; but I 
doubt not but you have received the 337 diamonds and wax sent 
you from Succadania, and that before this time you do at large 
understand all proceedings there effected ; and so with my heartiest 
wishings and commendations to all friends, I cease. 

Yours to use, 

Robert Larkin. 

From Peter Floris and George Chauncey, 
at Masulapatam, the 10th July, anno 1614. 

|OOD Masters and loving friends, As unacquainted I 
commend me unto you all, etc. You may have heard 
of our determination in Potania for to come hither 
and afterwards of our good arrival per the James of 
London, who departed from this coast the 7th of February last. 
I hope she is well arrived at Bantam, in good time, but surely 
there was very great dissension in her. I pray God to bless her. 
This present shall only serve to advise you of our state in this 
place, because of the good opportunity which is offered us per 


this ship Dergoes. So first and formerly you shall understand 
that we are all in good health here, except five persons which are 
departed this life since our departure from Puttania, of which the 
17th June past died Mr. Thomas Essington who was our captain. 
The Lord of heaven preserve the rest to His glory and our salva- 
tions, amen. As for our ship, the Globe, she is at present in the 
river of Yarsupurpeta (Narsapur) where she is sheathed from the 
keel, and have mended many faults, so that now per the com- 
pany's own speeches she is better trimmed and a far better ship 
than when she first came out of England ; we have made a new 
rudder, for the old was very much eaten. She is now ready and 
hath nothing to be done only but to bring her out of the river, 
which I hope will be in a short time, and if God bless us, I hope 
to be ready per the first of September next for to set sail from 
hence and to come unto you for Bantam, and so to take our 
course, with the help of God, for England. And now whereas I 
do make mention to come first for Bantam, the reason is this, 
because I have not a sufficient stock wherewith I might lade the 
Globe for home from this place, but I hope to have a parcel of 
350 fardels indigo, and about the same quantity of white yarn, 
and some few packs of cloths, all which will not be able to lade half 
our ship the Globe, therefore we must come for Bantam to take 
the rest of our lading in pepper or any suchlike other commodity. 
And now notwithstanding I have understood as well per letters of 
Mr. Spalding as per mouthly report of Geo. Chauncey, and seen 
per their accounts, that for the account of the Globe there was 
left in the hands of Mr. Sheppard the sum of [blank] rials 
32 pence, with our order to be employed in pepper, and to send it 
for England, but if there were no place in the ships, that then 
they should sell the pepper and keep the money till the next 
spring time, and to employ it then in China commodities, which 
I hope that no ships being set out per the Company should have 
refused. But since I have heard that (per means of Sir Henry 
Middleton) that same money was stayed and not employed for 
that year, and although that General Best hath been there and 
laden homewards, yet I doubt that our stock of the Globe is yet 
left at Bantam without employment, although I hoped better that 
it should have been employed now this last spring because of the 


good order (left per General Best) as per report we have heard, 
though we durst neither hope so well nor trust to the contrary. 
Therefore we did provide such quantity of cloths and agreed with 
the James to carry them to Bantam and consigned them to Adam 
Denton, or his assigns, and that especially to provide us with 
pepper to the quantity of about three or four thousand bags. But 
since the departure of the James, arrived here this Dutch ship, 
Dergoes, who affirmed that General Best hath united all the three 
houses into one and under the government of one head. There- 
fore not knowing how the account of the Globe stands, so well of 
the money left there per Mr. Spalding, also of the cloths sent with 
the James, therefore is now my earnest entreating unto you, the 
chief of the united houses, as also to them with whom had the 
money or goods so long in keeping, that you will have a care to 
provide us a parcel of pepper about 4,000 bags, and if possible it 
is, to barter them against the cloths sent in the James. If not, 
to do the best you can, and if it should happen that the James 
was not arrived there (which God forbid), and that the monies 
were employed in other commodities, that then you would take 
the same quantity upon your own credits, to be paid at our 
coming thither, which shall be, with the help of God, [in] Novem- 
ber next. Now the reason why we write so much about it, is only 
that I am afraid it will be late in the year before we can get home, 
and to stay, with a small company long at Bantam (if a man can 
prevent it) is not fit neither. Therefore it is my opinion to have 
the pepper ready at my coming thither, and to make a short 
despatch from thence. And it may be you shall buy the pepper 
at a better or lower price before our coming, than at our arrival ; 
therefore I pray you have this in fresh remembrance. Then you 
shall do the Company great service and me especial great friend- 
ship, for the which I think myself very much beholden unto you, 
and am willing and ready to acknowledge it as occasion shall 
serve. In the meantime if you will have any service at my hands 
I pray you make bold to use me. News we have but little here. 
The 8th June I received a letter from Surat of Mr. Tho. Aid- 
worth's, who writ me but shortly and that they were in good 
estate, and was providing himself against September next ; then 
he did expect shipping out of England, having before sent a 


messenger per way of Persia for England. I have answered his 
letter so that I hope to have his answer again before we depart 
from hence. This year there are eight ships come from China 
and arrived in Goa, which makes all goods to stay at a very low 
price, and little appearance to rise this two years. I send you a 
price current of the principal goods as they are sold here, but in 
small request. We have had a happy journey to be here so soon 
before the Dutch ships, and the arrival of the Portugal ships in 
Goa, or else we had got but a poor market. I willingly would 
have writ to the right worshipful Company at large of our 
estate, but because it is per a Dutch ship I dare not trust too 
much to my pen, albeit that the director of Vanburchen hath 
promised me to send it, but passed his word that it shall be 
delivered unto you without opening, because I have done so much 
for his sake in bringing a letter from Patania unto him in like 
manner. Wherefore, if you have occasion to write home, you 
may advise the right worshipful Company of our estate. And so 
not having at present to enlarge these, then with my commen- 
dations I leave you to the protection of God Almighty, who 
send us well to you and grant us happy meeting. 

The ship Dergoes hath stayed here so long till this [ ] 

Chauncey to Narsapurpeta to see the ship, the Globe, come over 
the bar, but because [ south ?] winds there is but small 

hopes to come over the bar because of the great [ ] that 

runs upon the bar. I am afraid it will be late in September 
before she comes in. Therefore, I pray to remember my request, 
because I am afraid that it will be late before we come to Bantam. 
1 have received a letter from Visapur (Bijapur) with advice that 
there are two English ships at Surat, and that the Viceroy of Goa 
armed him very strongly, but to what intent the Lord knows. I 
hope within this ten days to have an answer of Mr. Aldworth 
from Surat, and to hear certain news. I pray you, if possibly 
you can, to provide us with some four or five tons of casks for 
water, because our cask are very naught. I shall think me very 
much beholden to you etc. Vale. 

Your loving friends, 

Peter Williamson Floris, 
George Chauncey. 



From John Gourney, Adam Denton, William Shcppard and 
Thomas Brockedon, from Pottania the 28th of July, 1614. 

OVING Friends Captain Jourdain and Mr. Richard 
Cobb, Our arrival to this road was upon the last of 
June, in company of the Darling, which overtook us 
three days before. We have here landed forty bales 
and a half of sundry sorts of goods, and laden the rest upon the 
Darling; with which we, John Gourney, William Sheppard, 
and Thomas Bmrkedon are presently to depart for Siam, leaving 
here Mr. Adam Denton, chief, and John Johnson to assist. From 
Siam we make account to certify of our hopes there and purpose 
with the Darling, concerning the agreement for which is referred 
until our coming thither. The disputes we have had here with 
the Orancayas (that rule under the queen) in our vain practice 
to save the great present of 72 taels, which is 856 rials, at 
present in goods to be given amongst them, and the custom yet 
not cleared is cause that as yet no sales have been made ; but we 
hope it will do indifferent well with the time. We greatly hope 
that you will have fitted pepper for the goods we left with you ; 
and for the better despatching in the James her full lading we 
send you 3,000 rials by the captain, which we have borrowed of 
Captain Larkin to be repaid at Syam ; and more you are to 
receive 423^ rials in Bantam, of which 106 of Richard Westby 
and 317^ rials of a Guzerat, per virtue of the bills and order 
which herewith I, Thomas Brockedon, do send you. And if, 
contrary to our hopes, the former goods and these 3,423^ rials do 
not reach to the despatch of the James, then our desire is that 
you, Captain Jourdain, do furnish the want, to be answered in 
money or employment, to be provided for you from hence, either 
in silks or what you shall crave by your letters. The white Cabas 
which you have with you at Bantam would vend here ; the mere 
prices of them is referred to be certified by me, Adam Denton, 
with the ship, this bringer having more time than we by practice 


to come to the true knowledge thereof. And so for further 
referring you to what shall be certified from Syam, rest 

Your loving friends, 

John Gourney, 
Adam Denton, 
William Sheppard, 
Thomas Brockedon. 

From Geo. Cokayne, at Macassar, the 17th July, 1614. 

ORSHIPFUL and loving friends, The last I sent to 
Bantam bearing date the 24th of May last per Hans 
de Hans, per the instigation of Richard Welden I 
wrote that I did mind to send, at the first change of 
the winds, along with him to Banda one or two men upon such 
good reasons as he did show. Since which time I am otherwise 
resolved not to do anything without sufficient warrant from those 
authorized. Moreover it is not for our Honourable Company 
their credit to settle factories and then to supply them with 
junks and prows ; although their gains might be much, the dis- 
grace will be more. Because of the great quantity of cloth that 
yearly might be sold here in Maccasser if it fits for the country, 
I thought it not amiss to acquaint you with the sorts as the 
particulars here enclosed doth appear. I have had good sales for 
cloth within this twenty days and sold of all sorts some. Red 
Sealas are all sold at 33 rials the corge. Most of the cloth which 
came from Potanya is sold. Here will be little spice this year 
bought, to make any return, because all men were taken short 
with wind and lost their voyage. The Chauters of Agra and fine 
baftas nyll doth not here vend ; I would they were at Amboyna 
and Banda, for all Surrat clothing is there in request. I am 
informed that the people of Longoe, Cambello and Lassiddie hath 
great store of cloves, which they will not sell to the Hollanders, 
expecting the English this next monsoon, although they have 
earnestly looked for the return of Captain Jourdain. The great 
timbers which the King gave to our Company to build their 


house, he hath brought them into our ground ; therefore, either 
by ship or junk, fail not but let a good quantity of inch boards 
and nails be sent, for truly the goods cannot be secure in this 
fashion ; the which I cannot remedy without means sufficient. 
Mr. Robert Larkin, when he was in place, wrote that there should 
all necessaries for such a business be sent as the last monsoon, 
but since that time I hear nothing thereof, &c. The Hollanders this 
last year had sent a great quantity of boards to build a great rice 
house that will hold 400 coyans. I do not mind to buy any rice 
this year, for that which was bought the last year, with keeping 
it still expecting shipping to come and came not, is great part of 
it lost, for that the houses was not of force to bear so great a 
weight so long time. I beseech the Almighty to bless you. 

Postscript. — The red yarn left here per John Parsons I cannot 
sell at any reasonable rates. We are all in good health, God be 
praised for it. 

The God's Gift departed from hence the 10th May for Succa- 
dania with Francisco Campayo in her, in the charge of Francis 
Kelly, Benjamin Farie and John Darby, to be delivered to the 
English President in Bantam. 


George Cockayne. 


Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, in Edo cr elsewhere. 
Firando i-n Japan, the 12th of May, 1614. 

R. WICKHAM, I have wrote you divers letters since 
your departure from hence, but received none from 
you, but only one from an island near Shimeneseak 
(Shimenoseki). Presently upon your departure Cap- 
tain Adams hath writ me three or four, and in his last from Edo 
advised you were sick of an ague, which was the occasion you 
could not write. God send you and the rest their healths. I 
writ you my opinion in a former that I would not wish you to 
stand upon small matters, but sell as you could, neither to stay 
there but leave matters with Signor Andrea or some other 


assured friend, and so come for Firando. For if you have a mind 
to go for Syam I will not be your hindrance, &c. The bearer 
hereof Duzak Skidoyemon Dono, brother-in-law to Yasimon 
Dono (alias Zanzebar) desired me tc write unto you in respect 
he and other cavaleros his friends determine to buy some quantity 
of broadcloth yet desire to have it as good cheap as we can afford 
it, which I pray you let them have, or rather better cheap than 
others, for that they are our friends whom we are daily beholden 
unto etc. I hope you make sales as time will afford, for the 
sooner the better, that we may employ our small stock we have 
for the best benefit of our employers. Ed. Sayer arrived here 
yesternight from Faccatay (Fukuoka) and brought me such 
money as he had received at Tushma, which God knoweth is 
but little, he not having sold one yard of English cloth, neither 
all his pepper. He left John Japan with his host at Faccatay 
to see to the business in his absence ; and this morning I 
have sent him back again, with order that if he see no hope 
of despatch of his commodities within eight or ten days 
that then he shall return for Firando with the rest of his 
cargazon. I hope the Emperor have taken the ordnance, powder, 
and such other commodities as were sent for him, only Captain 
Adams hath writ me he refused most part of the broadcloth was 
sent, in respect it was moth-eaten. Mr. Nealson hath him com- 
mended unto you. He and I are so busy about our building 
that we have small pleasure, having above 100 men daily at 
work, but I hope it will not last long. On Sunday night last 
our kitchen was set on fire, and so burned our new gates and 
gatehouse, but was soon quenched, God be praised for it. The 
loss will not be above 8 or 10 taels, &c. I daily expect Captain 
Adams to look out about a junk. News we have none but that 
many soldiers are sent out of Firando and as it is said go for 
Arima, but for what intent I know not. George the Portugal 
returned for Firando the 4th current. His wife was brought to 
bed of a boy the night before he came. Well fall (or fare) an old 
knocker. And so, with hearty commendations to yourself with 
the rest of our friends, I remain, 

Your loving friend, 

Richard Cocks. 



William Eaton to Richard Wickham, in Edo, Shrongo or 


In Osakey the 12th of May, 1614. 

OVING Friend Mr. Wickham, I commend me unto 
you etc. You shall understand that my last letters 

unto you was the one of the 20th and the other of the 
21st ultimo, enclosed in a letter to Captain Adams, 
in which my said letters I wrote you at large of all matters that 
had here passed to that present ; not doubting but that you have 
received them long before this, whereunto I refer me. Since 
which time I have not sold nor cannot sell anything but only the 
pepper which I had here, the which I sold for 65 mass the pecul, 
being but a poor price ; more I could not get for it. Broadcloth 
I cannot sell any at no rate as now, in that all the gentlemen 
that would buy cloth are there at Edo, which is the cause a 
merchant will not once look of a piece. I wish with all heart 
that all we have here in this country were sold ; there is great 
store both at Meaco and especially at Sackey and to mend the 
matter the young King of Ferrando brought thither of Captain 
Brower's cloth to the quantity of 30 cloths, the which he took of 
him to make money of for his journey to Edo. Those the one 
half he sold to the merchants of Sacay, some at 11, 12 and 13 
taels the mat ; the other he pawned for money he took up at 
interest. I wish they had been in the bottom of the sea before 
he brought them thither ; for they are and will be a great hind- 
rance in the sale of ours. I understand in Mr. Cocks' letter that 
vou were sick, which was the cause you did not write him, the 
which I am sorry to hear. I pray God send you and every one of 
us our health, and that for present being in haste I end, com- 
mitting you and your affairs unto the protection of the Almighty 
God; resting 

Your loving friend to command, 

William Eaton. 




Remembrance or commission for Captain John Jourdain 

and Richard Cobb. 

Bantam, the 1st of June, 1614. 

APTAIN JOHN JOURDAIN and Richard Cobb, being 
that it is resolved upon that the James is insuffi- 
cient to make the full progression of her projected 
voyage and that the goods here landed hath not found 
sale this unseasonable time of our being here, whereby to secure 
by us her lading of pepper against the next harvest. The invoice 
which herewith is delivered you will show you the contents of 
each bale, and under which the sorts being severed and a valua- 
tion made appears little more or less what the same may 
yield, and being that the best time for vent is shortly to be, I 
doubt not but you will make the best use thereof as is fit, always 
remembering that by all September the Hollanders according 
to use will bring store of Java wares from the Coast, and the 
Globe no doubt will shortly after bring some. And because 
sundry of the sorts being Malaya ware and more proper and 
profitable at the Moluccos than here, and that trade by the 
English is in use there ; rather therefore than that the same 
should hinder the despatch here of the rest in due time, it would 
no doubt be very to the worshipful our masters that you, 
Captain Jourdain, in whom our chief trust is, do according to 
our former conference pass over such ware to that trade, accord- 
ing to the value here, and furnish the value in pepper for the 
James. Some money or pepper we aim to send back from 
Patania but it is to be feared will not prove much, being that 
the ship's charges will amount to a great sum ; and as for the 
500 rials by the Captain for the ship's use and also the 50 rials 
received by me to defray charges here, our necessity you see 
urgeth patience till means happen whereby to clear it. 

Your loving friends, 

John Gourney, 
Adam Denton, 
William Sheppard, 

Thomas Brockedon. 
Y 1268. E 



William Eaton to Richard Wickham. 

In Osacay the 3rd of June, 1614. 

|OVING friend Mr. Wickham, I commend me unto you 
etc. Your letter of the 26th of April at my being in 
Meaco I received the 17th ultimo, whereby I perceive 
that as then the bark that hath your goods was not 
there arrived, which I am sorry for, in that it will be a great 
hindrance unto you in the sale of your broadcloth. For without 
all doubt the Dutch taking that opportunity hath put away great 
store of their cloth, as you write me, to the value of 400/. sterling ; 
but I think at a poor rate, as well as he that is here doth, he not 
refusing any reasonable price for any of his cloth being never so 
fine and good, which is indeed far finer and better than ours, withal 
being well sorted with colours which is a great help unto him 
in the sales thereof. You write that if you had known the bark 
would have stayed so long by the way, that then you would 
have sent for those black cloths which I had here, not doubting 
but to have sold them to the noblemen and their servants ; the 
which I wish you had done, but now I have sold them with all 
the rest that I have here, but only two, a Venice red and a gallant 
colour ; which two cloths I cannot sell at any reasonable rate, 
being colours here not in request. Those cloths which I have 
sold I was forced to put away at a poor rate, in that the Dutch 
sold so good cheap. Some I sold for 115 mass the matt and some 
at 114 and 113 mass. Likewise I have put away all my pepper 
at 6^ taels the pecul, and all my allejas at 15 mass, saving two 
pieces and my cassidie nills at 26 mass per piece ; only I have 
six pieces [of] it remaining unsold. As for the rest of the India 
commodities I cannot here sell a piece. The powder I had here 
I have sent it back to Firando ; and for my lead I do purpose 
to send it you by the first bark that cometh thither from hence. 
For here it will not sell and there I make account you may put 
it away, as I understand by Captain Adams' letter, who writeth 
that the Emperor hath bought all you had there for 6 taels the 


pecul and likewise all that the Dutch hath at Firando at the 
aforesaid price, so as there is no doubt but that you may there 
sell it. I received a letter from Mr. Cocks the 2nd present 
and one for yourself, the which here inclosed I have sent you. 
He writeth me how that we had like to have a shrewd mischance 
in that our house was on fire, the kitchen I mean, but praised be 
God did no more harm but burn the water gate which was newly 
made. I do propose to go for Firando within these 20 or 30 
days at the furthest, God willing. So if you have any occasion 
to send for any broadcloth or any other commodities which I 
have here, you are best to write to my host in Japan, whom I 
will give order unto to send you anything you shall write for. I 
have sent to Firando for more broadcloth, for I have no more 
at present, but only two as aforesaid. Mr. Peacock hath him 
commended unto you in a letter I received from him the 2nd 
ultimo, being dated in Langasacka the 19th of May. Thus for 
present, not knowing anything else to write you of, but commit- 
ting you to the protection of the Almighty God, who I beseech 
to prosper and bless you in all your affairs and proceedings ; 

Your loving friend to command, 

William Eaton. 


Richard Cocks to William Adams in Edo or elsewhere. 

Firando in Japan, the 5th of June, 1614. 

APTAIN ADAMS, my last unto you was of the 12th 
ultimo, sent per Duzak Skidoyemon Dono, Yasimon 
Dono's brother-in-law. Since which time your letter 
dated in Edo the 27th of April came to my hands in 
Firando the 27th of May following. I was right glad to hear of 
your good health, but sorry to understand of the long tarrying 
of our goods. I pray God that the negligence of that dreaming 
fellow John Phebe be not the occasion. Once it is a great 

E 2 


hindrance to the Company our broadcloth was not vented this 
winter ; so many cavaleros being at court could not have wanted 
to have carried all away. And I am afeard that Captain 
Brower's cloth he sent hence the last of April will come to serve 
the market at Edo before ours ; which if it so fall out, you may 
easily guess what a scandal it will be unto us, ours departing 
hence so many months before it. I would to God ours had gone 
overland all with you and Mr. Wickham ; but, for me, I had no 
insight into times and seasons. I am informed that Toba, the 
place where our goods have lain windbound so long, is within 
two or three days journey of Edo or Shrongo per land. I marvel 
Mr. Wickham had not put you in mind to have conveyed our 
goods overland at first, costa que costa ; but now it is too late, I 
doubt to our everlasting scandal. For if we stay seven years 
more in Japan we shall never have the like time to have 
vented our cloth as at this general assembly of the nobility. 
Old Foyne Same is very sick. It is thought he will not escape 
it, for the physicians have given him over. He told me it was 
the Emperor's mind that our colours (or flag) should be taken 
down, because it had a cross in it ; and to this day it was not set 
up again. I perceive per Mr. Wickham's letter that Tome Same 
and Oyen Done are very earnest to have money before we can 
receive it, and that, in place of 1,000 taels I promised to lend 
them, they demand 2,000. Indeed I said I was content to let 
them have more if we could spare it ; but I think we cannot, and 
therefore they must pardon us. God grant they will be as 
forward to repay it when it shall be demanded. I have been 
much tormented with an ague, which after turned into extreme 
aches in my bones in all parts of my body, so that I had thought 
I should have lost the use of my limbs and was become a very 
cripple ; but I praise God it is now something assuaged, and I 
mean, God willing, four or five days hence to go to the hot 
baths at Yshew (Ikshiu) an island of Nobisana's whither Signor 
Yasimon Dono will accompany me. Our house is now in a 
good forwardness, but hath cost care [or caro] . And so, in 
haste, I rest 

Your ever loving friend, 

Richard Cocks. 



Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham in Edo. 

Firando in Japan the 5th of June, 1614. 

R. WICKHAM, my last unto you was of the 12th 
ultimo sent per Duzak Skidoyemon Dono, since which 
time yours of the 26th of April in Edo came to my 
hand in Firando the 27th of May following, with 
another from Captain Adams. I was glad to hear of your good 
health, for that Captain Adams had formerly advised you were 
sick. Yet it gave me little content to understand that the bark 
which carried our goods was not arrived at Edo at the date of 
your letter. Truly I cannot be persuaded but there is some 
legerdemain in the matter, and I rest doubtful of that dreaming 
fellow Phebe. Once we shall never have such a time offered to 
sell our English cloth if we stay in Japan seven years, per means 
of the assembly of those cavaleros to build the castle ; for 
Mr. Eaton writeth me that merchants buy nothing, only 
cavaleros carry all away. I understand that Toba is not above 
two or three days journey from Edo, where our goods have lain 
windbound so long. I wonder that you had not put Captain 
Adams in mind long since to have used means to have got our 
broadcloth and other vendible matters transported overland to 
Edo, whatsoever it had cost, matters standing as they do. 
Truly I doubt it will be an everlasting testimony attributed to 
our slothfulness in general ; and I am of opinion that Captain 
Brower's broadcloth which he sent from Firando the last of April 
to be conveyed from Ozekey overland to Edo will come to serve 
the market before ours, which if it so fall out what a shame will 
it be, for I can do no more than I have done, for I gave every 
order to sell away as time served, accounting all well sold that 
is sold at what price soever. I know not of what else to write, 
but long to hear of some sales and that the Emperor hath taken 
the ordnance and other matters. I perceive how forward Tome 
Same and Oyendono are to finger money before we can receive 
it. I pray God they will be as hasty to repay it at the time 


appointed. I promised them but a thousand taels absolutely, 
making a caveat to let them have more if we could spare it, so 
that I may allege matter enough to put them off with that. 
Brower [?] was crafty to put them off with commodities. I wish 
we had taken that course too, but now we must do as we may. 
I have been troubled with an ague which turned to extreme pains 
in my limbs, so that I verily thought I should have lost the use 
of them and become a very cripple ; but I praise God I am now 
a little better and mean to go for the hot baths at Yshew four or 
five days hence. For now our house is in a good forwardness, 
and you shall find your lodging in better order than it was at 
your departure from hence. And so I rest, 

Your loving friend, 

Richard Cocks. 


Benjamin Farie to John Jourdain [at Bantam] . 

Succodana, this nth June, 1614. 

ORSHIPFUL Captain Jourdain, I commend my love 
unto you. Sir, it shall be needless to write to you in 
particular touching the business in Mocasser, for that 
Mr. Cokayne hath writ to you at large touching 
our proceedings. Only this I thought good to advise you, that in 
our return, not being able to fetch Banda, we put into Buttowne, 
there to rest ourselves where we were earnestly sued unto by the 
[Dutch ?] to relieve them with monies, being in great m [isery ?] , 
wherewith we [supplied ?] them, viz., 288 rials of eight out of 
the [ ] and 812 rials of Mr. John Williams which was to 

have [been repaid ?] us accordingly per exchange in Mocasser, 
and at our coming [thither ?] the factory there not being fur- 
nished with money to pay [ ] hath written their letters, 
as also a copy of the bills [ ] to the president in Bantom 
for the performance hereof, per the [ ] a ship of Holland. 


Wherefore pray receive it accordingly. The 8th of May we 
departed from Mocasser with that scand [alous ] Fran- 

ciscoe, which was received into favour with Mr. Cokayne [pre- 
sently ? ] your departure for his prompt understanding 
and good action there, in whose regard he remained some five 
months ; since which time [ ] brabbling and contention 
hath grown between them upon frivolous [ ] , which for 
brevity I here omit to insert. This Franc [iscoe hath] not ceased 
to report to the King of Moccascer, as also to all [ ] 
Christians and heathens which would lend an ear to his false 
reports, that you with the consent of me hath taken out of the 
cargo of cloves laden aboard the Darling for the right worshipful 
our [masters' ?] account some 20 bahars of cloves and from him- 
self [ ] , which is the cause that moved you to leave him 
in Moccasser [knowing ?] well that if he should have proceeded 
for Bantom he [would have?] acquainted the general therewith 
accordingly, [ ] he hath written to the General and 
Company in [ ] . The 21st of May we arrived in the 
road of [ ] Captain Larkin in the Darling with [ ] 
being with all the rest of the Company in good health and 
[ ] our arrival here, Captain Larkin having had some 
conf [erence with] this scandalous villain he told him that it was 
not for any [ ] of his in the carriage of the Company's 
business made you leave him, but fear that you had of him that 
he would [ ] your private trade and the account of the 
pootoes. Also I can do no less than advise you of the scandalous 
reports of John Daie towards you in your absence [ ] Succo- 
dana, viz. that you of purpose put by this place in the Darling, 
not being minded to touch here, howsoever you made a show 
outwardly; also much given to drink, a subverter of youth, 
wishing us in Mocasser to use one woman no more than one 
night, for that there was more pleasure in change, which you 
gave example accordingly. These with many more reproachful 
speeches I have heard credibly reported here in Succodana 
should proceed from him [ ] this scandalous [villain ?] is 
to come for Bantom [ ] I [ ] forbear to write 
further of. Sir, it hath pleased Captain Larkin to take me along 
with him in the Darling for Pottania. Wherefore I pray receive 


such letters as shall come out of England for me, with what else, 
and to send it with all convenient speed for Pottania. And for 
that I have been out of England a long time, not having received 
any wages or means to maintain myself, more than 20 rials from 
the worshipful our General before my departure from Poolapanjon 
(Pulo Pandjang, in the Bay of Bantam), for which monies I 
having given a receipt to Mr. Williams, the General calling for 
me speedily before I could put up my money, I left it in the 
charge of Mr. [ ] until I went to know the General's 

pleasure, who played it away at dice before my return, which 
monies I am likely to lose without your greater friendship shown 
me herein ; and now having met with Captain Larkin, of whom 
I have requested some monies in part of wages, who saith it is 
not in his power to pay me any, for that you have the order from 
General Saris to pay [ ] third part to every factor of his 

wages. Wherefore I pray stand my friend and send me means 
or to take order that I may have as [mo] st of the factors hath. I 
pray let it not seem harsh [ ] regard I have not solicited 

you with letters, for you shall [ ] presently after your 

departure in the Darling. By Breams [ ] dispeeded 

away to Lombasson, some ten leagues to the northwards from 
Moccasser, not having language nor man of trust about me, yet 
it pleased God to favour my proceedings that I had bought and 
shipped for Moccasser per the fine of October 37 coyan of rice 
which cost with all the charges of boat hire and porterage 20 rials 
the coyan, which now is likely to be consumed with weevils. 
There was paid to all the sailors of the God's Gift, except John 
Darby, two months wages and to Romsie four months. Thus 
desiring God to add a blessing to your proceedings, I take my 
leave, being desirous to hear from you, 

Yours to command, 

Benjamin Farie. 



Nathaniel Courthope to Captain John Jourdain [in Bantam] . 
The 14th of June, 1614. 

JAPTAIN JOURDAIN, my commendations remembered 
unto you. These are to certify unto you that the 
second day of April last [we] arrived in the road of 
Soccadania, finding there Mr. Sophony [Mr.] Greete 
and John Clough with much contention betwixt them, [in such ?] 
sort that absolutely they would not upon any terms stay longer 
together, and not hearing any news of the junk [ ] Mr. 

Williams, upon a council held here by the Captain [and] rest of 
the factors, doubting of the junk coming in, it [was] agreed that 
myself should stay in this place but [since my ?] arrival, upon 
Mr. Sophony's and Mr. Greet's extraordinary [ ] Captain 

Larkin sent Mr. Sophony, Richard Newell and [one] man more 
up the river of Landucke in a small prow with 4 [of the ? or o] 
blacks, thinking to settle a factory in the said place. [But they] 
were repulsed by the Dieackes and so returned without [ ] 

of the Landucke men. So their persuasions being still [ ] 

to send and make another trial with more strength, [ ] 

Mr. Sophony and seven Englishmen more and seven blacks went 
[ ] time, all of us escaping a miraculous danger as Mr. 

Sop[hony] will certify you at large ; and the first of June we 
returned. The junk arrived in this place with Francis Kelly and 
[Benjamin] Farie from Macasser, Mr. Williams being dead 
[ ] taking out the goods which were for this place 

] all the money that the silk and [ ] 

chest of money which was for this place [ ] eight. 

Sir, these are further to let you understand your porcelain will 
not sell for half the money it cost at Bantam ; beside I have 
not received the supplement [you ?] maketh mention of by 600 
pieces, I think the fault [ ] the masters, for that I believe 

they were sent ashore at Ban [tarn] amongst the Company's. I 
have not as yet sold any of [them] and for your sugars they are 
much hurt by the cockroaches ; for your rack the Captain had 


it for the ship's use, paying me one rial a jar, being as much as 
it would yield in this [place ?] ; but assure yourself I will do my 
best in the sale thereof [as] soon as I can. Yet although I have 
not sold any of [ ] have paid out of my own money to 

Sophony the [ ] rials of eight which you willed me to pay him. 
Receive of Mr. John Parsons five rials of [eight I] have lent him 
for his needful use, which [ ] a note of his hand here 

enclosed for the payment [ ] . Thus praying you by the 

next supply for [ ] us these commodities as in the next 

side [ ] are vendible in this place. Captain [ ] 

this place towards Potany the gth of [ ] Cassarian is to 

go for Sambass [ ] praying to God for your good 

health [ ]. 

[ ]• 

These are the cloths vendible in this place and the prices that 
they will yield here and the quantity we desire to have sent. 

[ ] gugeratt 5 corge worth here 

Dragons a good quantity worth here 
Popolungs a good quantity will sell at 
Chindes some 2 corge at . 
Loyonge some 10 pecul 
Tapesererasses very fine some 3 corge will 

sell . . . . . 
Fine gobersaresses will sell for 
Tapes Challie Cuttans 4 corge will sell at 
2 elephants' teeth 

Likewise I pray send me some 6 pieces of chowtars for shirting 
for myself. 

Your loving friend to his power, 

Nathaniel Courthope. 

rials madins 

01 24 per piece 

02 00 


02 00 


06 00 


02 00 


08 00 


03 00 




Peter Floris to Mr. Tho. Aldworth at Surat. 
Mislopatan (Masulipatam), June the 17th, 1614. 
OOD Mr. Thomas Aldworth, I commend me unto you, 
etc. Your letter dated the 10th of May in Baroche 
(Broach) I received here the 7th of June with the 
musters of indigo, wherefore I very kindly thank you, 
as also for the very good correspondency you do offer to me. I 
expect the Company's business will go the better forward by 
keeping a good intercourse, whereunto you shall find me every 
time ready, and so let this suffice your mind. And now whereas 
you send me those two musters of indigo in my judgment but 
nought and dear, I do send you three musters of indigo bought 
by me, or rather bargained for several goods, a parcel of 80 candy, 
wherein are those three sorts mixed together. Of the first sort 
there may be about half, and so of the two other sorts every a 
quarter. Cost in bartering 80 pagodas which, being reduced into 
our money and weight, will come, with charges and all, i2d. the 
pound, being in my opinion better cheap than you write of. And 
because you do write that the occasion of your going to Baroche 
was to buy fine linen and cotton yarn, therefore I do send you 
several musters from the finest to the coarsest, thereby that you 
may perceive of the difference of the prices betwixt here and 
there ; and I pray you let us have your advice upon the yarn. 
My advice is that the coarser or the common sort will sell the 
better and in greater quantity with better profit than the finest 
sort ; yet I do intend to have of every sort a parcel and hope to 
have here about 200 fardels of yarn, and every fardel of about 
150 lb. or thereabouts, and about 300 packs of indigo of the same 
weight, which shall serve for homewards ; the rest in fine Bengala 
cloth and a parcel of painted cloths of several sorts. I do not 
see how the fine calicoes can give great profit, but the indigo 
and yarn according to instructions I hope will give no less than 
six or seven for one. Mr. Gourney had a great opinion of these 
two sorts of merchandise ; how it shall fall out the time shall 
learn it. Upon the 17th of May departed this life Mr. Thomas 
Essington, who was our Captain and merchant, whereby I have 


lost [ ] help and assistance, but what shall we do [ 

Mr. John Skinner as master of the ship with full [autho] rity 
[ ] come hither. The ship is now trimmed [ 

the [ ] of Yarspur (Narsapur) and hope within this month 

[ ] [s] he shall come [her] e and I hope to be r [ead] y in 

August [or at ?] the utmost half September, to set sail for 
Bantam and so [to Eng ?] land. If you have any service or letters 
to send we very [ ] will do the best we can. Here is 

arrived a [Dutch] ship from Bantam the 24th of November last, 
who brings [news that ?] the General Best was there a-lading the 
Dragon and Osiander for homewards bound, and the Darling was 
ready to follow the Dutch ship within five or six days. The 
Dutch ship tells that she was bound here for this coast but she 
doth not yet come. I rather believe that she is bound for Surat, 
albeit it troubleth me much, seing that in May she was not 
arrived there. I pray God preserve her from mischance. There 
was no news from home because there was not yet arrived any ships 
neither English nor Dutch. The Trades Increase is wholly over- 
thrown and have sold part of her ordnance to the Dutch, a pitiful 
matter to see such a princely ship in [ ] . The General 

Best hath done a worthy matter at Bantom. There hath been 
three houses of the English in great dissension the one against 
the other, which the General hath united and hath set an agent 
to overlook the rest ; surely a great piece of service which will 
redound to his credit and the Company's profit. 

Yesterday arrived here a fellow who calleth his name John, 
saying, he come sent from you with letters from Sir Thomas 
Smith our Governor, brought by land, and that he hath been 
but thirty three days from you, or the next day that you did send 
your letter per this peon ; and coming to Barampur (Berhanpur), 
in company of a certain English merchant John Bednall and one 
Thomas Lock with one Frenchman, whom he did leave at 
Barampur, and this John coming from Barumpur towards 
Bagnagar (Bisnagar) was robbed by the way, by his own 
report, of a camel, a horse, six fine cloths, a hundred pagodas 
in money, and other apparel. So, coming to Coulas, he did 
send back two servants for Barampur and one for Surat, but 
he himself came to Bagnagar, where he did meet with a certain 


gentile, being a goldsmith, an old acquaintance of mine, who did 
take him into his house and did write me of it what is passed 
with this John ; whereupon I did answer him that he would do 
the best to send him hither to me and I would pay the charges, 
and withal I, thinking him to be an Englishman, I did send two 
peons to accompany him ; but, after he arrived here, I did per- 
ceive that I was cozened and that coun [terfeited ?] himself to 
have been a servant of Mr. Hawkins [an] d that [he] hath been 
employed by you to carry letters [ ] and knowing most 

of all the [names of the ?] English [in that ?] quarter I almost 
should have b [elie] ved him b [ut] I [ ] faults ; that is, that 

he saith he is come two [days after ?] your letter of the ioth of 
May ; by the which [ ] have been but 32 or 33 days from 

Surat [ ] himself, but now to the contrary by my letter 

[written by ?] my friend from Bagnagar, as also by the reckoning 
of the days, he hath been at least 26 or 27 days that he arrived 
first at Bagnagar ; how is it then possible that he should come in 
32 days from Surat ? And because you do write me nothing of his 
proceedings I dare hardly trust him. Notwithstanding, because 
he tells me that the English merchants from Barampur will be 
here within this ten or twelve days, I have been content to write 
Attmachan and Malicktosuer in Bagnagar in his behalf, to see if 
they can get his stolen goods again, albeit I do believe there is no 
such matter. In the mean time I shall stay him here till other 
news ; and if there come none, I shall thrust him out of doors. 

Whereas you write me that I ought (owed) you 48s. for port 
of the letter with robbing of the peon, and that you willingly 
would have the same employed in small diamonds or a couple of 
rubies ; but assure yourself they are so dear that I dare not buy 
any. The reason is that the ship of Arachan is not arrived this 
year. Wherefore I do send you the foresaid 48s. in gold and 
have delivered the peon 8^ pagodas which is 12 rials or 48s. I 
hope that he can keep the same secret. So, not having at 
present else wherewith to enlarge, but with my commendations 
unto you, I commit you to the protection of the Almighty. From 
Mesalapatan the 17th June, 1614. 

Your loving friend, 

Peter Floris. 



William Eaton to Richard Wickham in Edo. 
In Ozacay, the 17th of June, 1614. 

OST loving and kind friend Mr. Wickham, I commend 
me unto you, etc. Your two several letters of the 
22nd ultimo and the 3rd present in Edo I have 
received, the one of the 5th present by the Dutch 
Juribasso and the other at present by your servant John Phebe. 
By which your said letters I understand of all matters, as also 
how that you are in hope to put away all the black cloth you 
have at 120 mass the fathom, and have written me to send you 
as many of my black cloths as I could spare. At present I have 
not any, having sold all I had, as I wrote you the 3rd present, by 
the conveyance of a servant of Semidona's ; not doubting but 
that you have received the said letter before this time. Some of 
the said cloths I sold for 115 mass the fathom or matt's length, 
and others for 114 and 113 mass per matt. Also I have sold all 
my pepper at 6£ taels the pecul ; and likewise all my allejas, saving 
three or four pieces, at 15 mass per piece, and most part of my 
cassidie nills for 26 mass per piece ; being very poor prices. But 
yet I am glad they are sold away, although at so bad a rate ; for 
I think if they were to sell now, I should not get so much for 
them, being commodities, as all our India goods are, not here in 
request. I wish all I have and all that you have were sold at no 
worse prices, etc. I have written to Mr. Cocks for more black 
cloths some twelve days past, both for the furnishing of you and 
myself, hoping within these 20 days to be provided both for 
myself and you ; so as until then I do purpose to detain your 
servant John Phebe here, unless Captain Adams at his coming 
hither do counsel me to the contrary ; whose coming I do daily 
expect and purpose, God willing, to go with him for Firando. 
So as if you have occasion to write for anything, either to our 
Captain or myself, you were best to direct your letters to my host 
with whom I will leave all matters, both for the sending of any 
goods I have unto you, which you shall write for, as also for the 
conveyance of your letters to Firando. In my last letter I 


sent you thereinclosed a letter from Mr. Cocks etc. ; both of 
Mr. Peacock's I have received, and yours I will send you by 
J [ohn] Phebe etc. And thus for present, not knowing anything 
else to write you of, in haste I end, committing you and your 
affairs unto the protection of the Almighty God, resting 

Your loving friend to command, 

William Eaton. 


Thomas Brockedon to Sir Thomas Smith. 
Patani this 23rd of July, 1614. 

flGHT Worshipful, my humble duty remembered etc. 
May it please you to understand that through the 
death of our factor it pleased our council to make 
choice of me to assist in your Worship's business in 
Pettepoly (Petapoli), wherein I employed myself to do the Wor- 
shipful Company the best service I could, as my account I hope 
will testify. And now, having great want of factors, necessity 
caused my stay in the country to assist in the business, hoping 
that my proceedings will cause your Worship to have a good 
opinion of me, which if I could obtain I should think myself very 
happy. Your Worship knows my small wages, neither do I seek 
any way to encroach on the Worshipful Company, but wholly 
relying on your Worship's good favour do wholly refer myself as 
your Worship shall think I may deserve. My humble suit unto 
your Worship at this present is that if my father, Robert 
Brockedon, should send unto your Worship for fifty pounds that 
you would be pleased to send him the same, I have due unto me 
from the purser's book about [ ] and 10/. due from the 

sailors, the which or so much out of my wages [ ] may 

be sent [ ] will ever acknowledge myself to be bound in 

all duty unto your Worship for so great benefits received. Now 
concerning our proceedings, it hath hitherto been carried in that 


cross manner by the indiscretion and ill carriage of our com- 
manders that the business hath been greatly endamaged thereby ; 
for first by oversight we lost our monsoon for the Coast, by which 
means the making of two returns was overthrown. The great 
loss that must needs redound thereby your Worship can best 
judge. The occasion thereof the master layeth on the captain 
and the captain on the master ; the truth must be decided at 
return. As concerning the captain's carriage, it hath been in that 
manner that it would be thought to proceed of malice to describe 
the same (from which I know myself to be free). For first at 
Bantam, having lost the first opportunity, neglecting also the 
enquiry what was best to be done to obtain the Coast, being told 
that the Flemings had formerly gotten their passage through the 
straits of Malacca, and now a ship ready to go that way was 
ready to depart, he only seeking to wreak his own malice by dis- 
gracing the merchants and domineering (continually ashore) 
captain-like never enquiring the means aforesaid, goes through 
the straits of Sunda ; whereby we lost our passage, and the 
Hollanders got to the market ; losing thereby at least six months 
to the [ ] . Again at Masulpatam, renewing his old 

quarrels with the merchants, and lying always ashore to show his 
greatness, seeing he could not have his own will took another 
house for himself and his trumpeters and such as pleased him, 
raising thereby a needless charge of at least 500 rials of 8. What 
hurt he otherwise did by his merchandising and how he disgraced 
our nation, such as were resident there can best certify your 
Worship, being a general custom amongst captains to account all 
other men base, and that it is their due to devour all the best in 
the ship. The steward's account of wine &c. sent home will 
show that the captain hath drank and misspent more than all the 
men of our ship ; whose example and want of government hath 
caused such disorder and drunkenness, both of the master and 
most part of the rest, that the like I think hath seldom been 
seen. I refer the particular discourse of his perverseness and 
insufficiency to those that return ; assuring myself it will be 
proved worse than I am able to express. For I protest I do not 
know wherein he hath furthered your Worships' business in the 
least degree, but rather hath been a hinderer of it. The master 


his carriage under such a commander I need not relate, being 
well known unto your Worship, captains' absolute authority binds 
men's tongues from speaking as they ought, for their maxim in 
captainship is to make use of authority and vaunt to answer all 
things at return. Thus being loth to be further troublesome unto 
your Worship, with my prayers to Almighty God for your 
Worship's prosperous health and our happy proceedings, I 
humbly rest 

Your Worship's ever bounden in all 
duty to be commanded, 

Thomas Brockedon. 
Your Worship shall further understand that the 24th ditto 
about 10 of the clock at night, one of our men was slain by 
Mr. Dennis, master his mate, with a knife, being all drunk. The 
like uproars hath twice been since our arrival, for swords and 
pikes were drawn in the night, wherein Mr. Gourney, Captain 
Larkin and his merchant had like to have been slain ; he com- 
mending them for it and saying they did the parts of honest men, 
the captain passing all things slightly over, fearing I think to 
punish them, which makes them to run headlong into these 
mischiefs ; for this same night also a knife was drawn on 
Mr. Gourney by one of his trumpeters, and he being called by 
Mr. Wotton to remedy the same refused to rise, whereupon partly 
by means of the same this mischance happened. 


Captain Robert Larkin to Sir Thomas Smith. 

In Pattania the 24th of July, 1614. 

IGHT Worshipful, my humble duty remembered. My 
last was with the Clove per General Saris ; therefore I 
doubt not that your Worship long before this under- 
standeth how [ ] altered the former pretended 

voyage of the Darling for the Coast and dispeeded myself in 
her upon a new voyage for Succadana, Pattania and Siam. 

Y 1268. r. 


But it pleased God I came fortunately to relieve that factory of 
Succadana, which I found indebted to the Hollanders and in a 
poor beggarly estate, per reason of the junk we dispeeded from 
Bantam [ ] for that place, not [ ] fetching it, 

did first touch at Macassar, to which place it was likewise bound, 
but it should have been after, as per the commission given con- 
cerning those businesses declared. But I think they sold their 
silks at very good [rates ?J as I understood at the arrival of 
the junk from thence to Succad [ana] , being in the time of my 
stay there. Which reason being not able to go further unto 
Bantam, I was forced to buy a new ; which happily fell out that 
I so lighted upon one which I have good hope will do your 
Worships great service ; yet cost it under seven score rials of 
eight per which I sent for Bantam 22 peculs and 88 [?] catties of 
wax, and 337 diamonds weighing 119 carats \\ and I hope the 
wax being bought at that reasonable rate as that wax will more 
than double the money at Bantam. I supplied likewise the 
factory at Sambass, of which place, although I cannot yet give 
your Worships any certain [ ] of [profit ?] yet have I 

very great hopes ; for surely the Hollanders would never have 
maintained a 16 persons till their misdemeanours put them out, 
had they not found its sweetness. But of this place your Worships 
shall better understand from Bantam. After settling of business 
at these places of Succodania and Sambasse, we set sail the 
[25th ?] of June 1614. But before I proceed any further I am to 
acquaint your Worships that [ ] from Sophony 

Cozucke and [ ] Landock, and what offer the chief there, 

coming to Succodania, had made them; [touching] which I think 
your Worships are not without the like advice, therefore the more 
brief. I am bold to acquaint you that in the time of my stay in 
Succodana I twice made trial up that river, proceeding so far till 
even at the place, where our people found nothing but treachery 
and returned with the loss of two blacks. Had [I come?] away 
and not performed my endeavours in these, I daresay there would 
have been such clamours that my esteem would have been such 
as not deserving the title of your Worships' servant ; and my 
opinion is that these trials have been such and so sufficient that 
you need not to make any further conclusions thereof. Notwith- 


standing, I have sent the draft of the river with these, which is 
upwards of 100 leagues, because I know you will not want great 
inducements thereunto. Leaving which to your Worship's best 
consideration, we proceeding to Pattania met with the Ja[mes 
to ?] them [falling ?] very luckily, although as usual not to your- 
selves. So arrived [ ] in Pattania the 29th of June, 
where we found no vent for our Surat cloth, nor China wares to 
lay out our money, but have stayed all this while upon the James' 
business, and have taken in all her goods bound for Siam, where 
I understand will be good vent for our cloth, or Camboja which 
is near thereunto, and because I hope we shall be able to dispeed 
back our lading time enough to return with these before the 
James shall have trimmed. 

I am the bolder thus in brief to write, and entreat your 
Worship's pardon if I fail in what I ought ; but, God willing, I 
shall not fail in what I am able. For indeed it had been no small 
grief unto me, my ignorantly having to do with part of the goods 
of the deceased Sir Henry Middleton, which, being mixed with 
your Worships', I could not well tell how to sift 
[Conclusion illegible] 


Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham in Edo. 
Firando in Japan. 1614 July the 25th. 

R. WICKHAM, your two letters of the 26th of May 
and 3rd of June in Edo came to my hands in Firando 
the 20th of July per our friends Captain Adams and 
Mr. Eaton. The contents I have perused and have 
not time at present to write you at large, by means of the sudden 
departure of this bark, wherein I send John Phebe with a 
cargazon of nine broad cloths and eighteen pieces of allejas 
packed up in six chests &c, number as appeareth per invoice sent 
hereinclosed. So now with grief of mind I write unto you of 

f 2 


the ill hap and death of our friend, Mr. Tempest Peacock in 
Cochin China, where he arrived in safety, as the Dutch did the 
like, and sold their goods to the king, who gave order they should 
come to his city of Miaco to receive payment, but forestalled them 
and set upon them in their return, and killed all that were in 
company, both Dutch, English and Japans their followers. But, 
as it is reported, Walter Canvarden was left aboard the junk and 
so escaped, yet search was made there for him, and whether he be 
alive or dead, God he knoweth, or what part of our commodity was 
left aboard the junk ; for out of doubt Walter was not left there 
for nothing, and amongst the rest they had a thousand pezos in 
rials of eight, which I am assured was not ashore. Their 
cargazon did amount to above seven hundred twenty and eight 
pounds sterling, as it cost first penny. It is thought that the 
King of Cochin China did this in revenge of some injuries offered 
him per the Dutch certain years past. God grant Walter may 
escape and then I doubt not but a good part of our goods will be 
returned. Also there is reports that Captain Chongro's junk is 
cast away in returning. And our host at Langasaque is returned 
from the Phillipinas, and bringeth news that above 20 sail of 
Hollanders are come thither from the Moloucas, amongst whom 
are two or three sail of English ships, but I cannot believe that, 
except it be the Pearl or such like. If this be true, out of doubt 
it goeth ill with the Spaniards in the Molucas. In my next I will 
advise you more hereof. At present we are about preparing a 
ship or junk to make a voyage for Syam ; and, seeing it hath 
pleased God to take away Mr. Peacock, of necessity you or my 
countryman Mr. Eaton must be employed about that voyage ; 
and the ship will be ready to depart some four months hence. 
John Yoosen is returned from Syam with Mr. Melchar and Signor 
William. Lucas Antheunis hath wrote me two humorous letters 
of one date and effect, and hath trusted John Yoosen with 748 
taels more to be paid to me here for use of the Company of the 
Seventh Voyage ; Melchar Van Sanford is surety for payment 
thereof. But I have not one word in writing from any English- 
man, there being none with him but an old chirurgeon and a 
mariner which can neither write nor read, and one Englishman 
which lieth up in the country to make sale of commodities, but at 


present could not come down to him per means of wars which is 
betwixt the place where he lieth and the other where Lucas 
Antheunis is. I wish our Company were served with English- 
men, for I doubt our Dutch factors will breed inconveniences etc. 
And as concerning your opinion to send commodities to a place 
to the northwards, you may use your own discretion, but deal 
upon sure grounds ; as also you may trust men which you know 
are to be trusted. For though I advise you not to trust the 
Company's goods without ready payment, yet that is to be under- 
stood such as are not to be trusted ; otherwise you may lie still 
and do nothing while other men sell ; and the Hollanders' course 
in putting their cloth into merchants' (or brokers') hands to make 
sale thereof, it is a good course so they be men sufficient to be 

And as I was about to seal up this letter news came that two 
ships are without, some 7 or 8 leagues off, but whether they be 
both Hollanders or one of them an Englishman I do not know ; 
yet I sent out a pinnace with Signor Zanzebar and a Juribasso 
and wrote a word or two to deliver the Captain, if they be 
English, or else return it. And as concerning the 20 pieces 
cassidie nill which you say you want, it is no reason you should be 
charged with them if you have them not. My countryman 
Mr. Eaton knoweth nothing thereof, neither at present had I any 
leisure to examine over matters, etc. And for the 1356 catties 
lead which you write me as wanting in the weight, I see not how 
we can help ourselves, for Captain Adams saith he hath a note of 
every draft at weighing and how many bars were in each draft, 
and that there wanted but 3 bars in all, he himself being present 
at the weighing thereof. Cornelius, Captain Brower's kinsman, 
is slain with their Juribasso, but Adrian, being sent to another 
place, is thought to be escaped. I shall not be quiet till I hear 
of Walter, God grant he be escaped. And so I rest, always 

Your loving friend, 

Richard Cocks. 


Firando in Japan the 25th of July, 1614. 

HE invoice of goods sent to Mr. Richard Wickham for 
Edo, by John Phebe, as hereafter followeth, viz. 

One chest No. 1, containing 










1 black cloth No. 121, qt 32 yards, cost 
£ a popingay No. 064, qt 13^ yards, cost 
5 pieces of allejas of 20 rials of eight per 

corge 01 00 00 

One chest No. 2, containing 
1 black cloth No. 124, qt 33 yards, cost . 19 00 00 
£ a popingay No. dicto 64, qt 13! yards, 
cost ....... 

3 pieces of allejas dicto, cost 

One chest No. 3, qt 
1 black cloth No. 119, qt 34 yards, cost 
£ a tawny No. 172, qt 13^ yards, cost 
3 pieces of allejas dicto, cost 

One chest No. 4, containing 
1 black cloth No. 37, qt 32 yards, cost 
£ a tawny No. 172 dicto, qt 13^ yards, cost 

3 pieces of allejas dicto, cost 

One chest No. 5, containing 
1 black cloth No. 171, qt 31 yards, cost 
\ a cinnamon No. 125, qt 17 yards, cost . 

One chest No. 6, containing 
1 black cloth No. 123, qt 31 yards, cost . 20 00 00 
\ a cinnamon colour cloth No. 125 dicto, 

qt 17 yards . . . . . . 07 10 00 

4 pieces of allejas dicto, cost . . . 00 16 00 































£l6l 12 00 

Sum of the whole cargazon is £161 12s. ood. 


Firando the 26th July, 1614. 
The two ships which are without are both Hollanders and 
come from Pattania, and Jacob Speck, who was principal at first 
in this place, is come captain in the Admiral called the Red 
Lion with the pile, but not that which came from Holland and 
was at Molucas when we were there, or else reports are false. 
They say they came from Pottania and know nothing of matters 
at Phillipinas. They cannot want to bring much pepper; and 
therefore put away yours if it be possible. 

Richard Cocks. 


William Nealson to [Richard Wickham] . 
[Firando, about February, 1614 ?] . 
Morrow, bully ; morrow, morrow. 

SPECIAL and well beloved friend, all due compliments 
remembered. Two of your letters I have received, 
whereof I think myself not a little beholden unto you 
for your kind remembrance. An answer to your first 
letter I had written, but George protracting the time stayed till I 
received the last, which hath made me cancel the first and answer 
both together. In your first you willed me to deliver to Mr. P. 
[Peacock] two of your pieces, but ere I received it Mr. C. [Cocks] 
had delivered them all four unto him, yet in consideration as well 
of your writing as also that he refused to give a receipt for them 
I detained two of them ; which they be I know not, for being 
made clean they were all close wrapped with ropes, and Mr. P. 
being upon departure would not suffer them to be opened. They 
would offer but 8 rials apiece for them, affirming that you offered 
them for 12 rials till September. I offered them as your price 
was, at which they would not deal nor I abate so unreasonably. 
These two I have shall be safely kept, but here is no hope of sale 
for them as you know, and therefore for this I rest till I hear 
further from you. 


Your things in your chamber is and shall be safe ; your chest 
in the godown. A receipt for your stones I demanded but could 
not obtain, and this instant I have written both to Gwalter and 
Mr. P. to Nangasaque about it, which I hope to obtain. Whereas 
you write to Mr. Cocks for a boy, assure yourself he and I will do 
the best we can for one, but yesterday G. Droit affirmed to Mr. C. 
in my hearing that certain Dutchmen had given out reports of 
you that you would beat and misuse any boy unreasonably in 
your anger, which made their parents unwilling to put any unto 
you, which how true that was both Mr. Cocks showed, and 
affirmed besides that it must be but surmised, by reason you yet 
had not here any servant, that they had seen the proof of. 
Assure yourself of this, I will not be un [mindful ?] . Mr. P. is upon 
departure from Nangasaque. His behaviour hath been such since 
your departure that Mr. C. hath often protested unto me that if 
you were here he should not go upon that voyage. He hath 
forgot himself in letters and otherwise so to Mr. Cocks that I 
assure you he utterly mislikes him. The opinion he hath taken 
of you is such as, believe it, you would little think ; but thus 
assure yourself of any kindness he can do you. 

Before Mr. C. sealed his letter he showed it me, wherein he 
hath informed you of all business, so as for me to write thereof 
should be but a tedious iteration. Now to the purpose. Con- 
cerning our domestic affairs, we live well and contentedly, and 
believe me, if you were here, I could think we were and should be 
a happy company, without strife or brawling. Of late I caught a 
great cold for want of bedstaves, but I have taken order for 
falling into the like inconveniences. For first, to recover my 
former health, I forgot not, fasting, a pot of blue burning ale 
with a fiery flaming toast and after (for recreation's sake) provided 
a long staff with a pike in the end of it to jump over joined stools 
with. Hem. 

Notwithstanding I may sing honononera, for my trade is quite 
decayed. Before I had sale for my nails faster than I could make 
them, but now they lie on my hand. For my shoes none will 
sell, because long lying abed in the morning saves shoe leather, 
and driving of great nails puts my small nails quite out of request, 
yea, even with my best customer ; so that where every day he had 


wont to buy his dozen nails in the morning, I can scarcely get his 
custom once in two or three. Well this world will mend one day, 
but beware the grey mare eat not the grinding stone. I have 
had two satirical letters about this matter from Mr. Peacock, 
which pleased him as little as me, but I think he is so paid home 
at his own weapon as he will take better heed how he carp with- 
out cause. It was not more to me, but broader to Mr. Cocks. I 
know the parties which I speak of you would gladly know ; for 
your satisfaction herein I cannot make you know mine, because I 
think you never see her ; but I think God made her a woman and 
I a W. For the other, it is such a one as hardly or no I know 
you would not dream of. But yet for exposition of this riddle, 
construe this : all is not cuckolds that wear horns. Read this 
reversed, Ab dextro ad sinistra. OIGNITAM. What, 
man ! what is the matter ? methinks you make crosses. For 
never muse on the matter ; it is true. I am now grown poetical. 

He that hath a high horse may get a great fall ; 
And he that hath a deaf boy, loud may he call ; 
And he that hath a fair wife, sore may he dread 
That he get other folks' brats to foster and to feed. 

Be not a blab of your tongue, whatever I write you of hence- 
forward condemn either to [ ] or the fire. I love and 
honour you as a friend and so, believe it, you shall find me. Thus 
leaving, but loth to leave troubling of you, I commit us both to 
the protection of God, and you to my best wishes, resting 

Your assured and unfeigned friend for ever and a day, 

William Nealson. 

I say no more, affairs call me away ; 

My mare in the stable for provender doth stay. 



William Eaton to Richard Wickham in Edo. 
In Firando the 26th of July, 1614. 

OUING and kind friend Mr. Wickham, I commend me 
unto you, etc. My last letter unto you was the 17th 
ultimo from Ossakey, wherein I wrote you at large of 
all matters, not doubting but that you have received it 
before this time, whereunto I refer me, etc. Also I wrote you 
how that, in regard I had no black cloth left to send you by John 
Phebe, I was determined to detain him at Ossakey until such 
time that there came cloth from Mr. Cocks. But he not sending 
any, I thought good to make a voyage myself to Firando, the 
which I have done in company of Captain Adams, we arriving 
here some five days past, having brought John Phebe with us 
hither, who is now despatched back again with cloth for you and 
for Ossakey by our captain, who hath sent you six black cloths 
and three other colours with eighteen pieces of allejas. Your 
letter of the 26th of May in Edo I received by Captain Adams the 
2nd current, in which your letter you write me how that you find 
20 pieces of cassidie nills wanting of your cargazon, and that you 
made account they were not packed up but left behind at Firando; 
the which you presume that I know thereof, being as you say by 
me delivered and packed up. But I do not know anything 
thereof, I protest to you ; neither did I pack anything of your 
cargazon into the chests, but, as I remember, they were all put 
into the chests by yourself and by no other. As concerning the 
pepper I sold, I did gain by the weight thereof some small matter. 
There is arrived at Langasacke the carrack and a frigate ; also a 
junk from Cochin Chene who brings news how that the Holland- 
ers and Mr. Peacock are there killed and all our goods lost, which 
is a great grief unto us ; only Walter is escaped by his being aboard 
the junk, which otherwise it is thought he should have been 
served as Mr. Peacock and the rest were. For they going 
to the king for money which he did owe for goods that he had 


bought of them, and in the way were set upon and so killed. At 
present here is coming into Firando two ships of the Hollanders, 
which come from Pottania, as they say etc. And thus, for present, 
being in great haste, the bearer staying for my letter, I end, com- 
mitting you and your affairs unto the protection of the Almighty 
God ; resting 

Your loving friend to command, 

Wm. Eaton. 
Edward Saris hath him commended unto you. Your book 
Suetonius I have sent you by this bearer. 


Captain Wm. Adams to Richard Wickham in Eddoo. 

In Ferando the 26th of July, 1614. 

OUING and my very good friend, my hearty salutations 
unto you. You shall understand that I with Mr. Eaton 
arrived in Ferando the 21st of July, where, thanks be 
to God, found Mr. Cocks and Mr. Nealson and 
Edmund Saris are in good health, who were very glad of our 
coming, etc. Since my coming hither we have heard very bad 
news from Cochichinna of Mr. Peacock, which, as we hear, is 
killed with all the Hollanders that went in company to Cochinna. 
As we hear the king bought all the goods of Mr. Peacock and of 
the Hollanders, especially the cloth, and a little before their being 
ready to depart the king sent for them, and, having despatched, 
being embarked to return in a small boat, the king sent a great 
boat in their company, who followed the little boat and with force 
ran against the little boat and overthrew her that she did sink, 
and swimming in the water the Cocchichinnas cut them all to 
pieces. Now Walter he went not aland but tarried in the junk, 
which I hope is alive, which God grant. We have heard that the 
king hath commanded to send all the junks to seek for Walter ; 


now whether they have found him there is no certain news. Now 
you shall understand that I am about a junk to proceed, and if it 
shall please God, for Siam, which I hope about a three (?) months 
hence I shall be ready to depart, which God grant. Now other 
news here is none but such as you know of long ago, as of Foyne's 
death and of a ship that is come from Macaw to Langasake with 
60 or 70 Chinese junks. Now here is news come that there is 20 
sails of Hollanders about Manillia with two or three English 
ships, which if it be true will do no good at Manillia before their 
departure. Now you shall understand concerning the reckoning 
between you and me, Mr. Cocks hath told me that you have 
written to him not a word thereof. Therefore I pray send by 
John Phebe that you were indebted to me at my departure from 
you the 27th of May, 1872 mass — 1 candarin and given to your 
man Scooich 1,000 gens, cost 23 mass (picked gens) and for a chest 
and ropes and charges came all to 30 mass, and John Phebe I 
gave him money to carry him to Ossaka, his charges came to 
33 mace and 6 candarins, so that 
1872 — 1 
and 30— your man 1 this reckoning I pray 
and 33—6 John Phebe \ send Mr. Cocks word 

of the truth thereof. 

amounteth 1935 — 7 
The charges which I have laid out from Eddo here to 
Ferando amounteth to 

which particulars I have given to Mr. Cocks so that the whole is 

2272 — 7. 
Now I pray send two or three words to Mr. Cocks, that at my 
departure to Siam I may clear myself of all accounts. Thus 
with my hearty salutation to you, your host and hostess, I 
commit you to the protection of the Most High, who bless you 
in this life and in the life to come. Amen. 

Your unworthy friend to command in what I can, 

Wm. Addames. 

This day is arrived two ships, Hollanders, which be come from 
the Moulocass and from Pattan. Strange news they bring none. 



Benjamin Farie to [the East India Company] . 
Pottania this 26th July, 1614. 

jjjIGHT Worshipful Sir, duty remembered, etc. My last 
dated the prime of August anno 1613 was from 
Moccasser, wherein I certified your Worship of my 
residence there with Mr. Cokayne for the making sales 
of your Worships' clothing of Guggerat for monies and rice 
according to Mr. Jourdain's commission left with us, which we 
put in execution, viz. finding small quantity of rice then in 
Moccasser it was thought fit that I should go for Lambasson, 
being distant 10 leagues, there to trade for rice in truck of cloth 
and money, being a place which the Hollanders hath a house at 
and buyeth great store of rice every year, which they transport 
for the Molloccoes and Islands of Banda. Wherefore I proceeded 
therein accordingly and had bought and laded for Moccasser 
per the middle of October about some 26 coyans of rice, which 
makes 70 tons and cost with all charges 20 rials per coyan, 
expecting English shipping to call at Moccasser in their passage 
for the Islands of Banda, there to take it in ; which, for want of 
shipping to transport it, now lies in the house, being great part 
consumed with weevils and other vermin. The 10th of November 
arrived here a junk sent per General Best and Mr. Larkin for 
Succodanna, there to supply the factory with monies and goods 
shipped for that place, who were driven to leeward per extremity 
of weather and forced to put room for Moccasser, and hath landed 
four chests of Lamken silk of China, which came to a very good 
market, being then worth 440 rials the pecul. Mr. Williams, 
their merchant appointed for Succodana, in their passage between 
Bantom and Moccasser died. Now for that the junk could not 
proceed for Succodana before the prime of May, being the time 
the winds serve to go back for Succodana, considering the great 
charge which would ensue and likewise the store of your 


Worships' clothing remaining in our hands, expecting small sales 
this year, by reason of the arrival of a small ship with Portugals, 
with a junk likewise, from Mollacca laden with clothing of 
Guggerat and Corramandell, the Mollaceans and merchants of 
Macasser formerly having passed their words to take most part 
of all your Worships' clothing at great rates, upon their arrival 
would not perform their bargain but dealt with the Portugals for 
their goods, which they put away at very low prices, we not 
daring presume to sell at the like. It was therefore concluded 
between Mr. George Cokayne myself and Francis Kelly that the 
junk [ ] should be fitted with all convenient speed and 

take in clothing to proceed for the Island of Poola Waya (Pulo 
Ai), being one of the Islands of Banda, being often informed by 
the King and Shabunder of Moccasser, who had received letters 
from the Orang Kayas of that place, understanding of the English 
their residence in Moccasser, therein greatly complaining of the 
oppression and cruelty of the Hollanders, as also your Worships' 
promise made to them by General Keeling and Captain Middleton, 
in not relieving of them accordingly, with divers other like 
encouragements by merchants of that place, which for brevity I 
here omit to insert. Wherefore we set carpenters awork aboard 
the junk to build a steerage after the English fashion, which was 
long in hand, by reason of God's visitation of sickness inflicted 
upon all the junk's company, and having laden her with clothing 
and rice, the 27th of February myself with Francis Kelly set sail 
and went along in her for Banda, being the time of year that all 
junks in these parts do take their journey for those parts. The 
20th of March being in sight of Burrowe (Boeroe), having met 
with great calms and contrary winds, plying to windward, not 
being able to seize Burrow, we were enforced by a leak we sprang 
and want of water to put room for Buttowne (Boeton), where we 
arrived the 27th of March, finding in the road 33 sail of junks 
laden with rice bound for Ambon (Amboina) and Banda, being 
forced by contrary winds to put room for that place, some of them 
having kept the sea six weeks with great extremity of misery 
which they endured by calm and contrary winds, all generally 
complaining of their great misery, affirming that three junks only 
attained the islands of Ambon and Banda this year ; wherefore it 


is supposed that the people of those islands will be famished for 
want of food. Now having taken in fresh water, our junk's leak 
being partly stopped, we put to sea again, and finding it not 
possible to fetch our port, after ten days beating in the sea to 
windwards, were constrained to put room for Moccasser, where 
we arrived the 23rd of April and landed our goods with all speed, 
which had taken much wet and part thereof rotten. And having 
caulked the junk with all speed, we laded the goods aboard of her, 
which was consigned for Succodana, which came from Bantom. 
Wherein it was thought fit per Mr. Cokayne that I should proceed 
for Succodanna and Bantam, there to advise Mr. Jourdain of our 
proceedings and our wants, wherewith I was to return again. 
The 8th May we departed from Moccasser and sailed for Succo- 
dana, where we arrived the 21st ditto, finding the Darling in the 
road, wherein was chief merchant and commander Mr. Robert 
Larkin, and Nathaniel Courthope and Cassarian David his 
assistants, both which were appointed to stay in Succodana and 
Sambas. It was therefore thought convenient per a general 
council that I should proceed with him as assistant in his 
pretended voyage for Pottannia and Syam. The 13th of June, 
having dispeeded the business of Succodana, we set sail for 
Pottana, and the 25th of the same ditto we met with Captain 
Marlowe in the James some 45 leagues from Pottanna. And the 
30th we came to an anchor in the road of Pottanna, where, finding 
no employments neither sales for goods, we had not made any 
stay there, had it not been for the transporting of the James' 
goods for Syam, they not having any other means for the accom- 
plishing thereof without our assistance. It shall not be imperti- 
nent to acquaint your Worships with the excessive duty which 
every ship or fleet of ships is enjoined to pay which shall land 
goods there in Pottanna, viz. 856 rials of eight for a general bribe 
to be reparted amongst the chiefs of the country, besides 4 per 
cent for the Queen's customs, of which business I make no 
question but that your Worships shall be informed of at large. 
And thus, craving pardon for my tediousness, I humbly take my 
leave, intending, with God's permission, to write from Syam to 
you at large of what hath passed in my knowledge, humbly 
entreating your Worships to pay to my kinsman John Fletcher 


ten pounds upon account of my wages, for my mother's use. And 
thus desiring God to add a blessing to your Worships' proceed- 
ings, I humbly take my leave, 

Your Worships' dutiful servant, 

Benjamin Farie. 

Right Worshipful. The 27th of July arrived in the road of 
Pottania a great ship of Holland called the Rotterdam, which 
came from the Molloccoes, and per some of their company we 
were given to understand that they have lost one of their castles 
upon the Island of Tyddore (Tidore) with some 60 men ; also I 
was credibly informed that they have 18 of their men cut off at 
Banda and are there very weak and likely to lose their castle. 
I humbly take my leave, 

Your Worships' dutiful servant, 

Benja. Farie. 


John Gourney to the East India Company. 
Patania the 28th July, 1614. By the James. 

"pIGHT Worshipful, Having despatched our sales and 
made our full employments, and laden into the James 
for your Worships' account 186 bales and jars from 
Musulpatam and in bales from Pettepoly, we de- 
parted from Pettepoly the 7th of February, leaving Mr. Floris 
entered into his trade for the providing of the Globe's lading, 
which ship was newly gone for the river of Narsaperpeta to be 
new sheathed ; our purpose being at parting, by God's grace to 
go by way of Sunda, where at Bantam having taken in four or five 
thousand rials to carry with us, either of Chinese or of your 
Worships' factors for ware which for the purpose we carried, 
then to proceed for Patania and Syam, trusting that our arrival 
would have been time enough to Patania to meet with China 
commodities and so by taking up money of the Queen, which 


lends at 20 per cent, per annum, the rest till a round cargazon by 
sales and truck at Siam might have despatched the ship to take 
the next monsoon for Masulpatam, to be thence despatched up [on 
the same] for England and not without some sheathing about Siam. 
Now after a si [ow passage our] arrival at Bantam was upon the 
20th of April, where shortly after upon a gener [al view] of the ship's 
estate by the worm, it was resolved upon that she would not be 
able [to] accomplish the full circuit of the voyage intended with 
so little trimming as the seasons would allow, and that therefore 
must take full time while a lading might be provided here at 
Bantam, and so return for England thence. Hereupon we 
speedily landed goods which we judged to be good and might 
amount to the purpose, hoping that we might (in the meantime 
of our fitting to transport the rest for Patania and Siam) make a 
match with the Chinese for delivery of pepper at harvest. But 
they being pestered with the despatching their junks, and the 
time for their retailing our wares far off, did not in our time seek 
to trade with us, wherefore we left that business to be accom- 
plished by Mr. John Jourdain and Richard Cobb, to whom we 
delivered an invoice of the goods there landed and a remem- 
brance, the copies of which we send your Worships herewith. 

The James thus falling from us we practised to obtain the 
Osiander, which having trimmed at Jaccatra was ready to come 
to Bantam ; but Captain Christian, that had goods and men about 
Priaman and quantity besides with him which he hoped to 
despatch there, could not [be] won to any other course. Our 
purpose with this ship was that having transported our goods to 
our ports aforesaid, to send her thence to Masulpatam with a 
cargazon of 12 or 15 [thousand] rials cost, where landing the 
goods and merchants who should upon the same be providing 
[torn away] and other commodities fit for England, the ship with 
some small matter [to return the nearest] way for Siam to take 
in another lading for Japan, from whence (by God's grace) [might 
upon] the like sum formerly carried from us, make our stock 
whole again ; and if by im [pediments] she should fail of the 
Japan voyage, there would not want other employment, there 
being for your Worships so many factories, settled in the Indies 

which have need to be visited with trade by small ships. In fine 
Y 1268. G 


all this failing and no junk to be had to carry the goods and us 
away, the captain and company yielded to proceed with the re- 
mainder of goods to Patania and there to trim, and so return- 
ing from Jaccatra took us in at Bantam and we departed thence 
the ioth of June and three days before we came into the 
road the Darling from Socodania fell into our company, and so 
the last day of June we arrived together in this road, she being 
bound (as at Bantam we had also heard) to visit this and the 
factory at Siam. Since our meeting we have had conference 
with Captain Larkin about the having of his ship to do the ser- 
vice aforesaid if yet we may accomplish it, and he shows himself 
not unwilling, but the resolution is deferred till our coming to 
Siam, where we with all our wares appointed for that place 
already laden into her, are upon proceeding, having landed into 
this town 40I bales of sundry sorts of wares, containing as per 
the copy of the invoice herewith we also send your Worships. 
And to manage the same we leave Adam Denton, chief, and one 
John Johnson to assist ; and there is no doubt that, if there hap- 
pen good means for trade, Adam Denton will show good skill in 
making use thereof. With me there goeth William Sheppard, 
which we brought from Bantam, and also Thomas Brockedon, 
that came purser of the James, and could there have been spared 
more of the factors at Bantam we should have taken them, fur 
the trade betwixt Siam and places up in the land, as Langjan 
(Luang Praban), Jangama (Kiang-mai), Pegu, &c, have their 
passages so stopped by the Ava king of Pegu, which maketh 
war against the king of Siam, that we shall be fain to embark 
and disperse to great value to Camboja, and where we shall 
understand trade may be made, of which and all things else that 
may appertain to our business at Siam shall be certified from 
thence overland, after a few days conference had with Mr. Lar- 
kin there, and time enough to be carried by the ship hence. And 
now, whereas your Worships have by your factors attained to 
the settling of divers factories and more like to be, if you mean 
to have the fruit from them your Worships strive for, you must 
accomplish divers things to the purpose. The first is that the 
extreme authority given Captains and Generals be translated to 
men fit to govern on land, for, howsoever your Worships use to 


set down good rules, they cannot endure to read further than 
may serve their own turn and think they may sway factors as if 
they were their own private servants ; and in this case they will 
with their own and their mariners' private dealing soon con- 
found your trade if there were no other inconvenience besides it ; 
factors have occasion strongly to contend with princes, governors 
and other great men, and how servile men to Captains of ships 
shall be regarded in such a case your Worships may judge. 
Another inconvenience is the diversity of accounts in one place, 
it being a common condition in men each to stand upon his repu- 
tation of speediest accomplishment, circumventing and prevent- 
ing another without respect due and by this means become better 
servants to those with whom they deal than to their masters. 
Another inconvenience, and that very great, is the riding of great 
ships (as the Globe and James) by the nose in a road till their 
goods be sold and their employments be laden, we having found 
it as followeth : first, arriving at the road of Pollicat had soon 
after two several troops of messengers from the Shabunder to 
welcome us, and to show us that if we came to trade we should 
not want any favours needful and that his desire was to see us 
ashore ; this agreeing with our own desire, I went ashore, taking 
Thomas Brockedon with me and being entered into the town 
understood that the Shabunder was gone forth of the town. So 
we turning directly towards a large castle the Dutch have there 
built were at our coming into it entertained with kind shows by 
Warner Van Berghen, alias Captain Drinkwater, Captain there 
and Rector of all the factories upon that coast, being then accom- 
panied with Captain Samuel King, English born, and there we 
also found with them sundry of the principals of the town pre- 
pared to declare unto us (as they presently did) that their king 
had given by his cowl or firman the privilege of the whole trade 
of that town to the Hollanders, without whose leave we English 
nor other strangers might intermeddle, and the said Van Berghen 
added that it was not in his power to give leave. These speeches 
having heard and knowing that Mr. Floris had been in the like 
manner put off, conceived that the king of Velour must be dealt 
withal with the King's Majesty's letters, which no doubt at any 
time will prevail. But the king being within the land at war, few 

G 2 


factors of us and our two principal ports to be furnished being 
Musulpatam and Pettapoly, we having that night following re- 
ceived very kind entertainment of the Dutch, we prepared in the 
morning to embark, at which time the parties aforesaid returned 
to parley again and, making the same conclusion as before, they 
added that we ought to pay anchorage. Our answer was that we 
knew it to be their hearty desire that we should stay and trade 
with them, if we could have sufferance by the Hollander, but 
now we would neither accept of liberty nor stay to trade, neither 
would we give them anchorage. Whereat without more ado they 
gave us betel to chew, as their manner of courtesy is, and 1 
us farewell, desiring us to be good to Gentiles, if we met them 
at sea. This town and territory yields very good sorts of paint- 
ings and woven wares fit for Java, the Moluccos, and these parts 
which we proceed in, but there being for no value in town at the 
present to be bought, nor vent for any of our commodities, and 
for the reasons aforesaid, we contended no further but proceeded 
to the more certainty, and so arrived at Pettepoly the [blank] 
June, where having spent eight days in settling George Chauncey 
and Thomas Brockedon with money and goods which we there 
landed, we repaired to Musulpatam where we finished the rest as 
per the account appears. Governors and Shabunders entertained 
us with great show of honour, they seeming, and all the rest, as 
greatly contented with our coming to trade with them as if we 
had brought a prize wherein everyone had a share. The news of 
our arrival no sooner came up to the court of the King but 
other Governors both for Musulpatam and Pettepoly were ap- 
pointed, that had outrented the former, by which means it was 
about two months before we could enter further than to petty 
trade, for order was sent to prohibit us (at Musulpatam) the 
king's beam, and that our goods yet to land should be detained 
at the Banksall (as they call their Custom house) till his coming, 
and we that by this time knew the qualities of Governors so con- 
tended against that course, that liberty of having home our goods 
was yielded to, but request was made by the Shabunder in the 
Governor's name that we would forbear sale till his coming, which 
should be shortly with money to buy all. Nevertheless we bar- 
gained with divers and received their earnests, but for lack of the 


beam were constrained to redeliver each man his earnest. Some- 
what we did in the sale of some porcelain and some sandal nuts, 
and pepper we weighed and delivered by night. In fine the 
Governor being come and being a Brahmin that certain years 
before had governed the same place in which he broke with the 
Hollanders for about 7,000 pagodas, which is 10,000 rials, not 
long after his arrival he repaired to our house, where he showed 
a great desire to deal for all and we showed as great a desire that 
he would not seek for any. To be short, sundry meetings we had 
and in the meantime amongst ourselves held three councils about 
it, and in fine rested resolved that seeing none durst repair to buy 
or sell with us till his turn were served, lest therefore by delays 
we should outride this monsoon (which would be a mischief), we 
contented ourselves to suffer a less inconvenience by letting him 
have 4,000 pagodas in money and ware. And so at last we agreed, 
and also upon the commodities and their prices which he should 
give us to be paid within two months after, but with what delays 
and bad commodities we were performed withal were a misery to 
recite. These Governors purchase with their places (as they say) 
all the benefits by all trades withal and, whether it be so or no, it 
appears little less ; for although Moors have free liberty to trade, 
yet such they were that have been fain to take back their earnest 
as aforesaid, and for the Gentiles (which be the naturals), none 
may trade without compounding with one Lingana which rents 
the office of merchandizing and brokerage for 4,000 pagodas a 
year. When this man is feed by weavers and such as seek to 
trade with us with about 8 or 10 per cent., they may freely come 
and bring us ware, and besides what the Governor cometh to 
knowledge of must yield him at least 10 per cent, more ; and 
sometimes men have been taken and accused of having gotten 
much by trade, and after many blows and long imprisonment 
paid a forfeit of all the money they had taken. This makes poor 
men bring their paintings in hugger-mugger and in the night as 
thieves do their stolen cloaks to brokers. The Governors of 
Pettepoly are more easier somewhat. The best remedies against 
these inconveniences after we shall have found good means for 
vent these ways as may be to purpose, that then factors be there 
established, and having ever beforehand to make provision against 


ships come and also to arend the custom of our trade by the year 
as the Hollanders do, that pay 3,000 pagodas per annum and so 
pass their goods to and fro through the custom house or banksall 
at Musulpatam freely ; and yet when the most ease is purchased 
that can be to govern your business upon that coast, there must 
be men of great understanding, discretion and courage, for the 
arrogancy of governors and great Moors and the Jewish subtlety 
of the Gentiles can and will sift the best factors you can send, and 
it were pity this trade for lack of good decorum should be lost, for 
that coast can afford means to other places as aforesaid and also 
for England, and may vent store of spices, drugs and China wares, 
and also from England some commodities may fit, as yearly about 
50 broadcloths (of which 30 at least stamels, 10 Venice reds and 
the rest popinjay greens and plunkets) ; 50 kersies of the like pro- 
portion of colours ; lead, if we had brought somewhat more than 
the 15 tons we had, there would have been vent for all, yet what 
continual need there may be for lead I cannot certify. Store of 
tin is brought yearly from Tannassary (Tenasserim) to Musulpa- 
tam and sold at betwixt 60 and 80 pagodas per candy, but whether 
our sort, not being accounted so good, may pass well I know not ; 
some therefore to try were not amiss. Yet still twice so much 
money must be sent at least as the wares amount to, whereby to 
assure passage through employments ; for the sales of our English 
wares hath no certain time, and for these country commodities, 
quantity by others may breed gluts which may disappoint purposes. 

It hath been reported by the Dutch General that now was at 
Bantam, that deputies from their Company have been in England 
to confer with your Worships about some accord betwixt your 
Worships and them in this trade of the Indies. If it so fall out, 
then doubtless each may bid welcome to the revenues of a great 
king, whereas by the contrary we shall by hunting one another so 
assuage the profits that in few years it will not be worth the 
trouble. And for some approbation, whereas Mr. Augustine 
Spalding purchased 20 sacks of pepper for a corge of the tapies 
left by the Globe, we could not now at Bantam be promised ten 
for the like, and yet this year is the bearing year. 

I need not trouble your wisdoms much with informations how 
to govern the general trade the best way, but my hearty desire being 


to see your great prosperity by this trade enforceth my pen to run, 
holding it possible that something of what I write may come to 
bear to the purpose, which may excuse me for the rest. 

We, finding no pepper here as we hoped for, nor certainty of 
sales for any great value for ready money during the time of the 
James her abode here, have borrowed of Robert Larkin, Captain 
of the Darling, 3,000 rials which is left with our Captain to be 
carried in the ships for Bantam. This money we must repay at 
Siam at time of need, or bear damage [ ] more 

after 10 per cent, in the meantime for interest per annum. Also 
have accepted of 423! rials which certain Guzerats are to deliver 
Mr. Jourdain at Bantam, to have the same repaid at Siam upon 
advice and although there is good hope that the goods at Bantam 
and these monies may well accomplish for the clearing the James 
with a lading of pepper, we have notwithstanding agreed to 
request Mr. Jourdain to furnish what may want and charge the 
same upon these factories to be employed here for him as he shall 
advise. And so for our farther business I refer me to what shall 
be advised from Siam ; rest, praying the Almighty ever to bless 
your affairs. 

Your Worship's servant, 

John Gourney. 

The Dutch have paid the Queen for interest as followeth : — 

The first month 2 per cent, and 1 ditto the mint master, which 
is 3 per cent, for one month. 

The next two months 3 per cent, and one to the mint master, 
which is 4 per cent, for 2 months. 

The next 3 months 6 per cent, and one to the mint master, 
which is 7 per cent, for 3 months. 

The next 6 months 10 per cent, and one to the mint master, 
which is 5 [11 ?] per cent for 6 months. 

A year's interest amounteth to 20 per cent, per annum. 




Laus Deo semper. 25th of July, anno 1614. 

ACTORY or invoice of 40I bales, goods belonging to 
the Ninth Voj Lge, for account of the Right Worship- 
ful East India Company, landed in Patanie from the 
James, and are left in the hands of Adam 1 Knton, 
Chief Merchant, assisted by John Johnson, is as followcth : — 

(The detailed enumeration of the contents of the bales with their prices 
has been omitted. Of the 40J bales 29 were of Niasulipatam cloths, viz. \ 
Salampouries, white beathillies, pcrcalla, boxshaes, coarse and 
cured gingams, maravaines, painted and woven sawoies, tapir- 
shins, sarassa patola and dragam Malaya; ihe remaining pack 
being Petapoli goods, viz. red yarne, red beathillies, salampourie, 
percalla and sarassa Malaya. The total cost is given as pagodas 
4406. o. o\.) 


(Duplicate of 159). 


John Gourney to Sir Thomas Smith. 

Laus Deo. In Pattania, the 28th July, 1614. 

1IGHT Worshipful, It was not through ignorance of my 
duty that till this present I have forborne to write to 
your Worship in particular, but my desire was first to 
do that which might manifest my willingness to do the 
service I came for, being I was a stranger to your Worship, and 
could never write but must have mingled complaints of disorders 


by the Captain and Master in their governments. The Master's 
qualities I need not describe, being no doubt very well known to 
your Worship and Company. About half our time the Captain 
was much swayed by him, and since that have not so well agreed. 
The contentions held amongst us (I make account) hath already 
caused dispute at home with your Worship and Company, and 
also will be examined, God sending the ship unto you; and though 
I be then absent, which is my disadvantage, yet I will forbear to 
certify the great volume of particulars belonging to the story, 
leaving the same to the report of others, assuring myself in sum, 
your Worship will find that the Captain hath governed at sea 
with much brawling and little justice, and ashore with much 
greatness without skill. At Mesulpotam feigning to take a house 
to bake bread in and to still rack for the ship, he made it his 
habitation wherein held such greatness that hath consumed much 
more money than was necessary, the which and suffering all kinds 
of disorders by his trumpeters and many others that commonly he 
had about him caused no little disease to our proceedings. It 
will be no doubt justified that to perform the despatch of the ship 
I have as it were passed through the pikes of the [ ] 

of other practices of Governor and tradesmen and [ ] 

and the cross carriage of the Captain and [ ] others 

and what weak assistance I have had is known to the company of 
the James. Yet John Hawks well earned his wages, and could I 
have broken him in full, as I did in part, of the [ ] of 

good fellowship, there should have been allotted him some better 
degree of employment before the day of his death, which was two 
days after our coming into this road, of a flux, and, not leaving 
anything of 20 rials which he had received at Bantam for ware 
which he had gathered at the Coast, declared to me by himself in 
presence of Mr. Wootton. The Governor of Meslopatam, that had 
first taken about the value of 700 pagodas in goods upon account 
of custom outwards and after forced goods for payment, looking 
for ready money for his custom, and the Shabunder breaking 
promise in sending a full payment in goods instead of half money, 
and the governor of Pettepoli failing in like case, brought our 
conclusion into some extremity. Wherefore the master therefore 
(as he would have me to conceive) told me of 240 rials that the 


Captain had received of Sir Henry Middleton for a cable of the 
ships; and the Captain after, perceiving I knew thereof, told me 
that Sir Henry delivered him so much money, but bound him and 
his executors to render the same at Bantam at return, if he did 
not take away the cable with him into the Trade, this money he 
still keeps employed to his own use, although I told him that it 
plainly appeared the Worshipful Company bore the adventure and 
therefore would look to have the profit. Now at his coming to 
Bantam and seeing nobody question with him about the [ 

] out that the money was paid him by Sir Henry [ 
] him, whereas all men know he had for payment taken 
taffaties, satins, velvets and some [ that the master 

revealed this money because the Captain would not let him have 
the use of above 60 rials thereof. One thing more which concerns 
is that, after he had given his warrant for the landing of four tubs 
containing 40 basins worth 90 pagodas from the ship at Masla- 
patam, he took them being landed to his own account upon likeli- 
hood that they belonged to him ; but he saith he will not swear 
they are his, nor could I find any man that knew of the coming 
aboard of more than 3 tubs of basins, which besides he had. 
There wants of our number above 50, and though some more may 
be shattered than are in the account, I hold it very likely these 
tubs may be your Worship's and the Company's. If Mr. Spalding 
do remember that some of the basins we had were in tubs, then 
these are they. The rain falling upon some packs of Captain 
Saris in Bantam yard while we were taking the porcelain out to 
be shipped as we might measure and count them, caused Mr. Cocks 
so to thrust in the packs as would dam up our way, wherefore 
with speed gat out all the same day, and rather than leave them 
there, shipped them presently, giving order to Paul Hall, Richard 
Bennet and the purser to count them as they put them down in 
hold, but they notwithstanding, because of the night approaching 
stowed them without counting ; but your Worship may presume, 
and Richard Cobb will say, that what was sold is passed to 
account, some spent in our and the Captain's house left out, of 
which Richard Cobb hath also the account. These things I 
rather chose to trouble your Worship withal in particular than in 
the general letter, holding it in my judgment most fit for the cause. 


Now seeing it is my chance to remain in these parts time beyond 
my reckoning! I humbly desire yonr Worship to be pleased to 
"use to be passed two hundred pounds of my wages into h 
v „ v .„ for these Indies, of which 100 for Sural and the other 100 
orTestpotan etc., or any of these displeasing, Bantam, ^hal 
/ tllp first vovaee I adventured no/, in another mans 
^an pnHn fi my V supp g ,y the second, and then because I saw 
the course was not followed yearly, I passed it away Of this 
I write only to show I am not a mere stranger to th.s trade, and 
oT to daL privilege by it, holding all nothing withou ^ you 
Worship's pleasure, whose prudent rules is not for me to examine 
Twentv-five pounds more I desire be delivered to my sister, Ann 
G^mey! which will attend your Worship's pleasure or the same 
And as my wages shall grow afterwards till two hundred^ 
more (I sav 200*.), I desire may be delivered to Mr. William 
Rnch and my brier Thomas Gourney, who have order from 
m" "for the disposing thereof. If my adventuring be granted I 
desire that my bills be delivered my said brother or to Mr. W.lbam 
pTnch And'so, with my hearty prayer to Almighty God to give 
you increase of health and happiness, -^^ ^^ 

John Gourney. 


Thomas Herode (master's mate of the Darling) to Sir Thomas 
Smith. Patania, 28th of July, 1614. 
IGHT Worthy Sir, Having certified your Worships of 
all which hath happened to us until the Clove departed, 
I thought good likewise to certify your Worship of the 
=1 rest of our proceedings likewise, and having so good an 
ODDortunity to write as happened by our meeting with the James 
where n wL Captain Marlowe, my very good friend, and having 
££Z ship'and all things fitted, we set sad from Bantam 


the ioth of March 1613 and we arrived at Socadania the 3rd of April 
iiM-i where we found our nun in good health, but altogi ther un- 
furnished with moneys, which proved to be a it hindrance 
to the Company, f<>r, if we might believe their report, they had 

refused 1,000 carats of diamond-, because they had do ■ 

buy them, and further their 1 1< th which they ha v.- is rat : 
that they cannot si 11 verj little < r none of it, which, if they would 
have sold them for indifferent rates, they might have had but little 
1< -it ; but that they could nol d<> and be out of danger 1 f blame. 
And they informed us of a fact try that they had setted at Sambas 
which was likewise without moneys; wherefi re we manned a] 
with our own men and sent them » me moneys, unto such time 
that we should take better advice for their supply, for there v 
junk which was sent from Bantam the 6th of Deceml^er [613, 
which was not arrived, and sh<- had asufficit I l PPty 

both places, and the cause might be, as I supi> rtly want 

ol experience and partly that they are uot good ships upon a wind 
and so might go for Ma< iser, and then could not come till the 
easterly monsoon was come, which would not be till May and till 
then we could not go for Potania ; and if the junk should not have 
then come we should have been forced to have given over our 
voyage for Potania and Siam, or else have left them unfurnished. 
Likewise they informed us of Landock (Landak), and that the 
people were very desirous that we should settle a factory there, 
for therehence cometh all the diamonds and most part of the 
gold and great store of bezoars, by which encouragement we 
attempted in like case with our own men also, which by the 
savageness of the people of the Dyockes (Dyaks), which lie in the 
river of purpose to take off all the heads of those that they can 
overcome, our men were put in great danger, for they were 
assailed with 1,500 men, and they being but 3 in number to resist 
them, whereof Sophony Cozucke was one ; but not being used to 
powder and shot they had not long continued, but for all their 
malice they were fain to run ashore and take the woods for their 
refuge, the Lord so fought for us ; but doubting whether they 
might make any more forces upon them, they returned unto the 
ship in safety. And the same time came the other prow from 
Sambas, which was the 30th day of April 1614 ; and having all 


our company together again, we manned the great prow with 
9 Englishmen, which was well provided with furniture, and in her 
we placed 3 murderers, so that by this means they might go up 
perforce. So they departed the 6th day of May, and having better 
knowledge of the river they might perform this with more expedi- 
tion, for when they were come into the river they met with their 
old customers, which used them very kindly and helped them to 
tow up the river (more for fear than for love), and when they 
came almost to the town, which is above 120 leagues up, the 
Governor of Landock met with them and gave them kind enter- 
tainment ; but they knew some of the men that were in the prow, 
for the king of Sambas had promised our men that he would 
meet them with a 1,000 men, which they of Landock had intelli- 
gence of, and much feared our men, whereupon they sought by 
treachery what they could not do by force, for the force of the 
whole country was not able to withstand those 9 men, for they 
would have had us to land our goods and our victuals, or our men 
to light [en] our prow [ ] they should haul her up through 

the fall, which they refused to do, but seeing they could not 
dispossess them of their prow by that means, they sought to have 
split her, for in the hauling of her up they had laid a rope on her 
quarter and let go her head first and she went against the rocks, 
but God preserved them in this as in the rest, for one of our 
blacks being stepped ashore was slain and with a hideous noise 
they let fly their spatas and another black which was a slave 
leapt overboard for fear and they think that he was also slain ; so 
in this sort we gave them over, having used nothing but kindness. 
But, Sir, I thought good to certify your Worship that it is great 
pity to let so good an opportunity slip, for with the charge of 
20 men it may be obtained in one year, and that you will cause 
them to come and entreat you to buy their stones, and to give 
them salt and rice for them ; for there is an island some 18 leagues 
up the river, which you may fortify upon, and the small murderers 
is as good ordnance as any man will wish for such a place, and 
with two trees you may boom the river on both sides and then 
no prow can pass without their leave ; for they can as possibly 
live without salt and rice as we can live without victuals, and they 
have none but what is brought to them, and they must pass by 


that island ; for it is reported that it affordeth 3 or 4,000 carats 
of diamonds in the year, besides gold, bezoars and wax. Like- 
wise there is great trade to Burnea (Borneo?) for bezoars and 
pearls, for it is reported that there is sold for 60 or 80,000 rials in 
the year, besides the hopes of cloth which you may put away. 
Thus having spent so much time at Socadania, which was partly 
to see if we could hear any news of the junk, which I thought 
might be put for Macasar, which fell out true, and, rather than 
we would lie all this time idle, we undertook the aforesaid busi- 
ness and in the meantime came in the junk, which was the 
22nd of May 1614 who told us that John Williams their mer- 
chant was dead. So after her arrival we settled all things in 
good sort and left for chief Nathaniel Courthope, who was purser 
of the Trade, of whom there is great hopes that he shall do your 
Worships good service, and thus we departed the 13th of June 
from Socadania and the 24th of the same we fell in with certain 
islands in the latitude of 6 degrees. The 25th day we saw a sail 
and when we came up with her it was the James bound for 
Potania as we were, where we arrived the 30th of June, 1614, in 
safety, the Lord be praised, and after that Captain Marlowe 
heard how that we were bound for Siam, he thought it fit that 
we should take in their goods which was for Siam, for his ship 
had been long out and very much eaten between wind and water 
and had great need to be careened, wherefore he sent Mr. Davis 
to a place some 14 leagues to the westward of Potania which is 
called Sangora to see if there were any place at which they might 
trim their ship, who at his return told the Captain that it was a 
very fit place. Now in all this time Captain Marlowe lent us his 
carpenters and any other help we had need of. We had fitted our 
ship and taken in all their goods the 13th day of July, 1614, and were 
fain to stay for the merchants were behindhand with somewhat. 
He fitted us also with a new main topmast, for we had spent ours, 
also with ropes such as he could spare, and for those that he could 
not spare he fitted us with stuff to make them, also we furnished 
us with powder or anything else that they could spare ; and 
farther by Captain Marlowe's means and advice we make no doubt 
but that we shall make you a good voyage to the Coast of Cor- 
mandell, and there to make the Darling a new ship again, which 


if Captain Marlowe shall hear of before his going from Potania, 
he hath promised me to leave me two of his carpenters for our 
better building of our ship, for he telleth me that there [is] in both 
places staff and workmen, but only one or two to plan the work, 
which with us is wanting unless he help. He stayeth upon 
nothing but for our going, and we stay upon nothing but for the 
merchants, which hath now been this 12 days. And further, I 
thought good to certify you that Captain Marlowe hath a draft of 
the coast of Borneo so far as I have seen, which is from the lati- 
tude 2 30' south to 2° north latitute, with the description of the 
river of Landock and the river Tient, all which I have seen but 
the rivers, and those I took from my mate, for the which I crave 
pardon for my neglect in not sending the draft, for it was forgot 
when I came to write. Thus leaving myself to your worshipful 
censure according to my deserving, and not making any doubt 
but that my wife shall receive my wages and my servant's when 
the books shall come home, and thus I end praying that the Lord 
will bless you and your proceedings. From aboard the Darling 
in the road of Potania the 28th of July 1614, which day we set sail 
to go for Siam. 

Your servant to command, 

Thomas Herode. 

Right Worshipful, By an accident that befell amongst the 
James his men in the night the 14th day of July, 1614, one of the 
master's mates being ashore murdered another of their men, 
which caused us to stay two days longer and in the meantime I 
had leisure and made a draft and sent it to your Worship by 
Captain Marlowe. 



Thomas Aldworthe and William Biddulph to the East 
India Company. 

Laws Deo in, the 19th of August, I014. 

[GHT Worshipful, Our duties remembered, etc. 
it please you to 1"- advertised that the 7th of October 
and the <itli of November [61 ; we wrote you at large 
of all what passed here with us until then per the 
Janus fr.>m M tan, with the F our former letters, which 

we hope before tin or hands; since winch tune 

your Worships shall now perceive the state of this country, 1 
have now per experience found it. which is thus. As in our last 
we v acerning the Portingals taking a ship of this town, to 

the value of one hundred thousand pounds sterling, and that we 
doubted of a breach of peace between this Icing and the- Portin- 
gals, so we now find it to fall out accordingly, for that the king 
caused a city of the Portingals called Damaen (Damaun) to be 
besieged, and hath likewise taken order for the seizing of all 
Portingals and their goods within his kingdoms. He hath like- 
wise sealed up their church doors and hath given order that they 
shall no more use the exercise of their religion in these parts, and 
beyond all this he hath caused Xavier the great Jesuit, whom 
before he loved, to be sent down hither unto Mocrob Chan, who 
now layeth siege unto Damaen, to do with him as he shall see 
good. Insomuch that had we now English shipping here, we 
might do great good in matter of trade, which now is debarred to 
the people of this country, having none to deal with them. They 
all here much wish for the coming of our English ships, not only 
for trade but to help them, for as they say the coming of our 
ships will much daunt the Portingals, which indeed we think 
without them they will never be able to take that citv, vet have 
they spoiled and burnt all the Aldeas and villages round about 
them, which is more loss unto the Portingals than the gain of the 
100,000/. they took in the ship of Suratt. So now they remain 
killing one another, and making all provisions they can on both 


sides for annoyance, so what the event hereof will be we yet 
know not. The Portingals threaten much to take Surat, which 
we find not so well fortified as we could wish. They are now 
making a great Armado to come from Goa forthwith, both ships 
and frigates, and so have they many enemies to encounter withal, 
namely the Decanyes, the Flemings and the Moors and Guzerats, 
besides our English, and they themselves but weak, when they 
are at best. 

Now as for our entertainment here in this country your 
Worships shall perceive that it is not otherwise than formerly we 
have written, having here as much liberty as ourselves can with 
reason desire, and all these people here generally much more 
affecting us than the Portingals, and showing us kindness in 
what they may. Likewise for our commodities, we find them all 
passable here except only our English cloth, wherein we were 
much all deceived. For at our first coming hither they all strived 
who should have most, and paid 20 and 22 mamoodies per 
covado, which served only for great men, in regard of the 
novelty, to cover some of their elephants and to make some 
saddles for their horses ; but for garments they use none in these 
parts, neither in rainy nor cold weather. All which we could 
not know until the next winter after our ship's departure and 
until after our being in Amadavaz (Ahmadabad) and other places, 
where we learned the whole state of this country. Yet we 
received a letter of Paul Canning from Agra, wherein he wrote 
us of 2,000 cloths to be vented in a month in that place, but we 
afterwards sending up musters thither of some 20 cloths we have 
yet here by us, received answer that they would in no sort vent 
there, which hath much dismayed us, insomuch that we verily 
think here will not be vented above 300 cloths per annum in the 
whole country at most, which if it be not vented within compass ' 
of one year it will run hazard of being spoiled with worms and 
moths. This matter hath much discouraged us to have so great 
a fall from our first hopes, for our General himself thought here 
would have been vented 2 or 3,000 cloths per annum at least, and 
ourselves hoped for little less, notwithstanding we wrote you 
more sparingly ; and now, lest your Worships should enter into 
bargain for more than may well be vented here, we thought fit to 
Y 1268. h 


advertise you of the truth herein, for certainly this place is not f<>r 
cloth, as we first expected. Notwithstanding the premises, that 
you may imt be utterly discount a sh.ill | 

that we have now made full enquiry concerning the 
l i a, where we are certainly informed of the vent of much cloth 
in regard their country is cold and that men, women and chil- 
dren are clothed therewith some five months in the year, and is 
v< iv well sold and at a better rate than here, and what they I 
is brought overland from Aleppo with great charge. We write 
not this upon any slight information, but have had confer 
with people of all sorts that have come therehence, and 1 
by a countryman of ours named Kit hard Steele, who came from 
Aleppo overland, in company with one Newman that went after 
John Midnall into Persia, to recover goods from him belongil 
Mr. Stapers, Mr. Abbott and others, where he took some , 
amounting to 9,000 dollars or thereabouts, and Midnall 
with the rest, taking an acquittance from Newman for tin 
sum. This Midnall afoi ime to the king's court 

mere (Ajmere) in the beginning of April last and died there in 
June following, making a Frenchman, that came with him from 
Persia, his executor, on condition he should marry with a 
daughter of his now in Persia. But we hearing of it have ca 
the said goods in the said Frenchman's hands to be atl 
and are in some hope to recover it, there being mm h -pent in his 
sickness, and embezzled per the Frenchman since his death, in 
whose house he lay. What may be done for the recovery tin 
God willing, shall be done with our best endeavours, and so must 
the owners thereof at home send us a sufficient discharge, for 
that we are here bound to answer all comers. What the 
remainder thereof will he we know not as yet. This Kit hard 
Steele aforesaid is now in house with us, and hath certified us of 
the whole trade of Persia, per whom we find that raw silk is 
there to be had per more than 50 per cent, better cheap than 
from Aleppo ; for which purpose Mr. Aldworthe hath enquired 
concerning a port town where our ships may resort, and i- 
tainly informed of a place called Jasques, a little within the 
entrance of the Gulf of Persia at a headland, as will appear in 
the maps, being some 40 leagues on this side Ormus, and not so 


in danger of the Portingals as Barreen (Bahrein), whereof we 
wrote you last. It is some 12 days sailing herehence, and here 
have we pilots to bring our ships thither. So that hereafter, if 
we find ourselves to be overlaid with cloth, then have we no 
remedy but to go thither, the king of Persia being one that 
much favoureth our nation, by the report of all that come there- 
hence, and is of late fallen out with the Portingals, insomuch we 
shall never have a better occasion than now. Furthermore your 
Worships shall perceive that about September last Sir Robert 
Sherley arrived at Sinda, within this king's dominions, thinking 
therehence to have gone direct for Persia, but there being many 
Portingals in the town, instigated the people thereof against him, 
insomuch that they attempted to have burnt him and all his by 
night in his house with gunpowder, in which action one or two 
of his chiefest men were slain, himself and the rest hardly used, 
which afterwards came to the king's ear, who presently sent for 
him up, and on the way all the rest of his men died save only 
[an] apothecary which we think will come to Suratt. Sir Robert 
came to the king's court in June last, where he hath been very 
honourably entertained, with great gifts given him per the king, 
who means forthwith to despatch him on his journey for Persia, 
the king having promised to do justice on all that wronged him, 
having sent for them on purpose already. His ship departed 
presently on his landing towards Bantam, not knowing of any 
English here. Sir Robert hath told Tho. Keridge, who remaineth 
above in Agemere, that if the English come not shortly into 
Persia, as he hath advised, that then he will bring the Dutch 
into that trade, who (as he saith) have been very importunate 
on him for it. Mr. Aldworthe hath written him a letter, whose 
answer we expect shortly. Furthermore these are giving you to 
understand that, having formerly written to Meslepotan, we 
received letters therehence at present with musters of indigo and 
cotton yarn and their prices, whereby we guess that cotton yarn 
with other coloured calicoes are there to be had better cheap than 
here, yet we hold the indigo of this place to be better and better 
cheap than at Meslepotann, which to the proof we refer us ; inso- 
much that the chiefest commodity of this place for our country 
will be indigo, flat and round, white calicoes, and powder sugar, 

h 2 


besides preen ginger of the best, and other small things. The 
chiefest commodities of our country ait V ad, quicksilver, ■ few 
elephants' teeth of the best (for that they will ool yield i 
monly above ill. pei English hundred), likewise coral, which is 
now in { t, and desire thai some ma] 

first, besid< i sword blad< : . with other small things as in our 
former letters. As concerning tin- death of Mr. Paul Canning, 

Iso about the sending a sufficient man to be resident 
with the king, with all other things needful, we have formerly 
written yon at large per the James, whereunto 

And now lastly for that your Worships may understand how 
yum th us, it is briefly in this manner. Our 

genera] at his 1" ing here delivered us tir>t and last in g 
moneys to the value of j.w^l- sterling. Whereof we delivered 
him in good i as pei .^57 

More paid for ( nstoms <>f and de- ^ 

livered Mi. Canning, the General for 

himself, and purser for the .-hip's use,} 2,300 
with charges of merchandise and house- 
hold expense s, sum of ..... 

More for indigo flat and round in our powers 1,000 
More for baftas and other small things in 
our powers o. 


More there resteth in our powers sum of - 1,583 

:• ; ; 

And for that the disbursements abovesaid may seem 
without particulars, we have herewith sent a small note how it 
was paid out. 

At present here remaineth in the house with us Edward Hunt 
and the Almaigne before written of, Mr. Aldworth's servant being 
now at Borocha (Broach), looking to the well bleaching of white 
calicoes which we bought raw at best hand ; as for Tho. Keri 
and Nicholas Withington they are both at Agra for the emplo\ ing 
500/. sterling in the best round indigo, whereby it may be known 
hereafter, whether it or flat indigo will be best in their prices. 


Now your Worships shall perceive that William More at his 
going herehence left with William Biddulph 400 rials of eight 
in the presence of two or three more, wishing him [to] keep it 
until it were asked for ; the money is here with us, but his 
meaning therein is yet unknown unto us. He left also a pack 
of blue calicoes to the value of 60 or 80 rials more, which yet 
remaineth here. Thus not having farther at present to enlarge, 
do humbly take our leaves, commending your Worships all to 
God's merciful protection, 

Your Worships' to be commanded, 

Tho. Aldworth, 
Wm. Biddulph. 
The note referred to : — 


Charges of merchandise .... 0,765 

Presents given away 0,117 

Household expenses two years - - - 0,500 

Delivered Mr. Canning for Agra - - - 0,54c 

Disbursed for the General - °>°57 

Purser and others for the ship's use - - 0,221 

Starkey at his going home - 0,100 


Thomas Aldworthe to Peter Floris at Masulipatam. 
Surat, this 19th of August 1614. Stilo Ang. 
Received from Mr. Floris, 6th of September, 1615. 
OOD Mr. Peter Floris, My kind commendations remem- 
bered etc. Yours of the [torn] of June last I received 
but two days past, the pattamar playing the villain 
therein, for he stayed in the way at his pleasure and 
leisure, whereby I fear our letters are like to come too short. 
Howsoever I have adventured to. send this bearer with them, who 
hath promised to be there within 25 days, except some extraor- 


dinary accident befall him in the way. Your musters of cotton 
yarn and indigo I received therewith, perceiving your cotton yarn 
to be better and better cheap than any is here to be had, WH 
upon we mean to desist from buying anymore of that commodity, 
having not yet bought above the value of I20& sterling; yd you 
shall know that at first I sent you also musters of our cotton 
yarn, with right musters of indigo, of both which your pattamai 
was robbed in the way, and myself being in Barocha when I last 
wrote you, was sick and could have neither good musters of 
cotton yarn nor indigo u I desired, yd wrote you what I then 
could. But as for your musters of indigo, we find and generally 
know that most part of what is made in those parts to be very 
deceitful and so full of dross that all things considered we hold 
the indigo of these parts to be better in their prices, and an 
example of fiat indigo, whereof we have already bought, I do 
now send you herewith, being three small pieces in a paper and 
cost some 13^/. per pound, which we think to be better than your 
[last ?J , yet your bargain will not be amiss, though your two 
coarser sorts arc very bad and full of dirt. As for our white 
calicoes, we doubt not but they will make three for one at least, 
yet will we buy no more except better cheap. I am sorry to hear 
of the death of Mr. Essington and of the destruction of that 
famous ship at Bantam. I now perceive by yours of your deter- 
mination for Bantam forthwith, which I before thought would 
not have been until Christmas next, and therefore have sent this 
bearer on purpose with our letters to the Worshipful Company, 
desiring you to take care for the safe delivery of them, as we 
shall be ready here to do the like for you when occasion shall 
serve. As for any English ship, here came none since our Gene- 
ral's departure, neither do I know any such Englishman as you 
write of, for none such came hither. As for Midnall, unto whom 
you wrote your letter to Bramport, he died in June last in a place 
called Agimer. Your money per the pattamar with much ado I 
received, and so thanking you for your kind respect and advice 
in haste I leave you, and commend you to God's most merciful 
protection, who send you safe home. 

Your very loving friend, 

Tho. Aldworth. 



Thomas Keridge to the East India Company. 
By the Hope. 
Laus Deo in Agemere, the 20th September, 1614. 

ONOURABLE and Right Worshipful, 

My humble duty being remembered, these may 
be to signify unto your Worships that per Anthony 
Starkey, steward of the Dragon, in our general letter 
from Suratt, we certified your Worships of all till then passed, who 
departed from thence in January 1612 per way of Perseia to travel 
home by land, the copy of which letters, with others more large, 
we sent per a foot post on purpose, by way of the Red Sea, unto 
Aleppo, whom Mr. Aldworthe adviseth me miscarried, the copies 
whereof he hath sent to Muselepatan, whereunto I refer me. 

Mr. Paul Canning within six weeks after his coming to Agra 
died of a flux, whereof we having intelligence, the Agent etc. 
appointed me to go thither to understand of the estate of our 
business, and to take account of things left. Where when I 
came, I perceived all the goods, as well that appertaining to your 
Worships as his own apparel etc. had been carried before the 
king, which having viewed he took such things as liked him, 
and sent the rest back to the house again. For the things which 
he took, according to the cost they were priced (as dead men's 
goods are) something under value, and at my suit the moneys 
was paid unto me, whereof I sent account to the Agent, where 
Mr. Canning standeth charged with the goods delivered him ; 
and for those things which appertained to him in particular part, 
I have sent down (his clothes etc. remaining in Agra). 

The businesses committed to Mr. Canning were, to procure 
the king's seal to the articles agreed on betwixt the chiefs of 
Suratt and the General Tho. Best, to procure a fit place for our 
shipping to ride, and there to fortify for defence against the 
enemy, and lastly an answer to the king of England's letter. 
Of these nothing was effected, neither had Mr. Canning confer- 
ence with the king, but only that day when he delivered his 
present, and was referred unto Mocrob Chan, a nobleman in this 


court, for answer and despatch to his businesses. This Mocrob 
Chan is governor of Cambaya (whom Sir Henry Middleton, Cap- 
tain Hawkins and divers English have had ezp of) unto 
whom I was also referred in the selfsame manner. At this time 
the king was preparing to Bet forth for this place where he now 
is, and from hence hath sent one of his sons, Sultan Chorom, 
with an army of 20 thousand horse for the fetching in <»f the 
Rana, an Indian Prince lure in the mountains, whom none of 
his ancestors could bring to obedience ; l>y means whereof I 
constrained t<> follow the court for answer to the aforesaid busi- 

which .six months I did and still delayed by the afon 
Mocrob Chan, sometimes contending about tl. taken by Sir 

Henry in the Red Sea, l>ut most times, and ever with a pleasing 
conclusion, that all should he effected to our content. In the in- 
terim Ik re. >f the P< irtingals took a ship belonging to Suratt valued 
at 8 or goo thousand dollars, capturing all their young and a' 

people; whereupon the king ordained Mocrob Chan to repair to 
Suratt and there, if not by peace with wars, to se.k restitution. 
Before his departure I laboured much with him and other nobles 
for the effecting of our said businesses, but as he formerly in par- 
ticular, so now they in general answered that the king's seal to 
the articles were needless, for that the firman already given rati- 
fied in express words the same, but for the rest they promised to 
assist me in my petition to the king, which when I delivered, he 
answered it should be effected, and accordingly a firman 
delivered unto Mocrob Chan authorising him to give convenient 
place to the English to fortify in, provided it might redound to 
the profit of the king etc. Mocrob Chan being departed, I 
received from Surat the copy of our king's letter in English and 
Portuguese, which I got translated into the Persian tongue and 
delivered it the king, supplicating his answer thereunto, who 
willed my attendance the next day, where when I came he ap- 
pointed me to repair unto Mocrob Chan, for that he had given 
him order to effect all things to our content, and though I urged 
that Mocrob Chan could give no answer to our king's letter, yet 
I prevailed nothing; but, giving me a vest and a horse, he 
licensed my departure undemanded. At this time here came 
unto me one Richard Steele an Englishman, that came from 


Aleppo in company of Richard Newman, in the pursuit of John 
Midnall, who with a cavidall of goods and monies appertaining 
to some particular merchants of your Worshipful Company fled 
from Perseia to come into the Indies, but the said Newman over- 
took him at Tombaz, near the confines, and carried him back 
again to Espahaune (Ispahan), where he received from him in goods 
and monies the value of some nine thousand dollars, giving him a 
full discharge from all future demands ; which ended, Midnall 
undertook again his journey into these parts, and Steele upon 
some discontent betwixt Newman and him left him, and came 
along in the company of Midnall, who falling sick at Lahore, 
he left him there also, and came hither unto me, where failing 
of his expectation he returned back to Agra, there to attend 
MidnalPs coming. 

My licence by the king thus given, and receiving letters from 
the Agent to repair down, I departed accordingly, advising 
Mr. Aldworthe of the past concerning Midnall, whose coming 
hither was expected, for which cause I left my linguist behind me 
to advise of his proceedings, who about a month after my depar- 
ture came to Agemere very sick, whereof having advice, I being 
then in Amadabaz, Mr. Aldworthe wrote me to return to Age- 
mere, and sent me his letter of attorney in your Worships' behalf 
to prosecute against Midnall for the rest of the goods. Where 
when I came I found him at the point of death, lodged by the 
Jesuits in the house of a Frenchman that is here in the king's 
service, and the same night departed this life, having disposed his 
goods by testament unto two bastard children which he hath in 
Perseia begotten of an Indian woman at his former being here, 
and made this Frenchman his executor, who promised to marry 
his daughter and bring up his son. The king at that time was 
a-h'unting, at whose return, eight days after Midnall's death, I 
sued unto him to have the goods deposited until it might be 
known who had best title thereunto, which he granted, and 
though the Frenchman's house were searched and himself im- 
prisoned and disgraced, yet all that was found amounted but 
to some five hundred pounds or thereabouts, the greatest part 
whereof is ready money, proceed of goods sold here at 50 per 
cent, less than their value (and cost more in Perseia than sold 


for), which money?; and goods the Jesuits, Frenchman etc. labour 
With presents and their lust friends to regain the Mine, proffering 
the one half to procure the other, alleging the children's right 
and the discharge given Midnall by Mr. Newman, which they 
have extant in English and Portuguese, witnessed by friars, 
Armenians and English. So I am constrained to give presents 
also and promise more to defend the Bame, and have hope that 
upon the receipt of such letters from Suratt as I have ad\ : 1 
Mr. Aldworthe to procure, to get it into my possession, which 
obtained I shall see if anything more may be had from the 
I ehman. 

Mr. Aldworthe upon my advice made up 500/. by exchange to 
be invested in indigo, and, beta I •• 1 alone, he sent Nicho. 
Withington to assist me, who coming np by another way I wrote 
him to stay in the 1 i near Agra where indigo is m 

where he hath delivered the part of th<' said sum before" to be pud when ind idy, which is a custom and 

the cheapest course of buying; at the receiving, God willing, I 
purpose to be there. 

In November 1613 the Expedition arrived at Laurebander, 
the port of Sinda, and there disembarked Sir Robert Sherley 
and his company, at which place there are continually res: 
many Portingals, by whose plots and persuasions the port 
governor denied our people trade, by which means they departed 
towards Pryaman etc. without knowledge of our factory 
Suratt; after whose departure Sir Robert sought fa into 

Perscia, but was by the governor detained for the king's answer, 
wherein being delayed he attempted his departure without 
license, but was fetched back again, one of his people slain, and 
the rest beaten and robbed. Few days after, the king's letter 
came, commanding the governor to treat him courteously, to give 
him assistance and send him to the Court, who now fearing the 
event of the injuries done conspired with the Portingals to mis- 
chief the English, which they put in practice and in the dead of 
night some 40 or 50 of them with pots of powder and suchlike 
provision burnt their house, yet in the end they were cxpulsed 
without effecting their purposes. Sir Robert being come to this 
court complained of all these wrongs. The king used him cour- 


teously, and willed his stay two months for satisfaction and to 
see justice done on the offenders. The governor's house, by the 
king's command, was sacked and himself clapt in irons, but the 
Portingals went from thence. Sir Robert having stayed here 
three months, ten days past departed towards Agra, purposing 
from thence to proceed on his journey for Persia, the king 
having given him at times since his coming hither some 12,000 
rupees in money, and half as much more to him and his wife in 
jewels, yet he discontented, for [he] demanded 100,000 rupees for 
his losses, which the king seeing unreasonable answered that his 
ambassador now going should answer it unto the king of Perseia 
etc. The English that came with him since their landing are all 
dead, an apothecary only excepted, who left his service also. 

Concerning the wars twixt this people and the Portingals I 
refer me to Mr. Aldworthe's writing, who is near there where it is 
in action, and therefore can best advise of the likelihood of the 
event. The king here hath caused the Jesuits' churches to be 
shut up, debarring them from public exercise of their religion and 
hath taken their allowances from them, yet their goods untouched, 
the merchants and their goods embargoed, the ports shut up and 
no passage by sea. The Vice-king, as is reported, proposeth to 
be at the bar of Suratt with shipping to intercept the English 
expected, as also to work some exploit against this people if 
peace is not concluded. God grant that all things sort to a good 
conclusion, etc. 

In our general letters to your Worships we wrote you what 
goods were vendible in these parts and advised for 1,000 broad- 
cloths, whereunto we were encouraged by the speedy sale of that 
we brought ; yet since my coming hither Mr. Aldworthe adviseth 
me that those left sell very slowly, and sent me some musters to 
show here, but they are blues and sad colours, so will not sell at 
any hand ; if reds, greens, yellows and such light colours they 
would soon be put off, for great quantities are here used. Sir 
Robert Sherley brought some 300 covados, most stamells and the 
rest light colours, and sold them altogether at 14 rupees the 
covado, which is 120 per cent, more than they cost in England. 
I see no reason I should discourage you from sending quan- 
tities, for abundance is here used and they much desire Christian 


cloth. Notwithstanding, seeing they an rdinary addicted 

to novelties and soon satisfied, I wish that in your first shipping 
you send not past four or five hundred, which being once dis- 

I in these countries, we shall have more certain expeii 
how to advise futurely. i must be had in tl 'ness 

of cloth and colour. Tl lose-wrought and thick cloth 

yel soft in handling (such as i^ the Venice cloth, which they 
esteem above ours), for they use it in coverings for elephants, 
camels, coa< ' No Coarse cloth at any hind, for 

here is abundance made cheaper than to be had in England* 
For all other commodities both for quantity and quality, 1 i 
your Worships to our genera] 

And for the better continuance of your factory here it is 
requisite thai a lieger be sent to be continually resident in this 
court, and if possible that he have either the Persian or the 
Turkish tongue so facile to have audience at his pleasure, which 
otherwise is more difficult and less effectual, and whom you send 
should by your Worships be appointed for that business, which 
will cause his esteem the betti t here, an 1 with him such a pre- 
sent as is fit for the greatness of this prince, in the name of the 
king of England. For Mr. Canning at the delivery of his ; 
sent, being willed to speak the truth, answered the letter he 
brought was from his king and the present from the merchants, 
whereof the Jesuits being present made a sinister construction to 
the king. The cloth the king looked not on it, only a glass, 
knives, a pair of gloves, and such toys he was delighted with. 
Some rich cloth of arras or tapestry in my opinion were fitter, 
sword blades of the country fashion, fair knives in pairs and 
otherwise, rich looking glasses, fair pictures, or anything that is 
rare. Sir Robert Sherley amongst divers toys presented him 
with a standing striking clock of silver which had in it other 
pretty inventions ; it is worth some ioo/., but the king greatly 
esteemeth it. Your lieger must be well furnished with t 
though of small value, thereof to present something upon all 
occasions at proffering speech to the king, and to present nobles, 
and if you send half a dozen of coloured beaver hats, such as our 
gentlewomen use, they will be liked, for the king demanded for 
such things of me for his women to wear a-hunting ; and one or 


two rich hats for himself, white or some light colour, for his hunt- 
ing journeys would be esteemed. 

And lastly concerning myself, you may be pleased to under- 
stand my wages agreed on in England was 50/. per annum, 
whereof the one third hath been allowed me here for provision of 
necessaries, and at my coming forth per appointment of the wor- 
shipful Governor I received 12.1. 10s., which in regard I had 
nothing given me towards my setting forth as divers had, I hope 
you will be pleased to remit the same and not account it in part 
of wages unto me, wherein I presume on your favours, consider- 
ing the continual dangers we are subject unto in this painful 
employment, wherein my share hath not been the least, though 
hitherto God hath preserved me. And being that since my en- 
tertainment three years is near expired, I do entreat that the two 
thirds of my wages remaining, which is 100/. per the first ship- 
ping for these parts may be employed for my account with the 
general stock of that voyage, and registered in your accounts, that 
so, if it please God to permit my return voyage, I may have some 
fruit of this so dangerous employment, wherein as occasions are 
offered, according to the small ability which God hath given me, 
I will do my utmost for the effecting of what is committed unto 
me. And thus with my best devotion for your Worships' con- 
tinual preservation and fortunate success in all your affairs, I 
commend you to the grace of Almighty God and rest 

Your Worships' humblest servant, 

Tho. Keridge. 


1 66 

Thomas K< I ^ir Tho. Smith. 

l ■ r way of Musi lepatan. 

Laus Deo in Agemere the sotfa ofSepteml 

[GHT Worshipful and honoured Sir, 

Mv humble duty prefixed etc. Bj our steward, 
An. Starkey, I wrote a few lines onto your Worship, 
then oot having time f'»r other; and since in March 
161a another more large, the copy whereof herewith I send. Since 
which time Mr. Canning, appointed for Agra, su after his 

coming thither departed this life, to effect whose I the 

Agent etc appointed my repair to the court, where what pa 1 
with me 1 have advised in the 1 ttei to the Worshipful 

Company, whereunto I refer me. 

Perusing some writings of Mr. Canning's, I find that in a par- 
ticular letter unto your Worship he hath untruly and dishonestly 
written of mc, in saying I spent much time in employing 
for the General's proper account and consequently neglected the 
affairs of the Worshipful Company; the truth whereof I will 
declare. The General after his return from the last fight with the 
Portingals sent a man of his ashore to invest some 200/. in blue 
baftas for the southwards, writing to Wm. More and me to assist 
him therein, which for certain days was neglected, whereupon he 
sent mc a sharp reproving message, for that himself came not to 
the town. So I assisted his man in bargaining for the said parcel 
of goods wherein no extraordinary time could be negl< cted, for in 
two days his man got it aboard, which refusing t<> hive done I 
might have made myself incapable of any employment here. 
Mr. Canning through his evil disposition and contention with all 
men was kept aboard and therefore envied those whom he saw 
employed, and thinking I had informed against him to your Wor- 
ship he wrote thus of me, that mine of him might be thought to 
proceed of envy, and therefore proclaimeth me his enemy, which 
God knowcth I was not ; only I refused to join in contentious 
humours with him, and when Starkey was dispeeded I was 


employed in all business, so had not time to write,- besides my 
disposition not that way inclined, otherwise I might have observed 
his many disorders, his contentions with the master of his ship, 
almost tending to the ruin of their voyage, his ill government 
aboard and ashore, given to drink, and after the ship's departure 
his falling out and abusing of Mr. Aldworthe and me, plotting 
with his people, but they would not consent, to have done me a 
public disgrace, for opposing myself to his unjust demand for 
swords which were given away in presents, whereof I kept the 
account. And after his uncivil departure proffering to have 
struck Mr. Aldworthe with his pistol was not ashamed to send 
us word by one of our own company that if we had not given 
him full satisfaction in monies and otherwise at his dispeeding he 
purposed and so had [plotted ?] with his people to have bound us 
and taken what he had listed to the [utter] disgrace of our busi- 
ness. In these and many other things he showed his ability in 
profession to be dissimulation. I could write much of him, but 
he, I hope, is with God, and that through Christ all is remitted 
unto him. 

Sir, in my general letter I am a suitor to your Worship and 
the Company that the wages due unto me may be employed with 
the general stock in the first shipping that cometh for these parts. 
And also before my coming forth I received 12/. 10s. towards 
provision, which I hope they will be pleased to remit unto me, 
wherein I desire your Worship's favourable furtherance. And for 
that I have not anything to advise more than hath already been 
written, I recommend my prayers for your good health and happy 
life, which ended eternal felicity ; and so will ever rest 

Your Worship's most in duty, 

Tho. Keridge. 

in lAST I S 

m Denton 10 tl 1 t India C 

I t ' ■ 

r- , 5th o. • 1 }. 

[Gl IT W rshipful, my hum! 
finished etc. Having departed Bantam tl 

• •'• 

after ahi] ' ' ' !M,-r 

plat ea (h i\ ing •.:■ ild mint tl G 

pasting through 1 

the - jrd Jon I the shi] 

China junk 

with all hononi ' ntent l>y th< \ pie, 

delivered his If ajest) r, obtaining we required, only 

confined to SOCh orders atul r ; 1' 

before us had l>p>u^ht in, aa <>f S 

rent-;, etc. ; thej ht aa p: lents in all i 

With all expedition having built a godown eight f I 
4 broad ami eg hast high, b bout an : tiles, 

without any -. ing Mr. Fl ! in 

the ship for Sinn the 4th August, keeping all the way a 
shore because of th rly monsoon afl ad tun 

setting over to Camboja side. 

In Patanie we l'>st our good shepherd, that v. • I worthy 
gentleman Captain Hippon, and in his pi. 
Dutchmen Tho. Essington, not without mti and SOU 

ing. The 16th ditto we arrived in Siam 1 hi with 

some blacks interpreters departed with a' skiff into the river, 
where rowing up some 20 miles came to a town called P.ancope 
(Bangkok), the governor whereof received me with all kin' 
and providing me a prow with all nece— : I I part I for the 
city, some 100 miles from the ship, where to the ^'reat content of 
the king and the people I was rec« I lining all I 

with much honour, and presently returned accompanied with 



three noblemen and the governor of Bancope himself, with prows, 
galleys and provisions, to fetch up his Majesty's letter. The 
24th I returned aboard, and things being provided returned all 
into the river and the ultimo arrived at the city, where we were 
honourably received, delivered his Majesty's letter, obtaining a 
fair stone house, three stories high, eight fathoms long and five 
broad, with a place thereto very convenient, contrary to the 
opinion of the Dutch, who would give us ten godowns if we 
obtained that and the place. Through the long delays of the 
Mandarins being long delayed ere we could deliver his Majesty's 
letter, waters high, that being the 25th October ere the goods 
came up, wars and rumours of wars in the country, whereby no 
hope being of procuring any capital, departed the 3rd November 
1612 out of Siam bay for Patanie, if it might be to save the mon- 
soon that year to the Coast. 

The nth arriving in Patanie and finding small sales made, no 
goods nor capital ready for a Coast voyage, besides, if all had 
been, the monsoon so far spent that we could not double the point 
Radaught 36 l[eague]s S.E. and by E. half E. from Patanie, so 
they resolved to winter here, sending with [the] first for Siam 
news thereof, whereby to provide against next year, but the road 
contrary by sea and waters high by land, found no passage till 
the 16th February, when I departed in a junk thither, and arrived 
with the junk up to [the] city walls the prime March, the waters 
then ebbing and flowing 20 miles above the city up to Pussolucke 
(Pitsanooloke?) the passage to Langjange (Luang Praban). Here 
was as poor sales as at Patanie. Mr. Lucas had sent Tho. Samuel 
and Tho. Driver with a Moor up to Zangomaye (Kiang-mai), with 
goods as per invoice inclosed, from whence he had some hopes to 
receive return. The 25th March anno 1613 arrived the skiff to 
the house, the 13th at night having left the ship, which departed 
Patanie the 17th ditto, steering right over N. and N. by W., 
being the better at this time of the year. Here I found two Japan 
junks which had obtained trade perforce, only prohibited to come 
without licence within the walls ; for breach whereof eight were 
killed in one day, all Japonners. Of the one a Dutchman that 
was cast away with Mr. Adams at Japan called John Yooson was 
Captain, and another of the said voyage merchant in the other 
Y 1268. 1 


called Melchor Van Sandford. These brought most bar 
plate, with some camphor and boxes. Of them I learned of the 
root Ningira which is worth 15 rials the catty. II' re they bought 

each another junk, lading from hence most hid 
Hides were dear, to and 11 taels the hundred, being ordinarily 
at 4 and 4! ; wood at 65 pecuis b Ivcr, having before 

been less thai tty. John Yooson through default of 

his merchants could not lade both his junks, so requestin 
Mr. Lu< is and Martin Hautman, the Dutch m . freight 

to lade him, they granted to lade him with wood at 45 per 1 

'it and obtained credit of the k i 1 1 ^ for six months. 
Mr. Lucas at first resob I tnd me, but capital found small, 
Mr. Adams alive, 1 ityat th< I I I . altered his opinion. 

Th<- ioth of May they d I forth of t! Siam, 

being the lati st they may stay, for doubling the p oin t Camboja 
(Cambodia) per experiei thers that departed June. Then 

Mr. Lucas would have Bent for Zhangomaye, but] being w 
and 1 st< >pp< d 1 vented. 

The Captain remainii 1 in the bay all this while, where 

through idleness main mischiefs and plots ware hatched, as 
proved coming to Patanie. 

Mr. Lucas, having wrought all possible means as time would 
afford for a capital, procured in money and goods per in\ 
enclosed some 12,500 rials (from Zhangomaye he had neither 
goods nor news), with which the 5th September he came 
The 6th a court called, some matters were heard ; but he, seeking 
to depart quietly, sought only to make all friends, which he did 
in outward shows at least. Which done the <)th at night set sail 
and the 23rd ditto arrived again in Patanie road, where the Cap- 
tain did so long persist (grounded I think in their re solutions 
taken in Siam bay) that he hath given a scar in the English credits 
in P [atanie] for ever; and if Mr. Floris' patience and counsel of 
others had not prevented, he had utter ily] overth rown] the 
Globe's voyage and the hopes thereof, and the English trade to 
these parts etc. Albeing upon private respect to discredit those 
two worthy men, whose intents are honest, complotted by him and 
Mr. Skinner, the one sworn to uphold and die by the other, 
against all right and order of justice, disgracing, displacing 


masters, pursers, stewards, leaving never an officer but themselves 
at their own pleasure without any consent of council etc. to the 
great prejudice of your Worships' ship and voyage ; example, 
except that first and before all Mr. Floris would swear, vow, 
and promise, that Skinner should be absolute master and that 
Mr. Johnson should not come in the ship but go in the pinnace 
for Bantam and also write of Mr. Johnson as he did, there was 
nothing to be done but for Bantam, not so much as a meeting ; 
the which all being granted by Mr. Floris, a parley was obtained 
under sureties aboard the Dutch pinnace. Which being with 
much disgrace and loss of time passed over, we employed the 
money brought from Siam in mace, sudary (zedoary?), benjamin, 
lead, etc. and with a capital of 20,000 rials in goods, having been 
here upon the coast about sixteen months, departed for the Coast 
of Coramandle the 21st October 1613 with 46 men, having sent 
away that ancient, experienced and worthy (for his service to his 
country) wise man Mr. John Johnson of whom having such need, 
contrary I will prove to the goodwill of Mr. Floris, Mr. Lucas or 
me, without any respect of the voyage, his years, necessity of 
time, dangers of passage, or that he was a man more than 
four(?) (as I shall and will maintain unto your Worships) for 
private respect and hatred. We left here for want of others 
Wm. Ebert, Mr. Floris' cousin, and Robert Littlewood, purser, 
with Ralph Cooper, not to leave the place void but to reserve for 
another supply. We passed between the famous rock the little 
Pedro Branco and the Point Jantana. The 8th November we 
passed the one [?] strait of the first strait or Singapouren, and the 
10th the other. The 18th ditto we anchored in sight of Malaca, 
and continued in sight thereof before we passed Cape Rachado 
2 or 3 days, where through the rumours in Patanie of a fleet we 
daily expected the arrival of some, but not so much as a fisher 
boat appeared. The 28th ditto we watered ashore at Pulo Pinan 
(Penang) on the W. and by N. side. It stands in 5 16' N. lati- 
tude. The water taken in ship, we sprung a leak, 24 inches in 
4 glasses. The 29th set sail and the 6th December anchored 
under Pulo Sambolan the great (Great Nicobar ?) in y° 42'. 
From thence finding the N.E. and by E. wind come, sailed N.W. 
for the Islands Citra Andamon (Little Andaman ?), where we had 

1 2 


a son- st<»rm, hulling t. ith the ing of the 

E. monsoon. The 12th \ Ic some mi' fair 

ling 1 j. [3 and [8 fathoms, bearing np N. two miles of no 
ground; so steering in W. and W. by N.. toward 
the Islands and made th< ; Duncan Pa , which is in 

about ii° 20'. At 8 o'clock we pas ed it and, bringing the 
[stands 1..N.1 .. '1 N.W. away, keeping ap to the north? 
because of tin in nt oow Betting oul of the Gull 

The [8th at oighl we found Bhoal water, and in the morning the 
land fair by us, 1 N . At night we anchored in 

Masulpatam road, where we found the J Lines, two Duto h ships, 
and a ship of the M 1 . l>uilt al '• ly laden and 

bound for Mocha, the James also in good forwardness bat in 

t troubles with tin <. . rnor and people etc and worse 
amongst themselves, the Captain holding house by himself, the 
merchants another, and, as thej ippointed of their 1: 

by that means; yet by their enti 1 I in behalf the worship- 

ful Company, we wrought 1 
credits for their d< match, and bappy it was for the James that 

those epicure-. |eWS and horse leeches had got another suhjei t to 

work upon. With all expedition landing our goods per in\ 
enclosed, the Captain went to vi>it Narsapourpeta, from whence 
he gave us assured hope of the ship's entrance into the river, 
taking that charge wholly upon him, to the great content of 
Mr. Floris and me. The market we found but reasonable for 
vent of our commodities, the James being so fate with the 
that we brought. For our lac, sappan, and benjamin, it 
come a little sooner before the Mocha ship had been laden and 
ready, it had been ready gold. Vet the market is profitable and 
commodity will vent ; only the mace through tin- great quantity 
by us brought and in the Dutch hands, is both little profit and 
worse vent, I fear. The prices of all the goods made before I 
departed I have sent enclosed to your Worships, with the note 
of sorts of goods most proper and profitable at the Coast of 
Coramandle. Mr. Floris and I resolved that in regard of the 
tapies we should have of the James for the money disbursed for 
her clearing the country, and of those by him provided for Ban- 
tam, to employ the whole remainder of the capital upon the Coast 


in cotton, white yarn from 15 to 50 pagodas the fardel (which 
is 50 viss), indigo, fine calicoes, fine Bengala cloth, tocas, etc., 
relying upon the said goods laden in the James for the providing 
of pepper ready at Bantam against her coming thither, with 
God's help, in October or November next, anno 1614, and there 
to receive the proceeds of the stock left there by her with 
Mr. Spalding, with that sent to Macasser and what should come 
from Patanie and Siam, with which if God bless her there is no 
fear but she will return home a rich ship. Howsoever, if please 
God send her home, she will make an honourable and a valuable 
voyage, by her experience gotten of the Indies. There it was 
thought generally good by all the merchants of both ships, as 
Mr. Floris' letters to Captain Marlowe will show, for the better 
furtherance of the James' voyage, for me to proceed in her for 
Patanie etc., George Chauncey staying in my place, whereto I 
was most willing, being thereby I might show my duty through 
my service unto your Worships. So having despatched all for 
the James through Mr. Floris' means as before and agreed to 
pay him in coarse tapies at 2^ pagodas the corge, freight free, or 
i\ freight remitted to your Worships, the 2nd February we 
departed from Masulpatam at evening for Petapoli and arrived 
there the 3rd at night, where new questions growing, Captain 
Marlowe, already forgetting the pleasure received, grudges the 
benefit the Globe may receive by them in carrying the goods for 
Bantam, and would not stand to our agreement, but would have 
only the goods bought of them freight free and the other to be 
remitted. I answered I thought it would be more pleasant unto 
your Worships to remit all considering the Globe being the guide, 
and would not consent but either to remit all or none. In the end 
concluded all freight free, the tapies at 2%, the which upon closing 
of the account came to 16J fardels (is 325 corge) as per invoice 
enclosed, the which were all consigned to me to order and sell at 
Bantam, with order to clear all the accounts at Bantam, drawing 
them to a head, which I have done, both the goods left there 
with Mr. Spalding and brought thither by Tho. Brett. 

The 6th February anno 1613 we embarked all aboard in Peta- 
polie road, jumping e'en with the Globe's departure at her first 
being there. 


If the private trade continue as it is begun in the James, the 
le of cloth from tl: I I cannot endure, both spoiling 

employments in the * -n* - place as I I All 

I and every man would thin'.. • a Irving, \<t there is ;i n 

and not to overthrow a whole trade for making hut a return I 
Bantam to the ( ad back, having any reasonabl 

presently he able to I ide a ship with pepper per tA\ 
At f irsl | I nothing hut the F tl i iptain's love 

to merchants : that if than h< had not I 

Mr. Gonrney and Mr. Cobb hid been in the hill" loing 

your Woi -hip-.' busii bore, 1 Iling th<- Captain &c.oi 

ting tl: >bb for 

misbehaviour in their drunkenness ashore in your Word; ; ; 

and yet neither of them complained. 1 beseech your v. 
ships consider of it, and thrnk • bo are worthy to be put 

in trust and charge with youi Worships' goods and their conn* 
: lit ashore, 1" in d with 1 

may brook to be 1, upbraided, dishonoured and accou 

a slave and servant to him that, knowing nothing that belon| 
a merchant, scorns and disdains the name of merchant. The 
loss hereby is secret, working effects in the hearts of all thai 
our government, for what shall my word- work when the person 
is not esteemed by the finding of want <<\ power to perform, 
which they quickly find, as with experience the James hath paid 
for it at Masulpatam etc. 

Thus with the discontents of that worthy, ancient, grave and 
wise gentleman and a tedious passage, the 19th April anno : 
we arrived at Bantam even in the tail of W. monsoon. Neither 
is it to be put so in hazard by coming so late from the Coast, 
primo January being a good time. At Bantam we found 
Mr. John Jourdain captain of the house and chief of the Sixth 
Voyage ; the Dragon, Expedition and Clove gone home that 
for England, most with pepper; and the Osiander, Mr. Edward 
Christian captain and Nathaniel Samuel master, was at Jacatra 
a-trimming, being come from Ticoue and that coast of Sumatra. 

Six China junks came this year with good store of silk. The 
English and Dutch at first made a show to join in buying to- 
gether, but taking no effect each did his best. Mr. Jourdain 


bought about 60 peculs of raw silk and employed some 60,000 
rials in all China commodities, besides what Mr. Ball and Mr. 
Sheppard did each for his particular voyage. 

Here we fell in consideration of our voyage. I gave my 
opinion, the which is enclosed. The Captain after the viewing 
of the ship calls his sea council and officers ashore, who found 
the ship insufficient to proceed to the end of her intended voyage, 
not able to go for Patanie, with many other doubts ; whereupon, 
Captain Christian being come from Jacatra, we demanded in a 
general court of merchants the Osiander to proceed upon our 
voyage, being a ship fit for such an employment, offering to carry 
home her lading of pepper in the James and to provide for the 
sale and return of her goods left upon the coast of Sumatra, 
showing them the project and intent of her employment, which 
they all liked well, viz. : with God's leave from Bantam to Pa- 
tanie, there despatching without stay for Siam, from whence, if 
possible might be, now in this October to have proceeded for the 
Coast of Coraman [del], and in her I should have gone chief for 
the Ninth Voyage : there landing the goods to provide for ships 
out of England and in her to have laden a 3 or 4,000 pagodas in 
Java wares with which presently to have despatched her away 
about January for Bantam again ; the goods at [the] Coast 
should have been employed all in goods proper for England and 
that at Bantam would have served to provide pepper for filling of 
holes(?) ; from Bantam again presently in April for Patanie, 
there taken what had been ready and gone for Siam, where a 
full lading would have been ready provided for Japan, and in fine 
[of] May have departed, where also she should have trimmed and 
victualled again ; the which capital sent to Japan half equal with 
that for the Coast, would have returned the stock complete 
again, only trucking money for goods, to help away with the rest 
of the goods ; whereby every [thing ?] would have been beforehand 
and ready provided against your Worships' [ships] had come 
forth of England to have cleared the Ninth Voyage with a rich 
return etc. This would not be heard ; he would follow his com- 
mission, except that Captain Marlowe would change places and 
ships with him, which they more stood upon the profit of the 
trade, the distinction of voyages, tho' I am persuaded the 


parties all one adventurers cause an nnfelt hindrance, in this and 
all things else, to the trade qow beginning is India. So the ship 
resolved for Jacatra, there to trim and spend her time till the 
vintage, getting do lading at pi | I r England, and we must 
look out for junks. So landing all our Ja hich foe 

th( James' account were few, and withal what we found n 
fitting and proper for the place or Moluccus, to ra pita! 

for the lading of the James at vintage with herovt etc. 

Ship departed for Jacatra, we used all possible means to chop 
up some bargain, off ring our ^«»<.ds upon trust to tin- Chine 
pay in pepper at vintage, hut Done would hear of pepper, the 
English and Dutch having engrossed almost all into their hands, 
that we d raid i fifed nothing. 

I think so many ships gone home with pepper that the English 
will entreat one anoth< r's voyage for sale of their pepper, neither 
do I think as 1 told them all that your Worships would send 
forth this year at most above one ship expressrj for Bantam to 

lade and home, but rather to spend forth some time, to pun I 
a better lading than pepp r. If the pepper were engrossed gene- 
rally it were an excellent way, but for one voyage to get upon 
another doth not so well agree, etc. 

As Captain Jourdain threat) aed me that I nor he that had 
the Globe's goods should not have a sack of pepper, and that 
when I was gone he would nail up my godown door, because, 
according to my order (which I durst not break to follow his) 
showed to all the merchants [I did leave my goods (being a 
small quantity, and our necessity great) with another man than 
himself, he having so much goods of the Sixth Voyage that 
he knows not what to do with it, not able to keep it from rot- 
ting etc., besides the business of the Ninth Voyage, and also 
some 2 or 300 corge tapies of his own, I think, which he bought 
of Captain Marlowe, all which I hope with my honest and plain 
endeavours is sufficient with my order in that case to clear me 
of his greatness, your Worships being favourable therein, I having 
been much wronged in the behalf of my place, and the Globe 
her voyage hindered. Being all your Worships' servants and the 
Globe most particular, your Worships will find the cause, etc. 
Seeking for a junk but finding none for our purpose, Captain 


writes of one at Jacatra which the owners asked, for freight alone, 
1,400 rials to Patanie, besides a month to make her ready ; too 
long for us to stay. With much ado writing, getting the James 
to proceed, we presently resolved Mr. Cobb to stay here with 
Captain Jourdain, and left an instruction and invoice (the copies 
sent your Worships in the James) signed by Mr. Gourney and 
myself; with us should proceed William Sheppard. The which 
done, being ready to depart for Jacatra, were advised by 
General de Butt of the dangerousness of the passage, and not to 
proceed in a prow, offering his ship, ready to depart ; so we writ 
for ship, which coming would not depart before the company 
had sold all their goods ; which done and many disputes of nam- 
ing a successor to Mr. Gourney ended, the gth of June at night 
we set sail out of Bantam road. 

Touching the Globe's business etc. I found Mr. Johnson, 
being refused to be carried home by General Best, first by him 
sent in the Darling for the Coast, whither not obtaining her pas- 
sage, returning to Bantam, her voyage by General Saris was 
altered for Sacadania, Patania, Siam etc. ; in whom again went 
Mr. Johnson, glad of opportunity to do your Worships service 

John Parsons, who also came in her with Captain Jourdain 
when he missed Sacadania coming from Macasser, returned 
again in her with Mr. Larkin to look for his goods left behind 
him in the junk. Thomas Brett who was sent with Parsons, and 
went in the junk with the goods from Macasser to Sacadania I 
found here, coming hither in a Dutch yacht after Parsons' depar- 
ture for Sacadania in the Darling. Of him I received account 
and such goods as he had in his hands and as himself said came 
to his hands. Charge him I could not with anything of myself. 
The invoice received with the capital sent by Mr. Floris are both 
enclosed, which is all to be expected, Parsons having nothing left 
him ; for Mr. Sheppard paid him upon his wages 36 rials at his 
being here in Bantam for his necessaries. He [his?] accounts he 
said to the merchants were in the junk and Brett affirms he had 
them in his chest with him. I was in good hope to have found 
him here but he stayed at Sacadania to return for Bantam in a 
junk provided by Mr. Larkin etc. 


The goods 1- ft by as with Mr. Spalding the president tin 
I found in the hands of William Sheppard, which he ;■ 
after the <!<■ Mr. I . into his i done, the whi h 

goods sini e time have snstaii 
as per hi by him 

appears. The remaind< i 

In i hands, the whii h with that II bro 

with me from th( I I . ha\ ing [joined all 

in one wareh tt, leaving them all in the charge 

of John Baylie who rth in the Expedition with Captain 

Newp >it, ;1 and diligt nt man h 

ing them all in one invoice and ly by us 

both and left at Bantam for Mr. Floris, tl 
for your Worships. I pray G i U to 

arrive thither and home in England I Worshi] 

amen, amen. 

I am the briefer in this letter in L ft at 

Bantam in tin- hands of the said J"hn Baylie, th< n in lai 
plainly declaring of all thing the nature and conditioi I 

all places where we 1 n. t<> my best skill and knowl< 

directed to the right worshipful Sir Thomas Smith, knight, my 
very good master. 

With a fore wind and current in the stern, being the I 
ning of the E. monsoon of the S. side of the equinoctial, we 
i ed fair by Lucepara (Lucipara) and through the strait 
Palamban (Banka) by the hill Manopine (Manoembing) in 
of Pulo Pon Lingua (Lingga) and Bintam (Bintang) within Puk) 
Tymon (Tioman) etc. fair by Pulo Tinge (Tii ing the small 

island of I'am with a tree like a windmill on the top of it, and 
coming with the islands Pulo Cupas. By mischance of standing 
too far off to sea we were put off, finding a strong current setting 
over to the N.E., yet wind favouring much soutrn-rlv we sailed in 
W. to shore, and standing to shore seeing the Islands Radau^he 
(Redang) kenned a sail, which proved the Darling bound for 
Patanie. Welcome she was to us, having much wished and 
desired to meet her etc. In her was Mr. Robert Larkin, chief 
merchant, and one Benjamin Farie, merchant. Mr. L. Harwood, 
master, and old Mr. Johnson. Parsons as before was left in 


Sacadania. She had relieved the factories at Sacadania and Som- 
base, but diamonds by report are hard to come by. The 29th we 
anchored in the road of Patanie, finding those three persons left 
by us in the Globe all in health, having employed that small 
capital that was in benjamin. The people wonder that hitherto 
we never could compass to buy any silk etc. 

We used all our best endeavours and means we could to cease 
the great Sombaye, offering to depart, but all could not effect, 
they granting us leave rather to depart than forego that which is 
a benefit proper unto themselves ; in the customs of the queen 
they offered to help what they could. I had conference with the 
Dutch merchants upon it, who much commended our intents and 
resolutions (glad of the occasion) willing [ ] which I granted 

unto so that they who first began and were our precedents would 
jointly enter the pursuit with us, otherwise it was to no effect, 
but to give them the place alone etc. Hereafter as we find other 
places something may be done, but at present we were forced to 
consent and paid all, being 72 taels 06 mass, the tael now at 12^ 
rials (sic). Paying the customs after ship's departure for Soungor 
(Sungora), they returned me in goods to the value here of 8 tael 
05 a. 1 copang (at 12^ rials the tael is some 104^ rials). 

The Darling departed for Siam the 30th July in the morning, 
carrying with her 180 bales of cloth, Mr. Gourney, Wm. Shep- 
pard and Tho. Brockedon merchants of the Ninth Voyage, also 
Mr. Larkin and Mr. Farie ; and here it was thought fit by all in 
general that I, Adam Denton, should remain for principal, leaving 
with me for assistant John Johnson, a voluntary of the Tenth 
Voyage, who came out with Paul Canning in the Osiander. Here 
was landed in all sorts of goods, as per invoice sent your Wor- 
ships underwritten by me, 40^ bales of cloth (whereof much 
improper for the place) which cost at Coast 4,400 pagodas at 
7 pagodas the seer (is 10 rials), a small capital to stand in such a 
factory and all goods upon adventure of sale for employment, 
market also so dead, as the Captain and all can testify, that 
sale of cloth alone is not worth the factory. The main sub- 
stance of the capital is gone in the Darling for Siam, the goods 
being all properer and more vendible there than in any other 
place etc. 


In regard of the small capital, and being goods left at Bantam, 

the little hope of money here, uncertain hope to expect from 
Sum, and for the better securing of the fames her lading in 
pepper, we borrowed here 3,000 rials of Mr. Larkin to be repaid 
at demand with 10 per cent interest, we also to sustain such 
losses as should accrue to hi-; voyage by the want thereof. 
Sending it with the Captain, also we writ .ill jointly to Captain 
Jourdain that if the goods at Bantam, money etc. sent from 
hence wire nol sufficient to purchase her lading in pepper, then 
that Mr. Jourdain would disburse and supply the want, upon 
employment of the like sum here in Patanie, in silks or what 
shall be by him required the next year. 

We could not absolutely resolve upon our proceedings with 
the stock or Darling till their o tming to Siam to Mr. Luca ; . o in- 
cluding from hence with all expedition to seiul their resolution, 
by land or by sea, which yel is not come, yet we intended her 
from Siam with some goods for Camboja in fine September ; to 
return for Siam in fine January; to be bete in August and the 
line September or October anno 1615, by that time having pro- 
vided a good capital for the Coast, which God grant, this 
through troubles, bad markets and despatch of the James not 
able to proceed. 

I have sent your Worships the copy of the Court held in 
Patanie, which the Captain ([the] Darling being gone), would 
not sign unto, yet consenting in the Court to all things, seeking 
his own glory with your Worships' servants' and factors' disgrace 
and discouragement etc. For having at 'the] Coast of Cora- 
mandle wrought and done the merchants all disgrace he could, 
reporting them to be his men and he giving them money, which 
the crafty people well perceived and made use of it, at sea would 
have done more as before ; coming to Bantam sought privately 
again with Mr. Jourdain and Captain Christian to displace 
Mr. Gourney that the man had almost died, careless of himself 
and fortunes ; coming to Patanie, all were too few to seek, as at 
the Coast, commodity for him ; that till he, having ready money, 
were full, your Worships' goods must lie still ; offering 2 taels 
3 a. ready money at first coming a pecul for parcel of 30 peculs 
benjamin, which we bought for 1 tael 12a. ; going for Soungore, 


he left [blank] rials with William Ebert to employ, openly saying 
in my hearing, that if he looked to have any favour from him he 
must do for him, refusing otherwise to carry the Globe's goods 
for Bantam ; the which he for fear of inconvenience to his voyage 
received. The Dutch exclaimed against it, saying if the Com- 
panies should join (as we have a report of Commissioners to have 
passed about it) they would endure such open trade to the preju- 
dice of them etc. I think it will hardly be effected. He coming 
from Soungore, where he sought, to no purpose, to settle a fac- 
tory and speak with the king, having neither means nor men, 
which took effect accordingly as he went the clean contrary way 
to work of himself, contrary to our opinions, William having 
bought some 13 peculs benjamin for him, not contenting him, he 
refused and would have of that of the best bought for your Wor- 
ships, saying : " Why should not I take that for his money, as 
Mr. Floris had their tapies for the Company ? " Again he, as 
having the charge, says that he would not give his consent to 
disburse any money for any commodity. I being about a little 
pepper which by the Company's sending and running about [?] 
from 12 a. to 22 m. the bahar, too unreasonable for me to buy, I 
told him of it and my being about a parcel of silk ; but he never- 
theless accounts them both with money, which if he had not been, 
the benjamin and all I might have had in truck of goods and time 
reasonable, but offering unreasonable prices and ready money 
there was no place for me, to the hindrance of trade and dis- 
paragement of the factors resident in [the] place. His saying 
was he would have and take the benefit of his place and if it were 
anything for your Worships' or his good he was content, joining 
himself with your Worships etc. Ship coming from Soungore, 
Mr. Davis having gotten some 2 tons of pepper gave it him and 
promised that he would stow for him 6 tons, whereby all the 
complaints of the whole company of his misbehaviour could not 
once be heard of the Captain. He complains much of your Wor- 
ships' unkindness, in that he alone (as he says) with his ship did 
take the carrack the First Voyage, and if he had not been she 
had not been taken but escaped, which he justifies with others in 
all places where he hath come to the Dutch and others, and there- 
fore, as he said at Jacatra to Captain Christian and upon the 


deck aboard, he would fetch it up all this voyage etc., therein 
much touching your Worships' honourable and liberal minds, and 
Sir James Lancaster's person etc. Also by his open hatred to 
the merchants he gave such way unto a company of drunken 
rascals in the ship and ashore that they eared not what they did 
against a merchant, knowing to have a smile of him for [affronts ?] 
and thanks for every tale, so far that we were afeared to pass 
from the table where we eat to the garden where we stopped for 
fear of them, and yet no remedy, though complaints for it. One 
night he quarrelling beat Mr. Gourney and abused too basely; 
the crew also present, seizing the swords and pikes, came and 
pursued us. Having opportunity, one Hopkins launched a pike 
at Mr. Larkin under his arm ; another struck three or four times 
at Mr. Farie, he crying out and fleeing, the Captain looking on 
and calling them afterwards " Good fellows ; it was well done," 
and they that had resolved below against us and would have 
turned Mr. Gourney and the merchants out of your Worships' 
house, so that no order or command was kept. Another night 
one of the crew coming upon Mr. Gourney, having, as William 
Wilson doth witness, attended his time, demands money of him 
for breaking his trumpet. Mr. Gourney afore he approaching him 
suspiciously, cries out, and help coming, commanded him to be 
bound ; he fleeing they followed and Mr. Wotton wrung a bare 
knife out of his hand, all bended, perforce cutting his fingers with 
forcing it from him ; so binding him, Mr. Dennis presently after 
loosed him. After that being in the yard, words growing, Hop- 
kins upbraided him for taking Gourney's part and binding him at 
his command, so far that that night by a stab given with a knife 
in the left arm murder proceeded, in the middle of your Worships' 
yard. Mr. Wotton at first having called the Captain, blooding 
his bed, and he answered, but did not rise till the murther was 
past. The whole company will better witness of that night's 
work than I can. To conclude : because I stand against him in 
his trade, plainly telling him of the damages thereby, he offers all 
discourtesy he can (before Dutch and others) either that words 
or authority will affect, threatening as to Mr. Gourney to carry 
me home, little regarding the business or how we furnished 
ashore etc. 


Here was landed 40^ bales goods amounting to some 4,400 
pagodas at 7 pagodas the seer (is 10 rials) as per invoice sent in 
the James, underwritten by me. The market at present is so bad 
that only where [ ] necessity forces them to wear they 

buy, as white beathillies, salampouries whited ; for the trade 
abroad is all dead, through the troubles and wars all over these 
parts. The junks sent to Jamby and Singagerie are stayed at 
Jor (Johor) by the Portingals coming to Pam, not daring to come 
forth and the junks and Nahudas that this year would have gone 
for Burneo, Moluco, Macasser, Bantam etc. are all stayed, the 
queen suffering no junk nor man or person to depart, reserving 
all for the Achinders who are certainly expected with the first of 
the spring in February to be here, being already arrived at Jor, 
with great forces ; yet some think he will attempt M alaca itself. 
The Dutch expect a yacht from Japan with which, if the Achin- 
ders come, they determine to transport their treasure and goods, 
and your Worships' goods, with God's help, shall not be behind, 
but for the chief both of English and Dutch must remain in the 
town with the queen, which we cannot refuse with honour of our 
nation though we lose our lives, which if it please God to happen, 
shall be, with his help, with resolution, for my country's honour 
being therein resolved. 

The Salampouries whited coming to proof are many of [ ] 
full of holes with wearing which is not [hing ?] but the knavery 
of the washer that whites them, who to get affanan hires them 
out a month [ ] to wear, whereby being foul he beats them 

to pieces to make them clean, and with folding them finely up 
deceives thereby the merchant not mistrusting, and causes a very 
bad [name] of the cloth in the sale, that no man will buy without 
opening and looking upon every cloth, to our hindrance. I write 
it, having given advice thereof to Bantam, that the factors going 
to Coast seek to prevent it. Also the beathillies which are whited 
amongst them of 33 or 34 covids we find many short of 20 haste, 
improper and no length for this place, which come in account 
with the others. The red yarn, also by the roguery and covetous- 
ness of the dyers, instead of camca viz put other chaya half so 
cheap, which only doth give a fair gloss at first, which with con- 
tinuance and heat in the ship decays and becomes black, dirty 


and whitish withal, as with us in the Globe and this in the 

James proves. With tin- beathillies it is thi , and sol 

noted also of the factors. I have sent of divei 

made here to Bantam t<> Captain Jourdain with the prices and 

sorts for musters to make trial, whereby he may advise us if 

benefit be thereby to be had at? the Moluscus etc. A 

are brass and copper cops, bowl suchlike according to the 

manner of the country, wherein also at Bantam and Molucus I 

think great profit is to be gotten, but having neither order 

therein nor means at pit ent i innot adventure therein. From 

hence als-> is great profit to !><■ done for Japan in raw sill 

de reye etc., whereby 1 >< >t li to increase the capital and provide 

money; silk was Bold here this year for 1S4 and 186 rials the 

p.. nl the best Lankin white silk, and it is worth at Japan by 

Mr. Adams 1 letters 300 ducats, which General Sai 
certify, having been there. The return is to be made in five 
months. The Dutch bought here some 100 peculs, which 1 
part they s.iit in the Zelandea for Japan, which departed the 
27th June past, which with a yacht went with hope and purpose 
to meet the carrack hound from Macaur (Macao) this 
thither richly laden, yet they have above 60,000 rials in spices in 
house, besides 50 or 60 bales of cloth proper for the place, 
whereof they have not sold this eight months, as they say, so 
much as will clear their expenses. Patanie therefore in my 
opinion I hold not worthy the keeping only upon sale of cloth 
as we have hitherto done; for considering the great quant 
brought unto their doors, by the Portingals and Moors from 
Queda, Trange (?) and Jonckseylon, and by the Dutch and us by 
sea, they at first not being accustomed thereto, the abundance of 
all sorts made here according to their desires every thread and 
cheap withal, not being able to vent so much cloth that the profit 
may defray the great charge. But if there were withal every 
year a stock of 60 or 100,000 rials in cash to employ in silks for 
England, Japan, and in some stuffs etc. for Molucus the charge 
would seem easy and not be felt. We play with our cloth, watch- 
ing good markets, which now is our main chance, and either 
must we sell at low rates and yet not venting, or be disappointed 
of our intents for further employment. 


I am in this and other letters something bold and plain 
because if I could I would omit nothing that is good in these 
parts as yet unknown to your Worships. If through weakness I 
touch one thing twice, I crave pardon, imputing it to my good 
heart and honest mind to your Worships. 

The charges here is great, by reason of trimming the ship and 
presents given at Soungore, besides providing her here with oil, 
resin, nails, eating fresh beef all the while, besides rack and oil 
and all provision in abundance and plenty, being the Captain's 
pleasure and will to have it. The copy of the charges I have 
sent your Worships by him. 

They sold out of the James unto the Dutch 30 hhds. salt beef 
and pork at 22 rials the hhd. pretending it to help towards the 
charges the ship hath been at. 

I have given goodman Thoharton (?) by the Captain's order 
a piece of cloth for shirts which with making of them cost 14 
copangs which is charges to the ship's account, and referred to 
your Worships. I have given here unto Mathew Saywell and 
William Paulie, two of the Globe's company, an attestation how 
that Captain Essington did promise before Mr. Floris and me to 
give them notes of their wages, but by delays putting them off, 
never giving them any note at all etc. 

The Captain, working upon your Worships' favour here, 
through presents given, did Sombaye to have 35 pecul benjamin, 
balance and custom free, being angry with me, saying I hindered 
him. Lakmana and Orancaya Paduca Sirnaca asking me about it, 
I answered if they pleased to give it the Captain, I was content, 
but would not accept it as done in lieu of any present given by 
the godown, but as a particular friendship unto the Captain, 
neither to think that it should hinder another time when I should 
ask for your Worships. " That' s another matter," say they, " we 
thought he had requested it in the behalf of the trade and your 
Worships," etc. The 6th going in to finish accounts of the cus- 
toms and carrying a fair long piece for Lakmana promised by us, 
upon the denial of his goods custom free etc. he would not give 
it, so returned us liars, in respect of his own profit etc. For want 
of paper all our books are kept in China paper, having not so 
much other as to write a letter to your Worships ; therefore I 
Y 1268. K 


entreat your Worships to remember us with books, paper and ink 
of which we have great need, the cockroaches eating the China 
paper and so dangerous and naught. So my bounden duty 
finished, submitting myself at your Worships' honourable cen- 
sure and disposing, rest ever 

Your Worships' servant to dispose, 

_ . , , _ - Adam Denton. 

Patanie the 5th October anno 1614. 

I have sent by Mr. Tho. Wotton surgeon a bolt black satin, 
a piece charv. | taffeta, and six small bezoar stones, which 

I humbly entreat your Worships to see delivered unto my very 
good friend Mr. George Foxcroft, gent., in Ironmonger Lane, 
with this letter inclosed to him, or he being dead, to my uncle, 
the worshipful Mr. Tho. Denton of Warne Hall, Esquire, in the 
county of Cumberland. 

Your Worships' servant to dispose, 

Adam Denton. 


REMEMBRANCE of our conferences or councils held 
after our coming into the road of Swally the 15th of 
October 1614. 

The 15th day of October after noon being arrived 
at South Swally, there came down two men making a waft unto 
us, unto whom I sent my pinnace, which brought them aboard, 
being servants of Coja Nazan, sent down to enquire of what 
nation we were. By them I sent a letter to Mr. Aldworthe and 
also alongst with them I sent Baily Ball, one of my factors, desir- 
ing Mr. Aldworthe to repair aboard my ship as soon as con- 
veniently he may. The 16th day, Sunday morning, at ten o'clock 
Mr. Aldworthe came aboard me, but being the Lord's day we passed 
the same without effecting any business, only enquiring after 
their entertainment, and state of the Company's business there. 
A Council held the iyth of October, consisting of such persons as 

are underwritten. 
The 17th day morning, being no more factors here but only 
Mr. Aldworthe and Mr. Biddulph (who was absent), I called a council 


according to the Company's commission, and first required Mr. Ald- 
worthe's answer to the six brief interrogatory articles included in 
the second article of the said Commission, which here I have set 
down with the answers annexed to every article as follows : 

1. How Paul Canning hath carried himself and the business 
at Agra at the Court which was committed unto him. In what 
favour he is with the Emperor and Council, and whether he be at 
Suratte or remain in Agra still. 

Answer. — Imprimis that Paul Canning departed Suratte in 
January anno 1612, and was at his first coming to the Court 
well respected by the Emperor, until such time as the Jesuits 
made known he was a merchant and not sent immediately 
from the king, but afterwards neglected as himself com- 
plained, and in his carriage there Mr. Aldworthe saith that 
for anything he knoweth it was sufficient and well. 

2. Whether you think him as fit to reside there, if need be, as any 
of our other people at Surat, or any other now going in these ships. 

Answer. — By the death of Paul Canning this article is 

3. Whether it be needful to maintain one always as lieger in 
Agra, both in respect of holding correspondency with the Em- 
peror and his nobles, and preventing of such mischiefs as may be 
practised against us and our goods by any that malice our trade 
there, as also for the sale of such commodities there as we bring 
out of England, and buying such other commodities as serve to 
be returned for England, or transported to any other part of the 
Indies in our trade. 

Answer. — It is thought necessary and by the king required 
that one of our nation do reside at the Court and therefore 
fitting that he be a man of good respect for preventing and 
righting of any wrongs that may be offered and may stand in 
good stead both for buying and selling of commodities there. 

4. Whether it will not be more convenient for us, more to the 
honour of our nation and to bring us into the love of the people, 
and to their better content, that we keep our mart place of buying 
and selling in Suratte, or some other town near the sea that may 
be most convenient and safe for us, and thither to invite the 
people of that nation to trade with us both for the sale of the 

K 2 


commodities tint we carry thither, aa also foi bringing down to 
us such commodities aa may be fit foi aa to buy, either for our 
own country or any other place, in I ring charges and 

avoiding of adventures in bringing the commodities down in that 
large and dang< rous i ountry. 

Answer, To hold our marl in one place ia not 10 net 
Bary, but to keep two factories, the one at Suratte and the 
othei at \;i.i. and for .ill of India commodities we 

shall occasion to buy, in time of y< u to repaii foi them to 
the places where the) are made, esteeming there to be no 
t danger in the transportation thereof through the 
country; and for inviting the people with their 
repair down to Suratte, not having been formerlj 
tomed, he cannol advise whethei ever to be effected. 

5. Whether we may procure ind ad calicoes of all 

and other commoditiea to be brought unto aa to Suratte or any 
other convenient place upon the wat< r, d< heap with .1 little 

more or less (the * harg< - and adventure conaidered) .it the h 
of the country people aa we ouraelvea may buy them .it Biana, 
or other places where the) are made, and may find sale for 
our commoditiea at Suratte without tranaportation of them higher 
up to other places of that country, whereby we may resolve the 
rather to keep cur residence .it Suratfc ibove mentioned. 

Answer. For transportation of our goods by water I 1 
Suratte will be very dangerous l>\ n taon oi the recourse the 
Portugal frigates have into their rivers; therefore by land will 
be more se< ure, aa hath formerly been accuatomed. 

6. What charges Paul Canning hath expended for himself and 

his tWO men allowed him, ami how far BUCh expenaea may be 

abridged if there ahould be a neceaaity of keeping one thi 

Answer.— Paul Canning's expenses hath been \hlauk\; bnt 
to maintain one there cannot expend less than jiki/, p< 1 y< n. 

Nicholaa I kw ot< >n. 
Will, Edwards. 
Tho. Aldworthe. 
Tho. Elkington. 
Edward 1 todaworth. 
Thomaa Mil ford. 


A Council held the iHlh October, consisting of such persons as 

are underwritten. 
The 18th day morning we proceeded farther to advise concern- 
ing our present business here to be effected ; and first, that whereas 
we formerly received advice from Mr. Aldworthe of the necessity 
of one to reside in Agra and he to be a man of good fashion and 
em, therefore by the general consent of those present choice 
was made of Mr. William Edwards, as one most fittest and agree- 
able to the Company's commission for so weighty a business. 

Also question being made whether it were fit the aforesaid 
Mr. Edwards should proceed under the title and profession of a 
merchant, according to the strictness of the Company's commis- 
sion, Mr. Aldworthe's opinion was that whosoever should go up 
to the king under the title of a merchant should not be respected, 
as by experience in the entertainment of Paul Canning, for that 
merchants generally are not regarded by the king. 

Also we consulted concerning our privileges formerly granted, 
wherein they are too weak and had need to be enlarged, and, 
out of divers which I had formerly gathered together, selected out 
and agreed upon 15 articles to be obtained from the Great Mogul. 

Nicho. Downton. 
Will. Edwards. 
'I bo, Aldworthe. 
Thomas Elkington. 
Edward Dodsworth. 
Thomas M it ford. 
A Council held the yd of November consisting of such persons as 
are underwritten. 
The third of November we again held a council concerning 
our business here to be effected, having been delayed from time to 
time by Mocrob Chan, to effect some private ends of his own, 
until the second of November; but in conclusion, finding he 
durst not deny the king's firman granted, although we received 
no great encouragement from him, yet it was thought fit rather 
to land the goods than to forego a trade so well accepted and 
thought of in England, for that the discourtesy offered unto us by 
him proceeded by his weakness, we not yielding to his unreason- 
able demands. 

« 34 


A question was moved to me how long I may conveniently 
stay for the dispeeding of one ship for England, in regard of the 
business to be effected within the time limited, to which I 
answered, and it was by all thought fit, not to stay longer than 
the fine of January, doubting of an unseasonable time for the 
returning of a ship for England. 

Factors appointed for Surat 
and other places adjoining. 
Mr. Thomas Aldworthe. 
Mr. Nich. Emsworth. 
Edward Dodsvvorth. 
William Biddulph. 
Timothy Mallory. 
Thomas Barker. 
I ily Ball. 
Henry Elmore. 
Rich. Sadler. 
Rich. Pitt. 
Factors appointed for several employments at present. 

To remain at Surat 

Factors appointed for Agra. 

Mr. William Edwards. 
Thomas Keridge. 
Thomas Mitford. 
John Browne. 
Robert Younge. 
Nich. Ufflct. 
Nich. Withington. 
Fra. Fettiplace. 

For Amadavar. 

Mr. Aldworthe. 
Edw. Dodsworth. 
Rich. Battye. 
Edward Holmden. 
Badly Ball. 
Hen. Elmore. 

For Cambaya. 
Humfrey Elkington. 
Rich. Pitt. 
Christofer Farewell. 

For Baroch. 

J no. Oxwick. 
Esay Butt. 

For Berodcra. 
John Sandcrofte. 
J no. Crowther. 

until the rest return. 
Mr. Nich. Emsworth. 
Mr. Tho. Elkington. 
Tho. Barker. 
Ralph Preston. 
Timothy Mallory. 
Rich. Sadler. 
Wm. Biddulph. 
Jno. Tucker. 
Timothy Wood. 
Samuel Juxon. 
Will. Vernon. 

Nicho. Downton. 
Will. Edwards. 
Tho. Aldworthe. 
Tho. Elkington. 
Edw. Dodsworth. 
Tho. Mitford. 



A Council held the \th of November, consisting of such persons as 
are underwritten. 

The fourth day of November proceeding in Council about our 
forementioned business, we thought fit to send Mr. Steel to 
Mocrob Chan with some small toys and in conference with him 
to feel his inclination towards us concerning our entertainment, 
and thereupon privately to send us word, and we accordingly to 
proceed for the landing of our goods. Also it was agreed what 
sorts of calicoes and quantities with their prices it was thought 
fit to send for England, which, in regard of the smallness of our 
stock, it was determined of these particulars underwritten, 
although it be not the full proportion according to the Company's 
direction, yet through expectation of some good quantity of 
indigo and better hope of profit thereby, this quantity was 
ordained to be bought. 

4,000 baftas of 3s. per piece - 
2,000 baftas of 4s. per piece - 
2,000 Semians of 6s. per piece 
2,000 Semians of 8s. per piece- 
1,000 coloured at i8i. per piece 
1,000 chintz at 2s. 6d. per piece 
250 Shashes at 5s. per piece - 
100 ditto at 8s. per piece 
75 ditto at 10s. per piece - 
50 ditto at 15s. per piece - 
25 ditto at 20s. per piece - 









I OS. 


2,802 10 

Nicho. Downton. 
Will. Edwards. 
Tho. Aldworthe. 
Tho. Elkington. 
Edw. Dodsworth. 
Tho. Miti'ord. 



A consultation of merchants on board the New Year's Gift, 
the 20th October 1614 in Surat. 

An estimation of such goods as are thought fit to be reladen 
for England. 

Gumlack tons 25 - - - - - 800 

Indigo cirquez (Sharkej) tons 70 - - 10,000 

Green ginger tons 3 100 

Opium tons 2 100 

In carpets ------ 500 

In cotton yarn 500 

Calicoes all sorts tons 15 - - - 2,802 


A consultation of merchants whose names are hereunder written, 
held the 28th of November 1614 in Snrat. 

Whereas in the former consultations aboard the Gift the 
charge of residency at Agra is esteemed 300/. per annum, being 
so thought by Mr. Aldworthe, from Paul Canning's copy of his 
letters to the right worshipful the East India Company, of the 
25th of April 1613, the said copy of Paul Canning's letter being 
reviewed by us whose names are hereunder written, it doth 
appear therein the said valuation of expense to be four, five or 
six hundred pounds per annum for one to live closely and with 
credit, whereupon a further consultation of us the said merchants 
hath been had, and the case being debated between us, we find 
by the report and opinions of Mr. Tho. Aldworthe, Mr. Wm. 
Biddulph and Mr. Rich. Steel, a merchant lately come from the 
court of the Mogore, that if any man should proceed in the fore- 
said employment of a resident with the king, under the title and 
profession of a merchant, it were better that he went not at all, 
and so the voyage to be overthrown. 

And the party appointed unto the same charge, Mr. Wm. 
Edwards, being desirous to carry it with the liking and consent 
of all the said merchants, either according to the strict capitula- 
tion in that point of the commission or with such liberty as the 


necessity of the cause and time requireth, it is therefore thought 
fit by us the said merchants, for the reasons abovesaid, that the 
said Mr. Wm. Edwards do proceed in the said employment with 
and under the title of a messenger sent by our king to the Great 

Tho. Aldworthe. 

Tho. Elkington. 

Edw. Dodsworth. 

Tho. Mitford. 

Wm. Biddulph. 

Rich. Steel. 


Tho. Aldworthe to Tho. Keridge at Agra. 
Laus Deo in Surat, the 22nd of October, 1614. 

OVING friend Mr. Thomas Keridge, our kind commen- 
dations remembered etc. The 5th of this instant we 
wrote you per our pattamar and sent you Mocrob 
Chan's letter unto Asaph Chan and Abulasan for the 
delivery of Midnall's goods into your hands, upon the receipt of 
which letters we doubt not but there will be an end of that busi- 
ness now, for that it hath pleased God to send hither in safety 
four gallant ships from the worshipful Company with 400 gallant 
men in them, which is no small joy unto us, as yourself may con- 
ceive. You shall now perceive that through our General's good 
directions his letters were only sent home but ours retained by 
which means the worshipful Company had no intelligence from 
any of us what was done here, neither what was to be done at 
home, the General disgracing all of us here in his letter and 
attributed all good services to himself; whereas you know the 
contrary, that if his pride had not been resisted he had taken 
[the] Shabunder's ship and so overthrown all trade here. Not- 
withstanding we hear by these [torn] are come that the worship- 
ful Company in their wisdoms forbear to censure ill of us until 


they [have] heard from us ; yet in the meantime they have sent 
some 15 merchants to remain [here?] and above, being all men 
of civil conversation and good fashion, insomuch as we [have no] 
need to fear to be troubled any more with rascals as heretofore. 
The principal [of these?] men is one Mr. Wm. Edwards, in whom 
they have great affiance and have appoin [ted him] as chief in all 
these parts to oversee their business, being a man of good suffi- 
ciency to dis] charge it, yet it is here concluded that he shall 
come up to Agra [to be resid] ent there, and Mr. Aldvvorthe to 
remain here in Surat as before. This Mr. Edwards aforesaid 
brings with him a letter with other great presents from our King's 
Majesty's own hand for the Mogul and not from the merchants 
as heretofore, and therefore to be respected thereafter. The 
presents are these, a vest royal for the king himself with the pic- 
tures of our king and queen ; also he brings one picture that we 
think will content him above all, which is the picture of Tam- 
berlaine, from whence he derives himself, besides many other fit 
things else to give as he shall see cause. He means not to show 
these things to Mocrob Chan nor any other great man, as Paul 
Canning did, but will keep them close until he come to the king 
himself. All which you may signify to the Great Mogul that you 
may procure his [firman?] to be sent down to Mocrob Chan for 
the kind using our people now they are come [ ] to 

have free trade with all the king's subjects, banyans and else with- 
out interruption which [ ] we find here denied, for as 
it seemeth to us Mocrob Chan and Coja Nazan through their 
[ ] covetousness hope to deal with us for all, intending 
to have our commodities at a low rate, and to give us theirs at a 
high rate, by imprisoning our shroffs and others that offer to go 
to our ships. Now for that their intent is to lade what store we 
can get of round indigo of Agra, we could wish that Signor 
Nicholas remain there for the accomplishing of that business, 
being he is already entered thereunto, and per the first we mean to 
pass him up such monies as shall be fitting and withal he may 
take the residue of those goods sent up by Jadow, provided 
always that what he sends down must be here of necessity by the 
middle of January next, for that the ships cannot longer stay, and 
therefore let Signor Nicholas write us down expressly whether we 


may trust upon it per that time or not. We mean to pass you 
up some 20,000 mamoodies forthwith that, if you cannot accom- 
plish it in indigo, yet it may remain there for Mr. Edwards the 
lieger, and so we pray you to write him earnestly to be careful 
herein, which may turn to his own reputation. The General of 
this fleet is Captain Nicholas Downton, a man famous and well 
respected by the Company. He knoweth Nicholas and remem- 
bers his love unto him. Likewise Mr. Edward Dodsworth, one 
of the chief men, kin to Sir Thomas Smith, commends his love 
unto you as unknown, and hath a letter and a token for you from 
Mr. David Watkins, which shall be sent you by the lieger. Thus 
in haste we thought lit to advertise you, intending within [three] 
or four days to write you again. So in the meantime we com- 
mend you to God and rest 

Tho. Aldworthe. 


William Eaton to Richard Cocks in Firando. 

Ossakey (Osaka) in Japan the 27th of October 1614. 

OST loving and kind friend Mr. Cocks, I commend me 
unto you etc. I wrote you at large two days past by 
John Phebe of all matters, as also how that I had 
received your letter by Signor Andrea Bulgoryn ; so 
as at present I have no great matter to write you of, but only 
here is great enquiry now for gunpowder and would sell at a good 
price. I wish I had all you have at Firando here etc. To- 
morrow morning I do purpose, if I have not my fit of the ague, to 
go, God willing, for Sackeye to see if I can put off my lead, the 
which I hope to do. If in case I can sell it away, I will advise 
you by the first, to the intent you may send me the rest that is at 
Firando so soon as you can etc. The rest of your timber and 
boards I will send by the first conveyance I can, as also the 
other things you write for and what besides you gave me a 


remembrance to buy for you ; and thus for present, being not well, 
I end, praying to the Almighty God for your good health and pros- 
perity, the which in His mercy long to continue, if it be His good 
will and pleasure etc. 

Your loving friend to command, 

Wm. Eaton. 

I pray you to commend me to Captain Adams, Mr. Wickham 
and the rest. I wish I had such another furred cap as my mate 
gave you, for that I am now so extreme cold on my head, besides 
all the parts of my body is in such a case that all the clothes I 
can put on will not keep me warm etc. 


Nicholas Withington to Thomas Aldworthe, agent in Surat. 

Agra, the 29th October 1614. 

IR, my duty remembered etc. My last unto you per 
Fette Mamood of the 20th August, per whom I sent 
you musters of anil, semianos and powder sugars, 
also advised you of the prices of English commodities 
here, with other things, which at that present I thought requisite. 
Since when I have been busied in recovering the anil, which hath 
proved more troublesome than I expected, yet now, I thank God, 
have all save 8 maunds, the debtors whereof (through the late 
damage they and divers others received by the extraordinary ra;n 
that fell) not able to pay me, I laid hold of their surety, who hath 
given me a true bond to pay me my money again a month hence, 
of which I make no doubt. 

I have 30 fardels, in each 4^- maunds, anil Geree, and I may 
boldly say, as good as any to be got, and were ready to be sent 
the first of this month, yet stayed for Mr. Keridge his advice 


therein, for I had great hope of our ships coming, which made 
me make what speed I possibly could, but he advised little hope 
of ships this year, therefore needless to make so much haste 
thereof down. So the 10th ditto I brought all with me to Agra, 
purposing to go to Agimeere (Ajmir) but two days after received 
letters from Mr. Keridge, wherein he wrote me you required my 
stay here in expectation of the cloth etc., for the coming of which 
I am glad, and wish it were here at present, for I make no doubt 
of the vent thereof. What will not away for ready money will 
away in truck. My only doubt is the goodness thereof is such 
that it may be a discredit to the future sale of that commodity ; 
but we will make the best excuses we may thereof. 

Three days past I received yours of the 30th July which is all 
I ever received from you since my departure from Suratt, but con- 
cerning the books and papers you write of, they were all burnt, 
per the Frenchman, as soon as Midnall was dead, of which I 
advised Mr. Keridge in mine of the 25th June, and amongst the 
rest his journal, which his man told me was a long paper book he 
used daily to write in ; and for that business (for anything I can 
perceive per Mr. Keridge) there is small hope of present good 
event, without you may procure letters to better purpose than 
those already sent. 

Sir Robert Sherley departed hence some five weeks past. He 
looked to have been entertained by the Chiefs, as other Ambassa- 
dors, but no such order from the king, neither did Coja Jehan or 
Aganoro once visit or send to visit him. He stayed here only 
10 days providing necessaries for his journey, and so departed, 
carrying the Frenchman's elephant with him, and swore to me, 
he would make him juggle for another. Jadow presented him 
with a matter of 100 rupees, and afterwards asked money for his 
present, but Sir Robert's cashier not being in the way, Jadow 
entreated for his present again, which was given him. The Jesuits 
came daily to his house and there said mass, their church being 
still locked up. "What passed with him in Agimere I make no 
doubt but you have particularly heard. He seemeth to be no 
great friend to the Company, yet makes show to do something 
concerning our trade in Persia ; but there may doubt be made of 
his entertainment there, considering how barely he returneth. 


At my last coming hither I found Jadow in prison for offering 
to cozen Coja Jehan with a false ring, selling it him for 2,500 
rupees. It was expected daily he should h ive Lost his head, and 
had I not come in good time it had gone hard with him. Before 
he reported the ring was sent him per the English from Surat to 
be sold, and so shameless he was that he entreated me to aver so 
much, but I made him recant his former confession, and after- 
wards he said he bought it of a banyan in the Laskar for 300 
rupees (foolishly condemning himself). This made Coja Jehan so 
mad to be cozened so much that I thought verily he would then 
have cut his throat, but in regard he was broker to the English, he 
only sent him back again to prison, yet would not hear me speak 
for him, though ever heretofore he hath used me very kindly and 
still helped me in what I desired of him, about my anil business. 
But shame to be importunate with him in this cozening matter, 
notwithstanding (at Jadow's piteous plight and misery he lived in, 
having been 20 days in prison, not suffering him to shift his 
apparel nor wash himself, allowing him little to eat) I went twice 
more to Coja Jehan and with much ado yet at the last agreed 
with him that Jadow should give a present of 250 rupees for his 
cozenage to the king, and be released, for which sum I have 
passed my word to pay in four days; so I am promised he shall be 
released to-morrow, but I doubt it will cost him a greater 
sum besides the loss of his ring. His shroff hath paid me the 
250 rupees, so I will do what I may for his present release (though 
he little deserve it at my hands) and send him to Mr. Keridge, for 
he hath often bragged to me he could recover the goods in one 
hour, such is his power with Asaph Chan ; but I could never get 
him to depart hence nor Mr. Keridge, though ten times writ to 
him to come. The reason of his stay was for the sale of his ring, 
which now he confesseth and repenteth. I am certainly informed 
this ring belonged to Augustine, which may well be, and given 
Jadow on the same condition as his 100 rupees were. If all 
knaves had the like luck, there would be less cozening. 

Some five months past here died a Portingal and now lately 
per the king's order his goods are seized upon to the value of 
47,000 rupees. The other Portingalls that were resident here, 
some five days past departed secretly away towards iBrampore?] 


with 80 camels laden with anil, semianos, and other merchandise. 
So that at present there is no Portingal remaining here, but one 
Jesuit an Italian and three days past here arrived an Italian 
which came from Tutta (Tatta). His merchandise, all looking 
glasses and Almain knives, he is commanded to carry to Agimeere 
to the king. 

So not remembering further at present I take etc. 

Your loving friend, 

Nich. Withington. 


William Eaton to Richard Cocks at Firando. 
Osakeye in Japan the 30th of October 1614. 

IR, my humble duty unto you remembered etc. My 
last letter unto you was by this same conveyance, 
wherein I wrote you that here was great enquiry after 
gunpowder and is still very much sought after ; so as 
if you have not sold it before this come to your hands it would 
not be amiss if you think it good to send it away for Sackeye with 
all expedition, as also what lead you have there remaining and 
likewise one stammel cloth, which goods I doubt not but I shall 
sell them away. As yet I am offered for my lead but 55 mass 
the pecul, but will not so sell it, hoping for a better price. 
Powder is worth at present 26 taels the pecul, but I make account 
it will be better sold hereafter. I have not now time to write you 
as I would, in that I am now come from Sackeye and the barque 
was going away in as I came. I am now abiding at Sackeye in 
the house of Zezay Seemon in the street called Zeyea. And thus 
for present being in great haste I end, praying to the Almighty 
God for your good health and prosperity etc. 

Your loving friend to command, 

Wm. Eaton. 


John Jourdain and George Ball to the East India Company. 

Sent by a Dutch pinnace ; received out of Holland in May, 1615. 

Bantam the 31st October, laus Deo, anno. 1614. 

]IGHT Worshipful, Our most hearty salutations in all 
duty remembered etc. May it please you to under- 
stand the Concord arrived here the 8th of the last 
month, and, praise be to God, in safety; and we being 
now by your letters possessed of your minds with purpose with all 
speed and diligence according to our several talents to join in exe- 
cution of the same ; the Almighty lend us His blessing. But since 
the news here published of ... . refusal to contribute to the charge 
of the Hollanders and forts in these parts, the only difference as 
it is said, hindering the combination of the two companies, that 
of the English and the Hollanders, they have taken a most strange 
course of that trade, but whether of compulsion or malice or both 
we are not able to judge. Bantam is stored by them for future 
years with the most vendiblest commodities .... at very base 
rates, selling that for four for which we refused ten, being withal so 
great hazard for payment as none but they would have adventured. 
If the Hollanders proceed in other their factories with the already 
begun project we shall be forced to follow a pernicious if not a 
most malicious example, perhaps both, for the Hollanders do 
already threaten to attack us if we do but so much as peep into 
those countries that of .... we desire to be armed for the trial, 
having already omitted too much opportunity. The inhabitants 
of Amboyna (?) and those parts as too much and too long oppressed 
by the Hollanders desires at present nothing more than a change, 
but more especially that of ... . and if now we perform not 
with them they are like to fail in their hopes and we in ourexpecta- 
tion. We have a pinnace almost in readiness to solicit A mboyna (?) 
and the adjacent towns ; we wish the Concord had herein been at 
our appointments, not having any certainty when to be provided. 

1 This letter is partly in cipher. Those portions which have been deciphered are 
printed in italics, while blanks have been left for a few words or phrases (mostly repre- 
sented in the cipher by arbitrary signs) the meaning of which could not be discovered. 


Here is of late arrived the new General of the Hollanders with 
three tall ships. He came coasting it along the Indies, sending one 
ship into the Red Sea to perform what as yet we know not, but 
hope hereafter to understand. We have letters from Peter Floris 
giving us to understand that the ship is sheathed and he ready in 
August last to set sail, had he had water to have got over the bar, 
for which he is forced to attend a spring tide ; hoped to sail in 
September last, and, making account thereupon, we hope to see 
them here within these 20 days. The lading she hath is cali- 
coes (?) and cotton yarn; the rest she takes in here in pepper (?) 
about some four thousand sacks. We have no news of the 
Osiander, James, and Darling, but expect them daily to be here, 
the first from Priaman, the second and third from Potania and 
Siam. There will be laden this vintage by the Hollanders above 
sixty thousand sacks, and of pepper (?) a matter of 400 tons, be- 
sides calicoes (?) and other goods ; and great cause there is they 
lay it on as needing new supplies to maintain A mboyna (?) and other 
the adjacent parts. The last year might have been more favourable 
unto them and if this year prove no worse their fortune may con- 
tent them. And so for this time being compelled to abbreviate, 
with my hearty prayers to Almighty God to endue your Worships 
with increase of honours, long life and felicity, we most humbly 

take our leave. Vale. 

Your Worships' servants, 

John Jourdain. 
Geo. Ball. 


A note of the ports in Perscia, observed from Sir Robert Sherley. 
In Agemere, October [1614] . 

ASQUES is a point of the mainland of Perscia at the 

entrance of the gulf and is 30 leagues without Ormus. 

It is full of rocks, but guided by a pilot of that coast 

you may anchor secure within a musket shot of the 

shore in 5 fathoms water, and shooting off a piece of ordnance, 

you may be supplied with a pilot from the shore. It is not 

Y 1268. l 


fortified, yet hath it a fit place for that purpose. There is only a 
fisher town, and 3 leagues off it lieth the king's viceroy of that 
province. The road is a neck of land in fashion of a half moon. 

Damone (Bandar Abbas ?) is the second port within Jasques, 
and is the best and strongest in the king of Perscia's dominions. 
It lieth 3 leagues off Ormus right opposite thereunto, where rideth 
all manner of ships, without fear or danger except it be off at sea. 
Batan (Bostanah ?) lieth 35 leagues within Ormus, a very good 
road. It hath a small island lying in the mouth thereof, by which 
it is defended from the wind which cometh off the sea, and is not 
much unlike the bay of Saldanya at Cape Esperance, save that it 
is not so big. It is not fortified, but hath a small city where 
is great trade of the pearl which is brought from Bareyne 

Bareyne is an island upon the coast of Arrabya, 40 leagues off 
the coast of Perscia. It yields no profit for commodity, except 
only the fishing of pearls, which are esteemed to be the richest 
and best in the world. This island the king of Perscia took from 
the Portingals and keepeth a garrison of 800 horse thereon. This 
place is environed with shoals in such sort that small fustoes very 
often run aground and is not navigable with vessels of burden. 

Rashell (Reshire) lieth 80 leagues from Ormus within the gulf 
of Perscia. It it well fortified and hath 5 fathoms water on the 
one side and 7 fathoms on the other side thereof. The king 
keepeth there continually 100 fustoes and galleys with them to cut 
off all passengers that offer to go from Ormus to Balsora, which is 
the Turk's dominion, and no Portingal vessel approach in sight 
but they chase them, and some 8 years since they took a Portingal 
ship of 1,400 tons for breach of the premises. Ormus in ac- 
knowledgment of gratuity to the king of Perscia for sustaining 
them with water and provisions payeth yearly tribute 24,000 larins 
per annum for that it is in his power to cut off their water at 
pleasure, which the last year he did, the Portingals failing in pay- 
ment of their tribute, whereupon they presently gave satisfaction. 
This Rashell is a fine town, and hath a navigable river for boats 
of burden in 8 days to go up to Sherase (Shiraz) which is the second 
city in Perscia and ten days journey with camels from Espahaune 
(Ispahan), the king's chief seat. 


Note that all parts of the king of Perscia's dominions are free 

rom dache or customs, but there is a certain toll taken of every 

beast's lading of goods which goeth out of the kingdom of Perscia, 

which the king commandeth for the payment of soldiers, to keep 

the country free from thieves or robbers. 1 

Per me 

Tho. Keridge. 


Tecou, 7th November 1614. 

TRUE copy of all the writings sent home to the 
Honble. Company per me Wm. Nicholls. 

Item, One whole journal of all accounts passed in 
Atchein (Acheen). 

More, One Journal of business passed in Tecou in anno 1614. 

One letter directed to the honourable Company. 

One note of pepper taken from the Dragon's company in 

One invoice of goods laden from Atchein in the Dragon and 

One invoice from Bantam in the ship Rose. 

A [?] of the king of Atchein's letter sent to His Majesty in 

A note of household expenses and charges at Tecou in par- 

The last will and testament of Robert Carter. 

One inventory of goods left at Atchein. 

Mr. Jackson's account that died in Atchein. 

Balance of account between Mr. Fursland and Wm. Nicholls. 
Witness our hands 

Thomas Brockedon. 
Thomas Mill. 

1 This last paragraph is added from a more perfect copy enclosed in O. C. 270. 

L 2 



William Edwards to the East India Company. 
By the Hope. Received 2nd December, 1615. 

J3N0URABLE and Right Worshipful, my humble duty 
and service remembered. 

My last unto you was at Saldania, of the 28th June 
1614, wherein I advised of our proceedings unto that 
time, which was with prosperous success, where we arrived the 
15th June and delivered ashore that ungrateful Coria, who, after 
his first departure from the ship, never appeared in sight of any 
of our fleet. Our refreshing from the shore was very little, but 
from the river we had plenty of fish, whereby our men were much 
refreshed. In the same place we found, as the custom is, advice 
of divers of your ships that had lately touched there, both outward 
and homeward, viz. : The Dragon, arriving there the 20th Feb- 
ruary, 1613, departed thence the 6th March next homeward. The 
Expedition, arriving the 21st ditto March, departed the prime 
April next. The Concord, arriving the gth May last, departed 
28th ditto outwards. 

The 2nd July we departed from Saldania with your four ships, 
and all our Company in health except 6 men which died thither- 
ward (whereof 3 by sickness and 3 by accident), and proceeded for 
St. Augustine, upon St. Laurence Island, where we arrived the 
6th of August, and departed the 13th ditto from thence to Socator 
(Socotra) where we arrived the 9th September, and bought of 
Mulliamer Benzaid, the king of the island, 27 kintals of aloes at 
30 rials of eight per kintal, who entertained us with all love and 
courtesy, and showed us divers letters of Sir Henry Middleton and 
Captain Saris. 

From thence we departed the 14th ditto and proceeded for 
India, and in our way we met with a junk belonging to Surat of 
100 tons with 100 men in her, who being distressed by want of 
water, and fearful of being taken by the Portingals, we supplied 
her wants, and towed her at the Hector's stern, as being the best 


ship of sail, which we delivered safe in her port, the which the 
people of these parts take in very thankful part, and begets us 
much love here, where we arrived on the coast near unto Dabull 
the prime of October, and plying along the shore with variable 
winds, there came aboard our General a frigate from the Captain 
of the Castle of Gingeere Rashpoorie (Danda Rajpur ?) who in- 
formed us of the wars that is between the Mogul and the Portin- 
gals, which proceeded of the Portingals taking of one of the 
Mogore's ships richly laden, and tendered unto us whatsoever 
that place afforded for refreshing of our people, and earnestly 
desiring us to put into that place with our ships ; unto whom our 
General sent a present of two sword blades, and some few knives, 
with a letter to Mr. Aldworthe to be conveyed by land to Suratt. 
And passing along, the next day there came aboard our General 
two Portingal frigates, armed with store of men, of purpose, as it 
appeared, to view our ships, who also told us of the wars before, 
with some compliments of courtesy, and so departed. 

The 15th ditto we arrived at South Swally, or near where we 
now ride. The next day Mr. Aldworthe came aboard our General, 
who gave great encouragement for our welcome and trade in these 
parts, although since our coming hither, through the imbecility 
and weak judgment of Mocrob Chan, Viceroy of Suratt, whose 
disposition savours more of child than man, being very vain and 
toyish in all his proceedings, we have had many delays in the dis- 
charge of our goods unto our great loss of time ; yet the general 
encouragement we have by the town, of all the better sort of 
people, and appearance of fear in the Viceroy that our uncour- 
teous entertainment should come to the ears of the Mogore, gives 
great hope of better in this place hereafter. The principal pre- 
tence of his delaying us consisted of these two demands : First, 
that we would go with our ships, and ride at the river's mouth of 
Suratt, and fight with the Portingals if they should come thither ; 
the next, that our General would give under his hand, to defend 
the city of Suratt if the Portingal should seek to invade the same ; 
both which our General refused, as being forbidden by our king's 
commission, and in these and such like much time was spent. 
But in fine, seeing he could not enforce what he attempted, he 
gave us free leave to land our goods and proceed in our trade. 


The consultation of the council of merchants appointed for the 
entrance of this trade, and the answers of Mr. Aldworthe unto the 
divers articles that concern Paul Canning and the needfulness of 
residency in Agra, with the circumstances thereon depending, go 
hereinclosed, underwritten by the parties present, with some 
further considerations annexed thereunto as appeareth. 

On the 8th November we put ashore ioo broad cloths and 
12 chests of rials with the two chests of looking-glasses; but in 
customing the same we have had much toil, by reason of the 
foresaid inconstant condition of Mocrob Chan, his carriage and 
entertainment in our affairs being very base and vile, whereof the 
people of the country speak much, desiring some opportunity to 
remove him out of these parts, whereof they have good hope. 

Divers places on this coast is besieged by the Mogore, viz. : 
Chaule, Damon, Bassine ; the Governor of Surat under Mocrob 
Chan, whose name is Hoginozan, is gone to Damone with an army 
to supply the siege there, and others. Great means is made by 
the Portingals for a reconciliation, offering restitution of the afore- 
said ship and goods, but no acceptance will be had. The Mogore 
his answer is : he will have all his country under his own subjec- 
tion, and will be no more subject to them as heretofore. No 
Portingals are suffered to remain here or elsewhere within the 
command of the Mogore, except two Jesuits, who are here 

The Portingals, by the report of Mr. Aldworthe and others, 
upon the taking of the foresaid ship, offered to restore the same, 
if the Mogore would deliver the English that were here into their 
hands, which the Mogore refused to do. 

Upon our coming ashore here, we have particularly run with 
Mr. Aldworthe into the state of this country, for the divers com- 
modities fit to be reladen for England, and understand by him 
that great plenty of all such sorts are here to be had ; but, com- 
puting the charge of relading, we find our stock to be very short 
for the lading of one of your ships with such commodities as you 
desire and are here to be had. Wherefore we shall be constrained 
to lade some store of cotton yarn more than else we should have 
done. The particulars of goods to be reladen by our consultation 
will herein appear. 



December the 20th [1614] , in Amadavar. 

Since the writing of the above, we have been by the aforesaid 
Mocrob Chan delayed in the town of Suratt very long, and as we 
suspect through some vile designs of his, which is thought, being 
discovered to the Mogore, will hazard the loss of his head, for that 
he hath many great enemies near the king, with whom some 
respondency must be held in that point ; for so long as he doth re- 
main Governor in Suratt, we are not like to have any fair enter- 
tainment in our trade. He, being a great friend to the Portingals, 
worketh underhand to bring them in again, which the king will 
by no means hear of. We came into Suratt the 8th November 
and were detained till the 30th ditto, not being permitted either to 
proceed to the court with the king's presents or to return to our 
ships ; and one principal cause was that he might not have a sight 
of the king's presents, whereof Mr. Aldworthe had written to the 
court, and that they were sent by such a man as would not show 
them to any until they came before the king, which he saith he 
would take in very good part, for he is very toyish and desirous 
of novelties and esteems not of things of this kind, whereof himself 
hath not the first sight. Yet the said Mocrob Chan hath forcibly 
seen them, and written thereof to the king, which thing being 
seconded by the discontents we have received from him since our 
coming ashore, will work him much disgrace with the king, which 
being so, will give a great furtherance to our proceedings in all 
these parts. The presents having been seen of Mocrob Chan and 
known of the king what they are, they must of necessity be 
delivered all at once, or within some few days respite allowed by 
the king, for his condition in these things will admit no delays. 

Since our arrival in this place, and proceeding in our employ- 
ments, we find indigo to be at such reasonable rates and our 
quicksilver, lead, elephants' teeth and vermilion to give such 
reasonable profit, beyond our computation in our consultations, 
for relading that I hope we shall be able to relade the Hector 
and Solomon, or at the least the Hector ; the certainty whereof 
I cannot advise, for that I am presently to set forward for Adgi- 
meare, where the king's court is kept, whereunto I am appointed, 
as in our consultations will appear, and under what title and 
circumstances, with the reasons. 


If sufficient indigo be here to be bought, as I hope there will, 
then it is resolved to lade few calicoes or other commodities, for 
that the indigo of Cirques (Sarkhej), which usually hath been sold 
at 18 rupees the maund, is now bought for 12 rupees little more or 
less, which I suppose will be more profitable than any other 
commodity that can be laden from these parts. 

Things best for presents generally with all the people of these 
countries are novelties and things of little worth, and are 
esteemed for their rarity and not for their value. Wherefore if it 
please you to send by your next ships for the Mogore, an English 
coach and coachman, to bring their horses to that labour, it 
would be very acceptable with the king ; and to send some curled 
water spaniel of the greatest size, with a bloodhound or two, 
they would be very welcome, for they will hardly be persuaded 
that they can be taught to fetch or find things lost. The mastiffs 
that came along in these ships are all dead except one, whereof 
we are very chary, for that I understand it will be very acceptable 
with the king. 

All the small commodities which were sent in these ships, as 
looking-glasses, comb cases, knives, pictures, fowling pieces, Mus- 
covy hides and such like, serve only for presents, but will not 
sell at any price. Pewter is here worth 8d. the pound and copper 
to be bought is worth loci, per lb. and raw Persian silk not to be 
had in these parts, nor are at any time, for it is here worth as 
much as in England. Gumlac is not now to be had, but, being 
bespoken at some reasonable warning, may be had some reason- 
able quantity. We have brought along with us from Suratt to 
this place 36,000 rials of eight, though with some charge and 
hazard by reason of the multiplicity of robbers in great troops, 
yet unto good profit, for it gives them picas (pice) upon every 
rial auanto, above the value at Suratt, the plain cross being 
worth two rupees and ten pice but the new cross is five pice less, 
and abatance in both for what they lack of weight, for they 
weigh all. 

The rest of the former voyage in these parts under the charge 
of Mr. Tho. Aldworthe will be about 3,000/. sterling, as Mr. Ald- 
worthe saith. The accounts are not yet agreed, nor could well 
be, for the daily trouble and employment given us by Mocrob 


Chan, but the rest goeth along in these ships, employed in indigo 
and white baftas. In your succeeding trade in these parts, it 
will require that a reasonable stock be left here for the daily buy- 
ing of indigo, which are to be had at all times of the year in the 
hands of the country people, whereby much good may be done, 
for that divers of the country people are constrained to sell to 
engrossers at very low prices for want of money to supply the 
needful, and this being the chief place for Cerques indigo, a 
factor would be settled here. 

Mr. Richard Steel, an Englishman, coming through Persia 
in pursuit of certain monies in the hands of Jo. Midnall of the 
account of Mr. Leat and Company, which Midnall fled out of 
Turkey into these parts, thereby to abuse his employers, came 
about seven months since to Suratt and discovered unto Mr. Ald- 
worthe part of what he had gathered in his travels through 
Pearsia, concerning the hope and likelihood of trade there by the 
way of the Red Sea and near unto Ormus, at a place called 
Jasques, which is an open road, but the wind blows at north 
seven months in the year, which is from the beginning of Sep- 
tember to the end of March. It lieth from Ormus 60 courses, 
each course a mile and a half, and from Synda 200 courses, and 
from Jasques to Sphan (Ispahan), which is the emperor's court, 
450 courses ; but the description thereof our General will more 
particularly advise of, for that since my coming ashore he hath 
questioned some of the pilots of those parts. 

This Richard Steel hath been detained here by Mr. Ald- 
worthe ever since his first coming hither, under pretence of 
employing him in the discovery of the said trade of Pearsia, fur- 
ther to strengthen himself in the understanding and knowledge 
of those countries, and the several commodities vendible and to 
be bought there, which it seems he hath very willingly and cheer- 
fully attended, and hereupon a consultation was had by such of 
the merchants factors, whose names are to the said consultation 
(the copy whereof I send here inclosed), wherein was determined 
and agreed that for better satisfaction of your Worships and more 
full discovery of the hoped trade, the said Richard Steel and 
John Crouther, one of your Worships' servants, should proceed 
therein, viz. the said John Crouther to go along with Richard 


Steel as far as Sphane, which is the principal place aimed at, 
and thence to return for these parts with a relation of dis- 
covery they shall have made, under both tin ir hands, and the 
said Steel to proceed for England by the way of Alleppo, like- 
wise to certify unto your Worships both what they both shall 
have done and also himself in particular after his departure from 
Sphan, whereby, if a liking shall be had thereof, you may with 
more certainty proceed in the same ; and for the needful to defray 
the expense it is ordered they shall carry along with them by bills 
of exchange or in specie 600 rials of eight, which we esteem may 
be the charge of the whole journey little more or less, whereof 
the said Mr. Steel will give your Worships a reason upon his 
arrival in England. He is, both by the report of Mr. Aldworthe 
and by the little experience of him in myself, honest and fair 
conditioned, and I mistake him much if he prove not so. He is 
very desirous to do your Worships' service, and although some 
opportunity offered him preferment with the Dutch at Moslipatan 
(Masulipatam) yet he refused the same, to attend on his hopes in 
your business, the which he hath done these 7 months past upon 
his own charge without any allowance from hence. Wherefore if 
your Worships shall out of your liberal dispositions consider him 
for his good intents and expense, I suppose it will not be ill 
bestowed. His desire is that, as he hopes to be the first that shall 
discover this hoped trade, so he may have such employment 
therein as his endeavours and your good opinions shall make him 
worthy of, wherein I think your Worships shall think and find 
him very fit. 

Whereas I understand that Mr. Aldworthe in his advice for 
England hath encouraged the sending of 1,000 broadcloths for 
this place by the first, I wish that either his letter may have mis- 
carried or that you shall have suspended upon further reasons 
than his little time could then areme(?) for such advice, for more 
experience hath since showed him the error (which any man 
might easily have run into, the reasons truly considered) for one 
quarter of that quantity is more than all these parts will vent, for 
little use is here made thereof except covering of saddles. So as 
if you shall have sent by this next fleet according to the foresaid 
advice, they must of necessity remain here until your further order. 


For the river of Synda I have informed myself what is needful, 
and understand that no vent for cloth is to be expected there, nor 
hope of returns worthy the sending thither. 

Whereas it pleased our worthy Governor, his deputy and com- 
mittees, in their commission to deliver their opinions whom they 
thought fit of their servants factors for residence at Agra, or the 
court of the Great Mogore, if of necessity there must be one 
residing there, the council of merchants appointed for determining 
the same, respecting the said commission, have proceeded in their 
choice accordingly and appointed me unto the same employment, 
as in our consultation with the circumstances will appear, and I 
like an unskilful pilot in the wayfaring mysteries of this court's 
conditions, have been glad to embrace the direction of better 
experience, and herein, as in whatsoever else, I desire to be 
engaged unto your Worships' temperate censures in case of 
calumny or misreports, which are incident unto foreign employ- 

The Portingals it seems, being weary of their wars with the 
Mogore, use their best diligence to reconcile the difference both 
by sinister and violent means, first closing with the banyans of 
Cambaia, who before our coming offered, in the behalf of the 
Portingals, to make restitution of whatsoever was taken in the 
foresaid ship of the Mogore's, but the king would by no means 
hear thereof, forewarning all men any more to solicit that cause. 
The next means, the Portingal fathers have writ for Spayne for 
toleration unto the English for trade. And lastly their frigates 
run to and fro upon the coast burning and destroying all they can, 
and lately they have prevailed upon part of Baroch and burnt 
divers of the houses in the suburbs, and divers ships and boats 
there and left it. They have also burnt the greatest part of 
Goga, with three of their ships riding at anchor, with divers petty 
places on the coast ; all which the king is very impatient for and 
fortifies in all parts on the sea coast. Three galleons are lately 
arrived at Goa, about the 20th of October last, who upon their 
arrival as we are advised made way to come to our ships, but we 
have little fear of them that they will be seen of our ships, for 
their last conflict is not yet forgotten but is very famous in all 
these parts. 


Our good friend Mr. Nich. Emsworth deceased the [blank] 
and the same day died Timothy Wood, both of the bloody flux. 
Divers others of our friends here have been touched, but, praised 
be God, we are all at present in good health. 

My stay in this city hath been somewhat the longer, to put 
and see some forwardness in our business of indigoes, whereof we 
have bought unto this time about 500 churls and I doubt not 
that the Hector and Solomon will return from hence laden for 
England whither God send them in salvo. So with my humble 
service I commend you to God's protection, who direct all your 

Your Worships' in all humble service, 

Will. Edwards. 


Copy of Tho. Keridge his letter to Mr. Aldworthe and Wm. 
Biddulph, sent from Surat by Mr. Tho. Elkington to Nich. 
Downton in Swally road. 

Agimeare (Ajmere), the 15th November 1614. 

ORSHIPFUL Sir and loving Friend, The 4th present 
by your pattamar I wrote you an answer of yours of 
the 5th of October, whereunto I refer you. Since 
have urged unto the king for restitution of Midnall's 
goods, showing him Mocrob Chan's letter to that purpose, which 
he hath given order shall be delivered unto me, and Aseph Chan 
hath affirmed it under his seal ; but must use the same course 
therein as in getting Mr. Canning's goods, so it will be some time 
ere obtained. The goods are disposed for the king's use, but 
monies will be paid as they have rated them, which I have 
formerly written you is the custom. And now have received 
yours of the 22nd October, 22 days after the date thereof, whereby 
I perceive the arrival of the English ships, which doubtless is a 
great comfort unto us all ; and blessed be God for the safe arrival. 


Here was news of them eight days before mine came ; and this 
people rejoiceth thereat, for that they hope it will be a means to 
bring the Portingals to a better conclusion with them than else, 
which the king longs for and is wearied with Mocrob Chan's 
profitless being there. I marvel not so much at our General for 
attributing all good services to be done by himself in settling of the 
factory as at that he should use means for the defaming [detaining ?] 
of our letters to the worshipful Company. I estrange thereat and 
cannot conceive with honesty it should be contrived or answered, 
neither by him nor the messenger. For his disgrace of all of us 
in his letters, for my own part I allege no desert, yet took pains 
by his commandments as other men ; but this is most manifest : 
had not Mr. Aldworthe directly refused to follow his will, we had 
left this place and trade, as letters extant may prove ; whereon 
grew that dissension betwixt them ; whether did well I refer me 
to those who must censure either. I rejoice to hear of the civil 
conversation of those appointed by the worshipful Company to 
reside here, but more especially for Mr. Wm. Edwards the ap- 
pointed lieger being a man so sufficient as you advise, which will 
be needful here amongst this inconstant people, the king carried 
away as a child pleased with toys from the adverse and from us, 
wherewith I doubt not Mr. Edwards cometh better furnished than 
any heretofore hath been, by which means his respect will be 
continued the greater; and it is requisite that honour be done' 
him below by the English, whereof the king will have notice and 
regard him accordingly. Concerning the present he bringeth I 
think the king will like well thereof and esteem it the more, if it 
be not seen by any until it come to his view. The particulars I 
inform not, though some inquisitive to know, for that the things 
unthought on or once expected will most content him. Concern- 
ing the king's letters to Mocrob Chan for the kind usage of our 
people, free trade and so forth, by means of Aseph Chan I urged 
unto the king and he granted his firman should be written unto 
him ; which obtained I will send it by your pattamar and some 
other, for the safe conveyance. As for Mocrob [Chan] , all busi- 
ness concerning us and our trade is referred unto him, and as he 
adviseth so things here will pass, and what he granteth there will 
be confirmed here. Therefore all good means must be used to 


give him content and to frustrate his expectation [of] dealing for 
your goods. If the Company resolve to Leave so great a stock 
here, I think you shall do best to be slow in sales until the ships' 
departure and buy your commodities for ready money, which will 
advance your sales. The country is void of our commodities and 
here scarcity of cloth, where greatest quantity will vent, where- 
with the lieger coming well furnished will soon have vent for the 

For round indigo of Agra bought by Signor Nicholas is in a 
readiness to come down, and upon news of the ships, before the 
receipt of your letters, I wrote him and wished him underhand 
to vent there in expecting you would advise to that purpose, and 
that [on] receipt of your letter sent him the copy thereof, so as 
you sent the 20,000 mamoodies it will be invested and sent you 
down by the time prescribed. There is great quantity of old and 
new in Agra and no buyer, and cheaper now than before it was 
ready ; and for the speedier conveying of it I have advised him to 
send it hither, and so by the way of Amadavas, which is much 
the nearer, and if need require I will procure the king's letter for 
safe conducting of it ; though I think there is no danger in such 
commodities, and people daily pass secure. 

The broker Jadow four days since is come unto me and 
denieth the receipts of the Frenchman ; saith he will justify 
himself of his enlargement. I doubt not Nich. Withington hath 
written, whereunto I refer me. The Dutch letter I herewith send 
you, hoping you will now get them interpreted below, for the 
Dutchman is not returned from the Prince's Leskar. My letters 
for England I sent you to be conveyed for Mosolopatan, which I 
hope you have received, whereof I pray you advise me. You 
have been sparing of news within your promised letters I now 
hourly expect. I pray you commend my duty to the General, 
Captain Downton, and to Mr. Edwards, unto whom, though 
unknown, yet by your foot-post I will write unto him. I perceive 
my old acquaintance Mr. Watkins hath been more mindful of me 
than I have had opportunity to remember him. I wish you had 
sent his letter, that I might have answered it by the ships. To 
Mr. Dodsworth I pray you to commend my love until the next, 
when in a few lines I purpose to gratulate his courtesy. And 


thus with my prayers and best wishes for the whole fleet in 
general, not forgetting my duty to yourself and kind commenda- 
tions to Mr. Biddulph, I rest 

Your loving friend to be commanded 

Tho. Keridge. 

If you have occasion to send a foot-post, employ this bearer, 
who is the speediest in Surat and enjoins you 2 days for the 
journey; otherwise they attend for other letters after their 


The copy of the opinion of all the factors concerning 
the behaviour of Richard Cobb. 

16th November, 1614. 

T is not unknown unto you all in general that Richard 
Cobb is a man which is ordinarily given to drink, 
at which time he is subject to talk much and reveal 
the secrets of the worshipful Company to any that 

at such time is familiar with him ; and therefore not fit to be of 

a council. 

2. When he is a little in drink, as also in his best wits, is apt 
to brawl with any man upon the least occasion with such bitter, 
vile, and base terms, provoking anger, that a patient man is not 
able to suffer it. 

3. Further, he is a man given to sloth and idleness, not en- 
deavouring himself to do any service which concerns the worship- 
ful Company's business, scorning to be commanded, thinking 
himself to be in rank of the best, and therefore not under 

4. Also he will upon the least occasion given scandalize any 
man without respect of place or person, as well in public as 
private, and at all times when he meets with his companions. 


5. For which cause, and many other disorders, he was left 
behind the James when she went for Potanye (Patani), having 
made great strife between the captain and cape merchant. 

6. And having divers times misbehaved himself since his being 
here in Bantam, to the great disgrace of our nation and the rank 
of civil merchants, and now last of all, the nth of November, 
1614, having been abroad and taken some drink more than 
ordinary, began to rail at some of the merchants, breaking into 
their chambers perforce to brawl with them, for which cause I 
took him into my chamber, thinking to pacify him by fair means, 
entreating him to go to bed, which with much ado he promised 
and so departed ; but within two hours he went out of his 
chamber and sought to break open the merchants' doors, they 
being abed, railing on them with such an outcry and noise that 
all our neighbours might hear it, and especially the Hollanders 
who dwell near us; whereupon awaking, I went forth to pacify 
him, but the more I entreated the more he railed ; and seeing no 
remedy I called for the bilboes and put in one of his legs, and 
within a quarter of an hour I sent the steward to let him out if 
he were quiet ; which he refused, saying that he would be cleared 
by justice. Therefore I have thought good to set down in writing 
these his ordinary pranks, with others which I omit, desiring you 
and every of you in particular to set down in writing your opinions, 
without envy to him or favour to me, whether he deserves the 
place of a merchant or not, all these things being considered, 
which you know to be true. 

[John Jourdain.] 
Bantam the 14th of November, 1614. 

The opinion of George Ball upon the abuses and defaults 
approved against Richard Cobb, one of the merchants of the 
Ninth Voyage is that he is not sufficient to negotiate as a 
merchant in affairs of weight and trust, as are the employments 
of the Company in these parts, he wanting both wit and ex- 
perience to counsel, secrecy to conceal, and will and ability to 
perform. But since it is his desire (as finding himself in the 
judgment of himself much wronged, to be subject unto the 
correction of authority) to go for his native country, I do freely, 


as finding no reason for his stoppage, give my consent to his 
passage, knowing with others that the Company's affairs hath no 
need of him nor his like, howsoever others. 

Whereas it hath been required by John Jourdain, Captain of 
the house, for the opinions of the rest of the merchants of the said 
house, whether Richard Cobb, now resident in Bantam, be fit to 
negotiate the place of a merchant, and to know the secrets of the 
Company's affairs and the course of their business as one of the 
Council, my opinion is that he is not nor no way worthy the 
place of a merchant. My reasons are these : First, he is much 
given to drink, and in his drink to reveal what hath been declared 
and spoken of in private council concerning the Company's affairs, 
not only to men of our own house but also unto strangers. 
Secondly, he is not a man fit for any business, being very lazy and 
not desirous to put himself forward in that which belongeth to a 
merchant. Thirdly, in his drink much given to scandalize and 
slander any man that he taketh disgust against, and in his best 
wits so contentious that he is not fit to live in a place of civil 
government nor come into the company of any man that desires 
to live quietly ; therefore, as his desire is, more fitter to be sent 
home to his native country with the first than to remain here, 
where there is no need of so ill a member in so small a common- 
weal as is our house at Bantam, or any other the Company's 
factories in the East Indies. 

Upon a Council held concerning the misbehaviours of Richard 
Cobb, I was, with the rest of the factors here in Bantam, required 
to give my opinion unto Captain John Jourdain, chief of the 
factory, concerning him, which is as followeth, viz. : First, I 
know it to be true that he is a man given to drunkenness and in 
that humour much given to brawls and making of bait betwixt 
parties, and scandalizing any man upon any small occasion, 
although no otherwise grounded than upon his own invention and 
rash folly, and also in such humours easy per circumstances to be 
drawn to reveal secrets. He is so much a lover of his own ease 
that since his coming to Bantam he hath not been found forward 
nor fit in or for any business whatsoever, but rather a hinderer of 
Y 1268. m 


other men's proceedings concerning the worshipful Company's 
affairs, for which causes, for the better and more quiet proceeding 
of the rest of the factors in the Ninth Voyage he was left here at 
Bantam, where he hath not omitted to verify that in himself by 
his evil carriage which formerly he was accused of, for part of 
which causes he hath lately suffered a small punishment for a 
malefact committed per him, which he justly deserved, being 
drunk. Wherefore my opinion is, in regard of his infirmities, 
that he is a man not worthy to know the secrets of the worshipful 
Company's affairs determined in council, but rather that he be 
sent home for England, discharging the worshipful Company of 
that charge, rather than he stay longer here in the country and 
do them no service. 

A proposition related by Captain Jourdain, wherein is required 
all our opinions of the carriage and behaviour of Mr. Richard 
Cobb, whether that he doth deserve to be in the rank of 
merchants or worthy to know the affairs of the worshipful 
Company, being a man inclined to ill carriage as he hath been 

I have hitherto found Mr. Cobb in his actions to be so 
perverse in making of brabbles and slanders of the factors here 
resident that it is impossible for a patient man to endure his most 
vile and outrageous railing ; besides that I do truly speak, that he 
is very unwilling to give his aid, help and assistance in furthering 
of any business for the Company ; and being desirous to go for 
his native country at this present, I rather give my opinion in 
letting his mind be fulfilled therein than to stay him here, because 
he is not a man to live under a command or government, and 
therein I hope he shall be well contented, and the rest here might 
hereafter enjoy peace and quietness, which, if it be otherwise, I do 
expect more contentions than have any reformation. Moreover 
in conclusion, because, through difficulty in overseeing himself in 
drink, he is apt to speak and reveal the secrets of the Company, 
and therefore a man not fit for such a place, that the Company 
might receive any further harm. Thus referring the same to the 
rest of your opinions that it may be for the best, I commit you to 
God Almighty's protection. 


The opinion of Samuel Boyle is, that Richard Cobb doth 
justly deserve to be displaced from being a merchant, in regard of 
his manifold abuses and misdemeanours ; first, in regard the said 
Richard Cobb is much addicted unto drinking ; secondly, that he 
doth disclose the secrets of the Company, and also is held and 
reputed to be a turbulent and contentious person, and one that 
hath caused much strife and dissension between many of the 
Company's chief servants, which is an evil precedent and very 
prejudicial unto the worshipful Company. Yet under correction 
and your favourable censure it may please you, upon his sub- 
mission with hearty promise of reformation of his former abuses, 
to remit his punishment, I doubt not but that he will hereafter 
endeavour to give good satisfaction and content unto all men. 

Having taken the opinions of all the merchants in Bantam 
concerning the abuses of Richard Cobb, and finding all of them to 
concur in one : to be a seditious person and such a one as can 
conceal no secrets nor fit to be employed in the Company's 
affairs ; and myself having seen some part of his proceedings to be 
corresponding to their opinions, finding him to be a man which 
will obey no command : these things being considered, I hold it 
necessary that in the first convenient passage he repair for his 
country, there to make satisfaction to the worshipful Company of 
his wilful proceedings ; and, in the meantime of his being here, I 
do exclude him from the council of merchants until such time 
as his merits may deserve better, etc. 

Bantam, the 16th of November, 1614. 

N 2 



Piete Willems Floris and George Chauncey to Thomas Aldworthe 

at Surat. 
16th November, 1614. 

OOD Mr. Thomas Aldworthe, my kind commendations 
remembered etc. Yours of the 19th of August last I 
received the nth September, whereby I perceive the 
long time that the pattamar hath been in the coming 
thither, which might have been a great hindrance to the right 
worshipful Company's service, if it so had fallen out as we did 
make account at first, but it is fallen out contrary to our expec- 
tations, because that the ship, being trimmed this four months 
past, could not come over the bar till the third of October last, 
at which time she had a happy hour, because if she then had not 
come over, at this day she should still have been within the river; 
but God be praised for His assistance and blessings bestowed 
upon us, so that the 23rd she came here into the road, and now 
we are shipping our goods ; so that I hope by the grace of God 
to be ready to set sail from hence about primo December next, 
and to touch first at Bantam and so for England. The Lord of 
Heaven give us His blessing, and send us well into our country ; 
and then the letters which you send to the right worshipful Com- 
pany shall be well and safely delivered. In the meantime I shall 
take a special care of the keeping of them. I perceive what you 
write about the cotton yarn, calicoes and indigo. If the calicoes 
would yield no more than three for one then they are not worth 
the charge which the Company must bear. Concerning indigo, 
that you esteem your flat indigo better as our best muster which 
we did send you, we are here wholly contrary of opinion, because 
this indigo is higher of colour and much more coppered than the 
flat indigo is. It is true that there is more dross in this indigo ; 
yet nevertheless this indigo is sold in the Low Countries at 
15 and 16s. Flemish, and the flat indigo is worth no more than 
11 and 12s. Flemish the pound. The time will learn as it please 
God to send us well home. Gion Maria di Moreth is arrived 


here in a very poor estate. I have delivered him the letter which 
was enclosed in yours. He is willing to go with the ships for 
Bantam. I shall advise me about this matter, considering he is 
in a poor estate and destitute of all help and friends. But as for 
that roguish John, whereof I did write you in my last, he is run 
away ; he hath sought to cozen me, but if I could catch him I 
would cozen him. I have kept this bearer till now because that 
I might write you certainly of our estate, which is as I have noted 
before, five or six days more or less, because I have here yet some 
debts to receive ; and so soon as I have them I hope to set sail, 
having nothing more to sell or to buy. 

The first of this month arrived here a Dutch ship coming in 
three months from Bantam, and in her there comes the Visitador 
General for the Dutch to visit these coasts, and they look for 
two ships more within a month. News they bring that Prince 
Henry is dead, the Duke Charles established into his place, the 
Princess is married with the Prince Elector of Heidelberch, com- 
monly called Palsgrave of the Rhine, of whom he hath a young 
son, whereof there is great joy throughout all countries. The 
king of Spain did make great suit for her, but he was denied, who 
is now to marry with the daughter of the duke of Savoy. Den- 
mark and Sweden are united together. The war of Muscovy and 
Poland continues. The truce betwixt Spain and the Low 
Countries continued, but at home and not abroad. Prince 
Maurice is established Knight of the Garter of England. 
These are the general news of Europe. At Bantam there are 
no English ships. The James is gone for Siam and Patania, 
and the Osiander for Priaman, where the English are in great 
danger, for the king of Acheene, who is [blank] very angry 
that the English have set a factory in Priaman without his 
leave and he hath sent some prows and other fustes to fetch 
them from thence and to bring them for Acheene, although 
I hope the Osiander shall prevent them, which the time will 
learn. In February last came a small ship from Holland with 
advice, who did arrive in August at Bantam. He hath encoun- 
tered and spoken with an English ship who was full of men, who 
came expressly to succour the Trades Increase ; which ship was 
not yet arrived at Bantam. As for any other ships I cannot learn 


what quantity the Company is to send ; only they say that the 
next spring was to come a fleet of ships from England. 

In the Moluccoes continues the war betwixt the Spaniards 
and the Dutch ; albeit that the Dutch have the strongest part, 
yet they cannot beat out the Spaniards. 

The Darling is departed from Bantam now almost a year ago, 
and was bound, as the Dutch tell, for this place ; but we have 
here no news of her, neither have they at Bantam, so that it is to 
be afraid she is not well, wheresoever she may be. I pray God 
prevent the worst. 

The trade in the Moluccoes as at Bantam is very bad, espe- 
cially cloths of all sorts almost in no request ; therefore if you are 
providing some cloths for Bantam I could wish that you only did 
buy some red Carricanns and black Candekins with some chintz 
and patales of silk for girdles, and a small quantity of black 
baftas ; the rest, I believe, will be but small profit. The opium 
they say is worth almost nothing. This is the news which I have 
learned by this ship. As for letters, I have received none, ac- 
cording to the fashion of Bantam, who are very loath to spoil a 
sheet of paper. And so, not having other news at present to 
advise you of, only to take a kindly and honest leave of you, 
beseeching God to bless and prosper you in all your business, 
and to send you well home, as I hope He will do us, that we may 
have more acquaintance one with the other. In the meantime I 
pray that you will have a good honest opinion of me as I have of 
you, and because of the uncertainty of men's lives, if so should 
fall out that it pleased God to call me out of this world before I 
come into England, that you then will give no other report of me 
than you well and surely are informed of, because a man after he 
is dead can have no better or greater treasure than a good name. 
And so I commend you to the holy protection of the Almighty 
Lord. Mr. Geo. Chauncey, merchant, commends him very 
kindly unto you. The like I pray have me commended unto the 
rest of the friends which are with you. 

From Mussilpatam, this 16th of November, 1614, stilo Ang. 
Your very loving friends, 

Pieter Willems Floris. 
George Chauncey. 



Captain Nicholas Downton to the East India Company. 
Swally Road, the 20th of November, 1614. 

IGHT Worshipful, These are to give you to understand 
in briefest sort of our proceedings since the seventh of 
March, when we departed Dover Road. Without any 
touch or stay, more than contrary winds enforced, by 
our best endeavours we attained to Saldania the 15th of June, 
where, to the great hindrance of our business, by loss of our 
boats, we wore out the tail of a long storm, many of our people 
now appearing somewhat touched with the disease. Refreshing 
of flesh we had in manner none ; we had some little fish, by our 
continual endeavours in the river. For Cory, soon after our 
coming thither, we in hope of his better performance, and nothing 
doubting of his love, I let him go away with his rich armour and 
all his wealth in the company of his friends, but what became of 
him after we know not, neither could ever understand. Having 
dispatched our watering and some time tended on the wind, we 
set sail and put to sea, the 2nd of July, 1614 ; and after much 
contrary winds and a long passage, we arrived at the bay of 
St. Augustin the 6th of August, where we took in water and wood 
and somewhat refreshed our people with very good beef, so far as 
we had any silver chain or links of whistles to buy them, for 
otherwise we could procure very little. For a cow we paid 
twelve new English sixpences, which they hang about their 
necks ; if we had not had sixpences they would have had so many 
shillings. Spanish money they will take none. They seem to 
be people well inclined and just, though I wish none to be bold 
thereof, for one good or bad man in authority may sway much 
among the multitude. From thence we departed the 12th day, 
directing our course so near the shoals of St. Lawrence as fitly 
we might. We passed along leaving the islands of Moyella and 
Commora on our larboard side and the great island of Moyetta 
on our starboard side, but touched at neither, in regard of our 
haste to save the monsoon. The gth of September at night we 
anchored in the road of Delisha at Zoccatra (Socotra) where by 


the king and some Indians, which in a small ship were then I 
endeavoured to inform myself of the state of our business at 
Surat, of Captain Best Ins last proceedings with the Portuj 

whose report suited my content. We lingered sometime about 
the aloes, which at a dear rate we bought at 30 rials per, 

which is o,61bs ; and the 14th day we set sail towards Surrat. 
The 23rd day the wind ti><>k us short, being [68 leagues short of 
the coast of India. The 2nd of October we had sight of land so 
far to leeward as Dabull, and against the wind we turned up and 
arrived in Swally Road the 15th day, and to my great comfort 
not having above four sick men in the whole Beet. We find by 
report Chaull and Bassaim slightly besieged by the Decans, and 
Damon and Diu by the Mogore's forces, and Mocrob Chan our 
arch-enemy general of the forces against Damon. Great report 
was of his gladness of our being come; but we find for no other 
cause but to serve his own turn, thinking to have had us at com- 
mand to have battered the castle of Damon with our ships 
(which would have been his honour) wherein the Portugals are 
contained ; which business and attempt my commission barred 
me. Then he would have had me under my hand to keep the 
Portugals' forces out of the river of Surat, which I could neither 
grant ; for that there was room for frigates and galleys divers 
ways to pass in, where wanted water for my ships to ride to stop 
them ; neither had I warrant to begin wars with the Portugals, 
unless they first gave me cause. Many days have we spent in 
frivolous debating of our business, long doubting whether we 
might resolve to stay, land our goods and do our business here, 
or seek some other place where we might have more hopes in the 
governors, who are all greedy of presents. At length it seemed to 
us that there was no doubt of danger in landing of our goods, but 
only that he had crossed us for not having his will, both in the 
use of our ships and appointment of men for the buying of all 
our goods to his own use and benefit, unfit for us to grant ; in 
which time the people were often restrained their boats and 
carriages to transport us ; so that when our merchants were sent 
to the town, we could not in long time get them again, nor well 
hear from them ; not that they were much ill entreated, but all 
boats restrained to carry them back over the river. He so much 


presumeth on the king's favour that he doth what he list. We 
have hope when Mr. Edwards shall come to the court by his 
good endeavours with the king to help much. He is now setting 
forwards for Agra, and others with money towards Amadavar to 
buy commodities for return home. I pray God bless their 
journey and endeavours. 

At my first speaking with Mr. Aldworthe, who through his 
desire of the good of the Company, which in my conceit (upon 
new acquaintance) he is very zealous of, he informed me that in 
Persia may yearly be vented a good quantity of cloths and kerseys, 
so the colours be good, and dyed in the wool, and that there may 
be silk returned at reasonable rates, so as place may be found for 
to contain ships within the king of Persia his dominions, which 
is near unto Ormus ; where may arise some opposition by the 
Portugals when they grow to strength, though now they seem 
but weak, and if the Indian princes do exercise their own 
strength they will be every day weaker, yet it is like by reason of 
their many occasions the next year there will go some good 
forces out of Portugal, from whence the report is there hath 
come no ships to India these two years, by which they are much 
at present disabled ; yet there is still a report that the Viceroy will 
come for Surat with all the forces he can make, which I think 
cannot stand with good discretion in regard they are so many 
ways beset. Though I purpose to seem no more secure than if 
they were to come to-morrow, for I more think of their wily 
stratagems by fire and otherwise than of their force, which I 
think cannot be much ; true intelligence what it is I have none. 

It seemeth to me the ill sales of cloth in India put 
Mr. Aldworthe into an extraordinary desire by inquisition to seek 
out a better place in regard of their cloths yet remaining on their 
hands, as for such as he feared were to come by the next ship- 
ping, and the next after that, before advice can be sent home to 
forbear. By his industry he learned of a port some 40 leagues 
without Ormus called Jasques. Moreover there came one Richard 
Steel, born in Bristoll, who had lived some time in Turkey and 
afterwards spent some time in Persia, who by an occasion of 
business with John Midnall in the behalf of Mr. Morris Abbott, 
Mr. Robert Offley and Mr. Leat and others of the Committees 


was also drawn unto bene he caused tti' i^oods of the said 

Midnall to be ; ring aid of Mr. Thomas Aldworthe 

from, who Bent Th '. Keridge I i A t i about the 
himself forced to fly to avoid the i of Midnall and his 

conft ■■:■ for his destruction, whereof it seemeth Richard Si 1 

had b t i ite by wounds i Surrati 

when.- being arrived he confirmed Mr. Aldworthe's former intelli- 
gence « .hi, erning the ns lish cloths in Persia by reason of 
the cold there in the winter time, as also making a hopeful n 
of silk at turned from thence; th il of 
which grew to such strength in Mr. Aldworth , I ther with the 
and disa riour of th< I Sted that he 
invited him 1)\- p i an.l kind usage to stay with him until 
the coming of th I without giving him some hope 
of tit employment. 

Amongst oui coherences concerning business, and though tl. th great in perform- 

ance of the same, yet I wish not to let slip the l< a t h< ipe tending 
to the future good <>f my employers and country. We once 
thought of sending Richard Steel and Mr. Munday with him, by 
land, to search and sound the place of Jasques, how fit it may be 
in safety to contain ships; but upon better advisemen t 
altered that determination, in regard it is not pas land by 

i on of great numbers of outlaws and discontented 
which permit none in safety to pass, and a! that this 

business could not be effected without license from the P 
Emperor, which would ask long time and great charge to per- 
form. Since when, by great means made, I have attained to the 
conference with a Guzerat pilot who informs me that Jasques is 
neither bay nor indraft, but a town standing upon the Persian 
shore some 30 leagues without Ormus and is a straight coast 
whore a ship may ride in 8 fathom within saker-shot of the shore, 
or nearer if they will to 6 fathom, where he saith is good riding 
for the most part from September to the end of February with 
reasonable weather and wind at north, which bloweth trade along 
the coast. Upon which information I esteemed it needless to 
spend long time and waste of charge by sending a seaman to 
sound the place, where I perceive is no danger or difficulty, and 


a discreet mariner will not miss much of the length of the place. 
If he cannot formerly get a pilot he must help himself by a 
linguist by the Arab or Persian tongue. So that now we purpose 
to send Mr. Steel and another merchant by land into Persia, with 
a letter to Sir Robert Sherley, entreating his help to move the 
king for his allowance and license for our peaceable and quiet 
trading within his dominions, which Mr. Richard Steel thinketh 
it will please him well to grant ; which being obtained, by all fit 
endeavours to inform themselves like merchants in every respect 
of the state of the business. Then from thence Mr. Steel to 
hasten for England, there to acquaint the governor and assistants 
of the Indian Company what is herein done ; and if God give 
him health, I make no doubt that he will give you good account of 
his proceedings ; and the merchant to return to Surat, there to 
make known the like. For Sinde, to travel by land, by reason of 
discontented people as aforesaid, we are wholly discouraged ; but 
I make no doubt but that you are well informed of that place by 
Captain Newport. For the country near Sinde, we cannot under- 
stand of any hope for us there, but only by that fair river, whereby 
we may transport our goods to and from that goodly city and 
country near Lahor. I wish by any means we may find it fit for 
our use, for while Mocrob Chan hath authority at Surat we 
shall be ever crossed ; besides the carriage to and from thence 
into the country is chargeable, and customs at divers places, 
which I doubt by his means will not be abated, which, if we can 
with our ships come to Sinde, the river will be our good friend 
for transportation. 

Besides Mocrob Chan hath sent to Messalapatan for the 
Hollanders to come hither, promising them Damon when it is 
taken from the Portugals, but is like they will be here ere long, 
for they had a factory here before we knew the place, and they 
have still a stock remaining here in the Shabunder's hands, ever 
since all their factors here died. You sent now divers cloths 
which you have been warned of and it is in vain to show them 
here, nor anywhere else in these parts for ought I know, which 
are all your musk colours and sand colours and all other 
inclining to sadness. The most in request are in disgrace by 
reason of the deceitful colours. We are so long delayed here, 


and for fear of the 1" lis, I dan- not leave the ship that 

should be sent home alone, which I doubt will brin 

iiul she will be bo long blading I doubt her filling 
on oar coast in an unseasonable rime. In this fleet we brought 
neither weights n<>r scales to weigh half .1 ban : ight. 1 

know not what shirt to make here nor in any other place ti' 
come to Bantam. All oat will not one of them 

1 i m f« >r that I can main bat a weak accoant <>f 

our ha iness thai w 

beginning ; therefl are most refer y< m t< i the report of Mr. Edwards 
from fter his speech with the king, being at present bound 

thither. Tl wishing ;i happy success to this and ;ill other 

your adventures, I remember my humble service I 
Worship, Mr. Deputy and all the Committees. I i 
\\ : I ip' firmly affectiona] 

Nil h. D< wnton. 

Aboard the New Year's ("iift in the Road 
of Swally, the joth of Novi mber [614. 

If it please God to send Richai well home, and that 

he give you a pood account of his employment, as I make no 
douht but he will, then I d^irc your Worships to use him 

-< v ;* :-."..• 


HE report of Brinzec, Nahuda of a junk from Larree 

describing the Province of " Zinde," subject to the 

Mogul ; the value of English commodities at that 

market ; and of exports thence fit for England ; with 

the coins in circulation at Negrotat (Tatta), the capital, and 

Bunder Larree (Lahori Bandar) the Port. 

[Nov. 20, 1614.] 

[Now missing. The particulars given arc taken fron the 
1 83 1 catalogue. ~] 



ARTICULARS desired by Mocrob Chan to be pro- 
vided in England and sent by the next ships for 
Surat, for the Great Mogore, 1614. 

The copy of a note given in by Mocrob Chan of 
such things as he desireth to be furnished of by the next ships 
that come out of England. 

a. Two complete armours wrought, but light, and easy to 


b. Crooked swords, broad ; hard to be gotten, for they try 

them with their knee and, if they stand, in no request. 

c. Knives of the best, large, long and thin to bow almost 

round and come straight again of themselves. 

d. Satin of red, yellow, green, tawny. 

e. Velvet of the best, of red, yellow, black, green. 
/. All manner of toys that may content the king. 

g. Broadcloth of the finest that will not stain, of yellow, red 

and green. 
h. All manner of toys for women. 
i. Pictures in cloth, not in wood. 
k. Perfumed leather. 
I. Cloth of Arras, wrought with pictures. 
m. The greatest looking-glasses that may be got. 

( Any figures of beasts, birds or other similes made of 
n ' \ glass, of hard plaster, of silver, brass, wood, iron, 

I stone, or ivory. 
p. Perfumed sweet-bags, embroidered with gold. 
q. Rich cabinets with a glass, embroidered. 
y. Rich shag of red colour. 
s. Mastiffs, greyhounds, spaniels and little dogs, three of 

t. Large Muscovia hides. 
V. Vellum and parchment good store. 

d Satin some small quantity, for I think they will give little 
more than it cost in England ; of that least gummed. 


e. Velvet we brought by Sir Henry Middleton mad.- but little 

fit and is DO man's money but the 1 

the I 
/. Things will ask s^nic labour to find. 
. I i idcloths. His m ry fine cloths ai 

colours ; and the red he DO t. 

j. Pictures on cloth I London, not ti the 

I ■ Dch, whi. h warp, rend, and break. 

/. Cloth of ' «tly ; t I think 

make shew alty in th<- getting thereof, nnL 

little, but tapestry instead then 
v.. Figun ■ t •!. m stone or pi I i I have 

me from Frainckford (Frankfort). I think at 

S. DogS hard tO b< 

/. They thought much to give the price they cost in England. 
v. Parchment you may fit them with store, for I think it be 
but to write books on. 

:. Downton. 



Captain Nich. Downton to Sir Tho. Smith. 
Surat, November 20th, 1614. 

IONOURABLE Sir, if it be conceived that covetous- 
ness drew me again into this troublesome, pining and 
weary business, I answer no, but the conceit I had of 
your love, with the love of divers others which I 
esteemed by your means, drew me (though my body unrecovered) 
with greedy desire to frame my mind to your wills, neglecting my 
own ends, applying myself wholly to yours, rather wishing you 
should find my zeal to you by proof than by bragging promises ; 
which affection might be perceived in that (notwithstanding 
your small gratuity in regard of my expense the former voyage, 


imputing it to none of the worthiest, but most inconsiderate sort) 
I did of purpose, to show how much I was yours, commit my 
monthly salary to be set down at your own pleasure, at such a 
rate for which, but to show my love and to hold my word, I 
would not then have been so hired, nothing doubting that my 
tractable and easy yielding would have incurred your more base 
conceit of me, who without offence to my friends dare say that in 
commonwealth business my deserts have not been inferior to any 
man's which in this kind you have formerly employed ; neither 
doubted I that the king's commission should have been otherwise 
than Sir Henry Middleton's was, for while I live I would not 
therein have been partner with any, which being so unfitly yoked 
hath brought me much disturbance. I have a place in show, but 
by your commission I have not power to determine of any 
material thing but by the counsel of such as may partake or band 
against me ; which if it were well for you, there would be less dis- 
like in me. I do not move this in hope of remedy from you, but 
as a caveat for the future good of your business and quiet of such 
as you may hereafter in principal place employ. The sharing of 
the authority of a commander among divers doth much increase 
pride, cause divisions, and greatly hinder the common business. 
Many are ready to tax a commander with weakness, when it is 
their own deeds at home in clipping the wings of his authority, in 
raising great spirits and green heads to partake in government. 
If my haste and often provoked occasions were not qualified by a 
conscionable care of the common good, I could quickly fall into 
rigorous courses, thereby to stay the insulting carriage of the 
proudest ; but then I must expect to follow the breakneck of fit 
government in the generality, for these unsteady-minded and 
giddy-headed people, if they once perceive divisions amongst the 
principals, whereby authority is weakened, will soon run into 
sides or factions as their humours lead them ; or else, if trusting 
to their own strength, will not care for either. I have not failed 
by all upright means possible in hope to stop the mouths of all ill- 
willers to this journey, and to remove the scandal laid upon 
former voyages, so carried the business that I make least doubt of 
the love of the common people, yet so little trust thereto that I 
have always thought most discretion by patience to pass over the 


things which often grieved me. Though I expect thi- 
will fully wear me out, yet my loi irernmenl i- such, and to 

foreign journeys which most need« th the same, whereby I wish to 
deliver my poor opinion, referring the determination to your 
better understandings and judgments; which is that in these 
journeys you let the government rest principally upon one man, 
whose discretion and honesty you have assurance "f. by which he 
may do most right to you, right to himself and to all well- 
deserving men who by their honest behaviour and discreet 
carriage deserve th.- same, by which mean-; they will he drawn to 
your best service, being tractable to the content of their com- 
minder, which will also restrain pride, stop combining into 
factions and other careless negligences, whereof all are not I 
and make them strive by industry and diligence to deserve well, 
and to In- let know that their employment shall he accordifl 

their desert, by the judgment of their commander, though in 
private you may ordain otherwise; for when they bring all their 

grace from home and know how they are appointed in the com- 
mission, knowing that it shall not he altered, grow negligent and 
careless of any command. It will be good that such factors as 
you employ that divers of them may write well, which good 
property is wanting among most of them you now employed ; and 
as your factors have been fed at full cannot endure so straight a 
diet as the poor seamen must, and also if they should have more 
allowance out of the hold than the rest it will cause much grief 
and dislike in the common people, who are kept in best order 
seeing provisions justly divided, wherefore it may please you to 
give your factors some allowance for private provisions. Henry 
Smith and Roger Prowd have continued all this voyage in health 
and are now bound up to Agra with Mr. Edwards ; so also is 
Mr. Rogers. I would have had them stay at Suratt with Mr. 
Dodsworth till their bodies were seasoned with the air and with 
the feeding of the country, but they desired it and Mr. Edwards 
threatened to have them thither when I was gone, which then I 
thought better they should go now than at any other time in less 
company, when less care might be had on them, and Will. 
Nelson goeth up therefore to attend on them. We have been 
long pestered here with delays and unkind crosses bv Mocrob 


Chan, but I hope that Mr. Edwards will so behave himself with 
the king by presents that for future times he may alter it ; but for 
the present I pray God send us a good despatch. I fear it will 
be long ere we shall have means to despatch a ship homeward, 
and so she will fall on our coast in an unseasonable time. We 
find not above 3,000/. stock remaining of the Tenth Voyage and 
much of that is about Agra, so that thereby we know not the 
certainty thereof. Presents here will go deep and charges in 
transportation will be great. In many particulars Mr. Edwards 
may better inform you from Agra than I can here, since we have 
scarce yet made a beginning to our business. So with my most 
respective and good wishes and my earnest prayers directed to 
heaven for the continuance of your health and safety, I rest 

Yours in all humility, 

[Nich. Downton] . 


A copy of 181, with the exception of the postscript, which is as 

follows : 

|.S. — If it please God this Persian business fall out to 
your content, and that you think fit to adventure 
thither, I think it not amiss to set you down as the 
pilots have informed me of Jasques, which is a town 
standing near the edge of a straight sea coast, where a ship may 
ride in 8 fathoms water, saker-shot from the shore, and in 
6 fathoms you may be near. Jasques is six gemes from Ormus 
southwards ; every geme is 60 cosses, makes 30 leagues. 
Jasques is no high land, yet there are some mountains near the 
port. Jasques lieth from Muschet (Muskat) east. From Jasques 
to Sinda is 200 cosses or 100 leagues. At Jasques commonly 
they have north winds, which bloweth trade out of the Persian 
Gulf. Mischet is on the Arabian coast, and is a little port 
of Portugals. 

Y 1268. N 



Thomas Keridge to Captain Downton. 

Received by the Hope. 

Agmier, November 22nd, 1614. 

IORSHIPFUL Sir, by Mr. Aldworthe's of the 22nd of 
October I had intelligence of the arrival of your ships 
at the bar of Suratte in safely, which as it is the joy- 
fullest tidings we here resident could hope for, so it 
bringeth the greater comfort in that the time of our expectation 
was now fully expired ; blessed be God for so high a favour. 
Mr. Aldworthe advised me of our king's letter and present, sent 
by Mr. Edwards, the appointed lieger, for the Great Mogul, and 
of his purposes in not showing the same until it came unto the 
king's hands, whereof he willed me to certify the king, as also to 
procure his letter to Mocrob Chan for the kind usage of our 
people, and to permit them free trade, which he seemed to doubt 
of by Mocrob Chan's imprisoning of some people that came 
aboard the ships, wherewith, the latter excepted, I acquainted 
Asaph Chan, the king's brother-in-law, requiring his furtherance 
in my suit to the king, who answered he held it not fitting I 
should speak of free trade, for that Mocrob Chan had order to 
buy goods for the king, and that our business were altogether 
referred to him, wherefore he could not urge it ; but I alleging 
reasons to move him thereunto he promised to do it, and the same 
day by him I erzed unto the king, who granted his letter ; which 
procuring to be effected, and searching for the contents thereof, 
I understood there was a letter written for the sending up of the 
lieger with the present unseen, but nothing concerning our trade ; 
whereupon I repaired again to Asaph Chan, desiring the letter 
might be written as I required, who expostulated the business 
with me and told me we should make Mocrob Chan our enemy 
thereby ; which when I cleared, he in conclusion said the king 
had thus ordained, and that until Mocrob Chan's crzedach or letter 
came to that purpose it would not be granted, for that yet he 
had not written to the king concerning us ; whereupon I ac- 
quainted Coge Abullosan herewith, a man of as great place, 


though not so highly in favour, by whom I erzed unto the king 
again, who answered Asaph Chan had already order, and de- 
manded him for the letter, which he had ready in his hands and 
delivered it unto me, and though I replied in the king's hearing 
that the principal of our request was omitted, yet they urged the 
ceremonies accustomed and dismissed me, which letter herewith 
you shall receive. Concerning Mocrob Chan, you shall perceive 
that he and all seaport governors whatsoever have express order 
given them to buy the chiefest of all the commodities for the 
king, but more especially for jewels and all sorts of strange 
things, wherewith he is extraordinary delighted, which will cause 
Mocrob Chan to prohibit all men dealing with you until his turn 
be served and he hath had sight and knowledge of all things ; 
and after, I think, he will not so much disparage himself as to 
urge you to an inconvenient sale. I doubt not but Mr. Ald- 
worthe hath fully acquainted you with the estate of our business 
here, which hitherto hath been fickle and uncertain. Mr. Can- 
ning at his coming to the court was referred to Mocrob Chan to 
determine of and to answer all things concerning us and our 
trade, and at my coming hither I was referred also unto him 
and always with promises delayed (nothing at all effected) ; 
neither could answer to our king's letter be obtained, though 
I got it translated into the Persian and delivered it unto the king. 
The reasons in their councils was they could not hold friend- 
ship with the Portugal and permit us trade, though themselves 
willing thereunto. Yet the merchants of Surat wrote earnestly 
to the nobility in the behalf of the English, and being Mocrob 
Chan is best acquainted with the affairs of those parts, it was 
referred unto him, being then appointed for Surat, at his coming 
thither to determine of those things. But in the interim the 
Portugal took their ships, as you have heard, whereupon the 
king gave forth firmans denying them trade in his dominions, 
debarring them provisions etc ; and withal delivered another 
firman authorizing Mocrob Chan to give place to the English to 
fortify in, always provided it might redound to the profit of the 
king, which I presume was rather given in policy to bring the 
Portugal to a better conclusion in the restoration of their goods 
than in favour unto us as they pretend, whereof you will now 

N 2 


have trial. The articles of General Tho. Best concluded at his 
being there were firmed by the Governors of Amadavar and 
Suratte, and since both of them are deceased ; besides the sup- 
posed governor of Amadavar was only a deputy and not so great 
in respect with the king as we accounted. Wherefore hither- 
unto none here will take notice ; and whatsoever you intend to 
require of the king demand it first there of Mocrob Chan, for 
matters of consequence will not be obtained without his advice, 
and far more facile to obtain anything now while your ships are 
there than hereafter when they are gone. I rejoice that the 
worshipful Company have so well provided themselves with fit 
men to reside in these parts, but more especially in the suffi- 
ciency of the lieger, which for this place is most requisite, having 
to deal with a people subtle and deceitful, full of delays in all 
businesses except to serve their own turn, and no truth in them, 
and the king ruled by those men near him, too much delighted 
with toys, wherewith the lieger must come so well provided that 
once in eight days, or at least when he hath occasion to proffer 
speech, he hath something or other to present. Any toy that is 
not of his country, though not worth two shillings, sometime is 
sufficient, which may move the king not only to favour our busi- 
ness and to grace him, but in short time to give some pension or 
allowance towards his maintenance, for the better obtaining 
whereof fit presents must be for the nobility brought which are 
chief in grace. Cloth and such things as are to be bought for 
money they esteem not ; good sword blades of the country fashion, 
rich knives, cases of bottles with hot waters, they (as the king) 
affecting toys ; our pieces, being long and heavy, they esteem 
not. And for that the king's esteem of him may be the more 
(whereby our business will be the better effected), respect must 
be given him there below, attended on by those fit and such as 
know duty, whereof the king will have intelligence. Our English 
cloth is at present scarce and in good request, viz. stammels, 
Venice reds, popinjay greens, and such like light colours, good 
quantity will vend speedily, so that the lieger need not fear the 
present sale of two or three hundred cloths, and some Devon- 
shire kerseys also, which here they begin to wear in garments. 
Sir Robert Sherley sold some two or three hundred covadas of 


broadcloth at 14 and 15 rupees per covada, which cost in Eng- 
land 12, 13, 14 and 15s. per yard, but most of them were stametts, 
which are best liked. Quicksilver is worth 280 rupees the 
great maund, the seer being 30 pisas in weight ; vermilion at 
290 rupees ; at present no great quantity here, but oftentimes it is 
brought from Bengala, and then to be had reasonable ; so that I 
think, the danger of the bringing of the quicksilver considered, it 
will be better sold there or at Amadavar. Elephants' teeth are 
of different prices, according to their goodness ; the small round 
teeth which are white and sound are worth 100 rupees per 
maund, and those best esteemed, the hollow of them being little 
worth. Lead is worth 6£ rupees per maund, but that too heavy 
so far to be carried. If the lieger so advise, I will procure the 
king's letter for his safe conducting hitherwards, for that the way 
is dangerous for Christians ; yet from Amadavar there cometh 
monthly caphilas. Concerning Midnall's goods which I got de- 
posited, upon Mocrob Chan's letters received from Mr. Aldworthe, 
I sued unto the king for it, the delivery whereof he granted, but 
yet I have not received it, for I must have his second confirma- 
tion of the said grant, and being the goods of a deceased it is a 
difficult business, for that all dead men's goods are disposed to 
the king's use as his, and had not Mocrob Chan written we 
should not have had it, notwithstanding the article for that pur- 
pose, though it had been the goods of one of our own people, (as 
by experience of Mr. Canning) ; and restoring they deliver not 
the goods but monies for it, rated as themselves please, for future 
preventing whereof you must now provide, lest haply the least 
occasion, which is incident to any of us, may be detrimental to 
the worshipful Company in matters of greater consequence. For 
indigo to be sent down I have advised Signor Nicholas Withing- 
ton by two or three several conveyances on purpose, and doubt 
not, if your bills of exchange came safely, the quantity written 
for, or the greatest part thereof, will be with you by the time 
prescribed by Mr. Aldworthe, together with that formerly bought. 
Mr. Aldworthe adviseth me our letters sent home unto the wor- 
shipful Company by the General's direction were detained from 
them, and that in his letter he wrote disgracefully of all of us. 
At the first I much marvel, considering the General's profession 


and cannot conceive how so evil an action should be contrived. 
For the latter there happened a controversy betwixt him and the 
agent, occasioned at the first by their differences in opinion con- 
cerning the settling of our factory; whereon it seems the General 
aimed at his displacing, which if he had done, the Company's 
loss had been the greatest, he being a man of so well known 
government and now experimented in these parts, both which in 
my opinion maketh him fitter for that place than any that could 
be left here. For my part I have received favour of the General, 
and will acknowledge his love, yet for that I may not be partial 
to the prejudice of our employers. Thus I have enlarged of those 
things at present needful, and have showed you the particular 
passages in procuring of the king's letter, that thereby you may 
perceive the managing of our affairs here, and their shifting of 
business when they like them not. And thus as unknown, wish- 
ing all prosperous success to your affairs, I commend my duty to 
the General and to Mr. Edwards and with remembrance of my 
love unto the whole company, I rest 

Your Worship's to be commanded, 

Tho. Keridge. 


OLLECTIONS from all the letters received from 
Surratt and Bantam by the Hope, who arrived in 
Ireland November 5th and came to anchor in the 
Thames [November 24th,] 1615. 1 

Captain Downton's letter, being a copy of one sent by 
Richard Steel by the way of Persia, dated 22nd November, 1614. 

[See No. 185.] 

1 These abstracts are printed only in the cases in which the originals are no longer 
extant. In other cases a reference to the original has been deemed sufficient. 



A letter from John Young, 25th February, 1614. 

He going out for Mr. Aldworthe's boy had no salary allowed 
unto him ; now doth entreat the Company to allot him salary 
amongst the rest of their factors. Captain Downton doth com- 
mend him and soliciteth for him. 


A note of divers particulars desired by Mocrob Chan to be 
provided in England for the Mogore. 

[See No. 183.] 

Edward Holmeden, dated the 7th of March, 1614, in Surratt. 
He was employed in Cambaya in buying quilts and con- 
serves. He humbly desireth Sir Thomas Smith to be good to 
him in procuring him increase of allowance of his salary, as he 
shall be found to deserve. 


Thomas Keridge from Agimere, 20th September, 1614. 
[See No. 165.] 


Wm. Edwards' private letter to Sir Thomas Smith, 

[26th December, 1614 and 14th March, 1614.] 

[See No. 219.] 

Richard Baker's letter in Saldania, 20th June, 1615. 

All the masters erred in their course, bringing all the fleet 
in great hazard upon the main shore of Barbarie at Cape 
Boyador. His direction for the best course from England to 
the Cape Bone Spei. The mariners will not be brought to 
confer their observations together notwithstanding your com- 
mission ; therefore fit to be enjoined unto it upon a penalty. 


They attained Saldania in gi days, notwithstanding they had 
23 days contrary winds. Mr. Woodall's great abuses in the 
chirurgeon's chest, putting divers boxes of one simple, whereas 
he writeth in their superscriptions to be diverse ; drugs rotten, 
unguents made of kitchen stuff. Boys that have no skill 
thrust into place of chirurgeons. He is to be accounted guilty 
of the death of so many men as perish through his default. 
The abuse of carpenters also, that place their unskilful boys in 
place of that weighty charge. Barret hath put into this fleet 
six unfit men instead of sufficient. Old salted beef not noted or 
distinguished from the new, that so it might have been first 
spent ; and some hogsheads miscontented. The masters will 
not yield unto any good article concerning dead men's goods, 
which Captain Keeling had made. Tho. Barwick, master of the 
Peppercorn, was (for falling out with Captain Harris) put master 
into the Lion. Wm. Cradle dismissed from being a master. 
Divers men changed out of one place into another. All your 
pursers (except Tho. Arthington) were exempted from being of the 
council. They take 900 and odd breams at one draught at the 
Cape. Higgons and Starkey dead in the Dragon between Eng- 
land and the Cape. He adviseth to preserve all your old sails to 
make tents in Saldania, &c, for the refreshing of your sick men, 
for the storms do spoil your new sails. Contentions between 
Captain Harris and Robert Gipps, the cape merchant in the 
same ship, striving who shall have the charge and managing of 
the merchandise. Captain Keeling demurreth upon the question 
and inclineth to the captain's part in this kind of voyages. It is 
good to distinguish or limit the offices and charges of captain and 
cape merchant, for the captains do arrogate all authority to 
themselves from your merchants. Nine condemned men landed 
at Saldania to shift for themselves, etc. Cory the Saldanian is 
returned to his old bias of guts about his neck ; he hath done some 
good and some harm there. The Hope from Surratt arrived at 
Saldania. The General, Captain Keeling, maketh much of his 
men. The Lord Ambassador setteth up a pillar at the Cape with 
inscription of his embassage. 



Tho. Keridge to Sir Thomas Smith, dated in Agimer, 

20th September, 1614. 

[See No. 166.] 


Nicholas Downton by the copy of his letter written 
to Mr. Edwards from Swally to the Court [? March, 1615.] 

He reproveth Wm. Edwards very sharply of many abuses in 
general and particular, and wishes him to take measure of 
himself with reformation ; wherein I gather that if Captain 
Downton be truly humble, charitable and sincere, then is William 
Edwards very blamable. 


George Umngton in Saldania [to the East India Company] , 
20th June, 1615. 

Danger of our whole fleet upon the main of Barbary ; better 
sometimes to be fortunate than wise, for all our wise men erred. 
Captain Harris and his men would not underwrite the act made 
by Captain Keeling concerning dead men's goods. France 
Johnson and Edward White died in the way to the Cape. But 
20 men sick in all the fleet to Saldania. Mr. Cradle, master in 
the Expedition, displaced and made a mate in the Dragon, and 
Tho. Bonner made master in his place. Discord between Cap- 
tain Harris and Robt. Gipps, cape merchant in the Peppercorn. 


Captain Downton from Surratt or at sea [to the East India 

Company] , the 7th March, 1614. 

Many distastes offered by Mocrob Chan at our ships' first 
coming. By a letter from Tho. Keridge it appeared that 
Mocrob Chan was but the king's instrument to fulfil the 
desire of the king, etc., and that there was no hope from the 
king but through him. I therefore endeavoured by all means 
to win him to us. Mocrob Chan takes occasion to think us 


confederates with the Portugals because we denied with our 
ships to go against Damon, nor otherwise to promise him to 
fight with the Portagals except they gave us first cause, notwith- 
standing he offered us large sums of moneys to fulfil his desire. 
The said Mocrob Chan was the more suspicious of us to be con- 
federates with the Portugals because when a fleet of 60 frigates 
came within shot of me I would not shoot at them, I being un- 
willing to break the peace. The said Mocrob Chan, after I 
endeavoured to give him the best content I could, did ever show 
me great kindness. He suffered us to carry our goods (which we 
bought in the country) aboard without bringing the same into 
the customhouse. The Mogul commanded Mocrob Chan to 
make no peace with the Portugals. If your ships come yearly 
for a little while of sufficient strength to encounter the Portugals, 
the Indians in short time would little care for them, and the 
Portugals for want of trade would be discouraged and grow weak, 
for the inhabitants love them not. I had by mine intelligencer 
advice of a letter which Mocrob Chan received of the Jesuits, 
declaring that the Viceroy had express commandment from the 
king his master first to drive away the English and then to 
take the town of Surratt. This letter I obtained of Mocrob Chan ; 
the copy Englished I herewith send you. The manner of the 
Portugals' coming with his fleet, their force, etc., pride, etc., 
never speaking to us, nor showing the cause. Our consultation, 
accord and resolution to fight with them. Their manner of 
fighting with us and success. The Guzerats ready to embrace a 
peace upon a parley with the Portugals, doubting of our success ; 
for the force of the Portugals was great, insomuch that it would 
not have gone well with us if God had favoured their cause. I 
never see men fight with greater resolution than the Portugals ; 
therefore not to be taxed with cowardice as some have done. 
The gallants of the Portugals' army were in this business, whereof 
divers killed and afterwards burnt in the ships ; and yet the 
report cometh from Damon that the frigates carried thither to be 
buried above 300 Portugals. For others they took not so much 
pains or care, besides many drove ashore and swam about. If 
the Portugals had not fallen into an error at the first they might 
have destroyed the Hope, and by likelihood the rest hastening so 


to her aid. They renew their strength again within ten days ; we 
feared new dangers and prepared accordingly. They set upon us 
by fireworks. The Portugals with all their power departed from 
us and went before the bar of Surratt. We were afraid they 
would set up their rest against the town ; but they were wiser. 
Much quicksilver lost for want of good packing. The ships' 
muskets break like glass ; the cocks and hammers of snaphances 
evilly made. The false making of sold pieces hath disgraced 
them. The axletrees of your great ordnance made of brittle wood. 
The tracks must be turned when the timber is seasoned. Match 
too scanty. Want of iron chains to lay upon our cables to keep 
them from cutting. Defect in our flesh; our oil most part run 
out ; our meal also spoiled by green casks ; so of our pease and 
oatmeal. No scales nor weights. Much of our beer cast over- 
board, being put into bad casks. 


William Biddulph [to the East India Company] , 28th February, 

1614, in Surratt. 

[See No. 254.] 


Wm. Edwards [to the East India Company]. In Amadavar, 
the 20th December, 1614. 

[See No. 177.] 

Tho. Mitford [to the East India Company] , 
26th December, 1614. 

[See No. 217.] 


Edward Dodsworth [to the East India Company]. 

Aboard the Hope, in Ireland, in Gelbege [Killybegg] Harbour; 
written at his first arrival ; 5th November, 1615. 

At our arrival at Surratt we found small store of goods 
provided for our ships ; therefore we concluded to send up into 
divers places of India to buy goods both for England and 
other parts of the Indies. It was the last of November 
before we could be permitted to go forward by reason they of 
Surratt feared that the Portugals would assault Surratt. We 
go along to Amadavar, having Mr. Edwards in company towards 
Agra. We came to Amadavar the 15th December, being limited 
by our General to return with our goods by the last of January. 
Some of our factors sent to one place and some to another 
to buy several commodities. We buy indigoes at Amadavar 
and Sirques (Sarkhej). The country people wanting money 
were desirous to put off their indigoes at reasonable rates. De- 
scription of the Portugals' arrival, forces, attempts and success. 
The governors of the whole country generally do not well affect 
Christians, but for their own peace and profit ready to take part 
with the strongest. The trade at Surrat like to be commodious, 
for vending of some cloth, quicksilver, lead, elephants' teeth, etc. 
and goods to be bought to relade two ships for England yearly. 
Good trade there will be also for spices, etc. from Bantam, where- 
with he adviseth that one ship be yearly laden, and from Bantam 
to go at such season as she may meet with our fleet going from 
hence towards Surratt (at such a convenient place as may be 
appointed), which will be a good strengthening each to other ; 
and of such India commodities so laden at Bantam to make sale 
at Surratt as that place will profitably carry ; and for the rest of 
the spices in the same ship to be shipped for England among the 
indigoes which shall be laden at Surratt, being very fit stowage, 
and the rather because much room is lost in stowing the indigoes 
alone, as in this ship the Hope experience showeth. The 
Portugals having felt the sweetness of the trade at Surrat a long 
time, being the nursery of all their trade both for buying and 


selling, will not easily be put out ; but, as they have received 
authority from their king, I make account will this next year 
following make their strength to give us a general overthrow, 
whereby utterly to discourage us and redeem their graces lost. I 
think fit to write you thus much and not to defer the relation hereof 
till my coming, fearing it would be too late for you to provide a 
sufficient fleet this year, which being omitted, questionless Surratt 
will be taken and we then frustrated of our present hopes, for that 
the Mogore's timorousness will then bring him to compound. I 
arrived at Saldania the 17th June, where meeting happily with 
Captain Keeling I advised him of all matters, and spared him 
what ordnance I had least use of, he also supplying unto me what 
we wanted. At Saldania you may have a plantation if you 
please, which will be good comfort to such of your shipping as 
shall have recourse that way. I in 27 degrees north latitude met 
with a Holland ship which went to Mouris Island (Mauritius) to 
lade woods, which seemeth to be bastard ebony ; but there found 
3 Holland ships cast away and split upon the rocks, of two 
whereof all the men and goods wholly lost, but of one the men 
and best part of the goods saved, with which goods this ship was 
laden. Sir Henry Folliot's kindness and good offices performed 
to us in Ireland. Captain Mainwaring came into Ireland with 
two ships, having received his pardon. If this ship the Hope 
could come soon enough about, it would be a good strengthening 
to your fleet now making ready, etc. To furnish him with 
necessaries according to the master's letter, and with what money 
shall be thought fit. 


Captain Reeling's letter [to the East India Company] 
from Saldania, dated the 19th June, 1615. 

He professeth himself to have a care to observe all your 
articles in the commission, repeating the particulars. To send 
some store of thick warm clothes (besides canvas suits) to clothe 
your poor sailors in cold weather and wadmall stockings. He 
wondereth you will employ Portugals in your ships and busi- 
ness, a ready way to betray all. One of them shipped was 


a plotter to betray Captain Newport in the Expedition. Bad 
men put into our ships ; not above 12 helmsmen in the 
Peppercorn. Batten, a master's mate, wholly unfit for the 
voyage and place : your stewards more fit to be under tutors 
and a rod than in charge ; your factors very unfit etc. You 
put too much kintlage into these ships. The Peppercorn 
more fit for peace than for these voyages ; she cannot carry out 
her ordnance but in very smooth water ; being deep laden she 
is a slug, but jocund ; she saileth well. They lost many days 
sail by the sluggishness of the Peppercorn at the first ; and 
the Expedition in the whole voyage. But 25 sick men in all the 
fleet to Saldania. The Dragon is undersailed in all her small 
sails and her boltropes so small that they often break to the spoil 
of her sails; her rudder also is very defective. Mr. Burrell much 
blamed. Your lemon water in that fleet stark naught. Sweet 
oil run out by reason of bad casks. Discord between Captain 
Harris and Robert Gipps. Captain Newport discontent because 
Mr. Barkeley is set above him in succession, avowing that if 
Captain Keeling die he will never wear his flag upon the foretop. 
Barkeley commended. He challengeth your license for sending 
home 5 or 6 cwt. pepper in each ship : and Wm. Cradle for the 
use of 20 or 30/. for private, and divers others the like. He 
wondereth what should move the Company to bind some so strict 
from private trade and yet tolerate others ; the reasons are that 
men's affections are free. He wants presents of worth to present 
unto kings etc. as former Generals have done. That you make 
ready your Surratt fleet to be in the Downs by the 15th of 
January at the furthest. Directions out of his experience what 
course all our ships are to hold as most direct unto Cape Bone 
Spei. Wonderful many arguments and requests to have his wife 
sent unto him or to permit him to come home (in what fashion 
soever) in your next ship from Bantam. But three men lost in 
all the fleet in the way to the Cape. Wishing you not to suffer 
any gentleman passenger to go along in any of your ships. 
Merland, whom some of the Lords commended, is the veriest 
villain in the world. A dissension between Captain Harris and 
Robert Gipps about priority and duty. It were meet you dis- 
tinguish or bound the offices and authority of each, viz., captain 


and cape merchant. Wm. Cradle displaced and Thomas Bonner 
master in his place. Tho. Barwick removed from the Peppercorn 
to the Lion for contention between Captain Harris and him. 
Ningin root not a peck yet gotten together by all our means. 
They resolve to newlay the Peppercorn's hatches. The quick- 
silver in the Lion much leaked out. Not to build your ships so 
pinned in above. He desireth to be resolved whether we may 
put the condemned men ashore where we will against their wills, 
for the Lord Ambassador saith no ; therefore do they purpose to 
keep them till your advice. At the Cape the lord Ambassador 
found a rock wherein he amrmeth to be quicksilver and vermilion, 
whereof 30 or 40 lbs. is sent home for trial by Edw. Dodsworth. 
The course they mind to take for Surratt through God's conduct. 
He wisheth to send in every fleet to Surratt a ship or two of 
small draught and good defence, which, having done your service 
at Surratt, may be employed from port to port in the Indies, such 
as are also roomy, which is fitting for hot weather. Requests 
again for his wife with arguments. 


Thomas Keridge [to the East India Company] , 

[dated in Agimer, the 20th January, 1614. 

[See No. 235.] 

John Sandcrofte, [to the East India Company] , 
29th November, 1614, in Surratt. 

[See No. 194.] 

Ralph Preston's letter [to the East India Company] , 
the 9th March, 1614, before Dabul. 

\See No. 265.] 



Robert Gipps [to the East India Company] , 
the 19th June, 1615, in Saldania. 

Ignorance of our mariners to the endangering of all our 
ships upon the coast of Barbary. Barwick removed from the 
Peppercorn into the Lion for discord with Captain Harris. 
Curtis is put master into the Peppercorn. Edward White dieth 
out of the Peppercorn the 26th May, 1615. Discord between 
Captain Harris and Robert Gipps ; the captain revileth the 
merchant and threateneth him. Complaints of Captain Harris, 
who refuseth to advise with his council and would not enter- 
tain the Company and General's order concerning dead men's 
goods, being faulty himself. Captain Harris brought 100/. to sea 
for private trade. At Saldania they esteem brass better than 
copper. The captains arrogate much over the merchants. Mr. 
Cradle displaced from master out of the Expedition, and Tho. 
Bonner put in his place, Cradle being made mate in the Dragon. 
Only four men dead in all the fleet from England to Saldania. 
Nine condemned men put ashore at Saldania. 


Thomas Elkington's letter [to the East India Company] , dated 
aboard the Solomon in Swally Road, 25th February, 1614. 

[See No. 251.] 


Tho. Keridge his letter from Agra or Agimere "to Captain 
Downton], dated 22nd November, 1614. 

[See No. 186.] 



Thomas Aldworthe and Wm. Biddulph [to the East India Com- 
pany] , of the last February, kept till the 2nd March, anno 
Mention of former letters sent by the Globe and James, 
whereof herewith also the copies. The arrival of Captain 
Downton's fleet and receipt of your letters. William Edwards 
ordered to go for Agra and Tho. Aldworthe to remain at 
Surat ; divers appointed to go into the country to buy goods, 
some to one place, some to another, to relade a ship home. 
Fourteen hundred churls of indigo bought at Amadavar and 
Sirques and sent down. The copy of their journal and balance 
of their ledger sent by the Hope. Sixty churls of indigo for- 
merly bought for the Tenth Voyage now put over to the Joint 
Stock and rated at n| rupees the maund ; but the baftas 
rated and charged as they cost, being worth no less. Some 
things bought formerly which they keep there still as unfit for 
England to sell again in Surratt and to be employed with the 
rest of their stock in indigoes etc. to send home in the next ships. 
Our cloth, quicksilver and vermilion which was sent up to Agra 
not yet sold, for anything we know by writing. Midnall's goods 
deposited into the king's hands. Likelihood of good trade at 
Surratt. Some quantity of cloth is hoped will sell yearly in 
Agra, wherefore we sent up thither all the cloth that came in 
these ships. Ormus besieged by the Persian. Good trade ex- 
pected between Bantam and Surratt with spices etc. and from 
Surratt to Jasques in Persia ; our hopes are great concerning this 
business. Our lead, quicksilver and vermilion yet unsold ; the 
lead is worth 8 mamoodies, but the quicksilver and vermilion 
worth at present but 250 or 260 mamoodies per maund. Pic- 
tures, comb-cases, looking-glasses, spectacles, burning-glasses and 
such like are not for sale here but for gifts ; therefore we wish no 
more to be sent. The stock now left here at the departure of your 
ships (which others write to be 1,700/. in Surratt and Agra) we 
intend presently after the departure of these ships to employ in 
indigo and other things according to order to be ready to relade 
a ship at their next coming. If you leave here a stock of 20,000 
or 25,000/., you may have two ships re-laden yearly from this place, 
Y 1268. o 


and that within forty days of their first coming, without longer 
stay. The 500/. worth of Lahore indigo bought at Agra, being 
33 fardles containing by estimation b\ maund per fardle, is now 
come down and shipped aboard the Hector. Withington sick at 
Agra. All the baftas are shipped from Surratt to the southwards. 
Fourteen hundred and twenty one churls of indigo shipped in the 
Hope etc. Two books of Paul Canning's sent home in the Hope, 
but his account of moneys spent in Agra etc. not yet sent 
by Tho. Keridge. The difference between Captain Best and 
Mr. Aldworthe. 

Thomas Arthington [to the East India Company] , from 
Saldania, 18th June, 1615. By the Hope. 

Aboard the Dragon. 

Their passage from England to Saldania from the 4th March 
to the 5th June. Williams Higons, Ric. Starkey (upon the packs) ; 
these two only dead in the Dragon ; Higons the 24th May, 1615. 
The news which the Hope brought from Surratt hath furnished 
our General sufficiently. He commendeth much the General, 
Captain Keeling. The masters of your ships will not be brought 
to confer their observations together. Your act in your commis- 
sion concerning dead men's goods is not well understood ; which 
you may please to reform and to write the construction thereof, 
being the 10th article of your commission for seafaring causes. 
Mr. Barwick master of the Peppercorn is removed and placed 
master in the Lion. Mr. Curtis master of the Lion is put into 
the Peppercorn. A falling out between Captain Harris and his 
cape merchant about good [ ? ] , made friends again by the 
council. Wm. Cradle for abuses displaced from being master in 
the Expedition and made master's mate of the Dragon, and Tho. 
Bonner placed master of the Expedition. The pursers excluded 
the council and the causes why. Ten of the condemned men set 
willingly ashore at Saldania. Commendations of their bread and 
ship-beer unto Saldania. His advice and directions concerning 
our ships' nearest course for the Cape out of England to the Cape 
Bone Spei. 



Thomas Keridge to Wm. Edwards. 
Laus Deo. In Agemere, the 23rd of November, 1614. 

ORSHIPFUL Sir, Having intelligence from Mr. Ald- 
worthe of your purpose in coming hither to the court, 
I held it my duty to advise of such things as I held 
fitting in the behalf of the right worshipful Company, 
which in my general letter to Captain Downton and yourself I 
have written, whereunto I refer myself. And for that I have had 
some experience of this court, I have advised you should come well 
furnished with fitting trifles for continual presents for the king, 
which, though it may seem ridiculous, you shall find that longer 
than something is to be given former favour and respect will be 
restrained, the king so exceedingly delighted with toys, which I 
may well so term, for anything that is strange, though of small 
value, it contents him. So that you must use means to procure 
all things fitting, as rich gloves, wrought or embroidered caps 
and purses, looking-glasses, Venice drinking glasses, curious pic- 
tures in stone, in wood, in wax or painted, knives great and small 
exceedingly requested, striking clocks ; if a jack to roast meat on, 
I think he would like it ; or any toy of new invention, though but 
for sight only, will please him ; if any coloured beaver hats or 
silk stockings for his women, they will be esteemed. Fit 
presents for some of the nobility must also be thought upon, 
choice sword blades of the country fashion much requested and, 
if extraordinary good and will endure bending, nothing is more 
esteemed ; if you have store, as Sir Henry Middleton had, bring 
many, they will sell to great profit ; knives great and small, cases 
of bottles filled with strong waters and such-like things, whereof I 
doubt not your ships are well provided, being we suffered the 
inconveniency of the want of them. I have advised concerning 
broadcloth ; this the principal place for sale of it ; and I think it 
requisite you should bring some small quantity of all sorts of 
other commodities, though they bear good price below, that this 
people may have the better knowledge what our country yieldeth ; 

o 2 


and if you advise I will procure the king's letter for your safe 
conducting along. 

Sir, your care must be in the choice of your company and 
servants, that they be men of civil conversation and government, 
the contrary a fault incident to our nation in foreign parts. At 
Amadabaz you are to fit yourself with provision for your journey, 
where all things are cheapest to be had, good horses only excepted, 
which are to be had here reasonable, and if you advise for any I 
will provide they shall meet you at Jalver (Jhalra Patan ?) which 
is near the midway from Amadabaz hither. Saddles and furni- 
ture are to be had at Amadabaz reasonable and choice [to] 

And thus, though unknown, you see I am bold to advise in 
what I think needful, hoping you will take it in good part and 
excuse my present haste, with remembering my duty to yourself. 
I wish all prosperous success to your affairs and rest 

Your loving friend to be commanded, 

Tho. Keridge. 

189 1 

Richard Cocks to the East India Company. 

(Sent by the Sea Adventure to Siam, and so to Bantam, whence 

it was brought by the Dragon. Received, 19 May, 1617.) 

Firando in Japan, the 25th November, 1614. 

IGHT Worshipful, 

May it please you to understand that the Clove 
being departed from hence towards England, the 5th 
of December, 1613, I went within three days after to 
Langasaque, accompanied with Mr. Wm. Adams and Mr. Edmund 
Sayer to the intent to have bought a junk to have made a voyage 
for Siam and have saved the monsoon, as Captain John Saris left 

1 Some gaps in this letter have been filled up from O.C. 201, which is almost a 
duplicate of it. 


order. But there was no junk to be sold, all being made ready to 
go, some one way and some another, according to their owners' 
directions ; amongst which there were four or five that were bound 
for Cochinchina and offered us freight as other men paid ; where- 
upon by general consent we agreed to make a voyage for that place, 
because, some 2 or 3 years before, John Joosen, a Dutchman, in 
going in a junk for Syam could not get that place, but was con- 
strained to put into Cochinchina to Quinham (Quinhon), where 
he was well received of the king, and made a far better voyage 
than he should have done at Syam ; which being considered, as I 
said before, we made a cargazon of 730^. sterling, wherein was 
eight broadcloths and two hundred pounds sterling in rials of 
eight, the rest in cloth cambaia and half our elephants' teeth ; 
and Mr. Tempest Peacock and Walter Carwarden appointed to go 
with it, because they might come back again in time to go the 
next monsoon for Syam. And for their better entertainment in 
Cochinchina, they carried the King's Majesty of England's letter 
with them, which the General left here to serve for such a pur- 
pose, with a present for the king, if it was thought fit. And they 
arrived in safety at Quinham, delivered his Majesty's letter with 
the present and were kindly entertained, with large promises. 
But the Hollanders, seeing that we made a voyage for that place, 
would needs do the like and sent an adventure in another junk ; 
yet I advised Mr. Peacock he should not make nor meddle with 
them in any matters of business, but be alone. Yet notwith- 
standing in the end he went in company with the Flemings to 
receive in certain sums of money which the king owed them for 
broadcloth and other commodities he had bought of them, but 
they were set upon in the way and slain, both English and Dutch 
with all their juribassos and followers. The general report is 
that the king of Cochinchina did this to be revenged on the 
Hollanders, who burnt a town and slew many of his people not 
many years past. The original grew by means of a great quan- 
tity of false dollars or rials of eight which the Hollanders carried 
in times past and bartered them away for silks and other com- 
modities, but their false money being found out they laid hands 
on the Flemings and as it is said in their fury killed someone, 
in revenge whereof the Hollanders used great cruelty against 


[ ] and children which is the occasion of their and our 

late loss, Mr. Peacock being slain because he was in company 
with the Hollanders. But Walter Cut warden . . . aboard the] 
junk escaped and came away in her, but from that hour to tin 
can hear no news neither of the junk nor him. So it is thought 
they are cast away with other junks like them , for of five that 
went from hence there is but two returned, one of them coming 
from thence 20 days after the junk that Walter Carwanlen was in 
was departed and she arrived h ere four or five months past; so 
that now I am out of hope to hear any good news of him. There 
has never been such foul weather and so much shipwreck in these 
parts as hath been this year etc. We have sold some part of our 
broadcloth, most of them blacks at 12, 13, 14 and 15 taels the 
tattamy or matt (which is something more than two yards: the 
tael is 5 shillings) ; for the Hollanders have sold their broad- 
cloth at such base rates to make despatch that they have marred 
our markets ; but they have not much cloth now [toj sell. White 
broadcloth and yellow are much enquired after, as also clove 
colour and mouse or rat colour ; hare colour, cinnamon colour, 
and violet colour arc also good, but stammels not in such request 
as heretofore ; but they will not look on a flame colour nor 
Venice red ; and I think kerseys, both whites, and blacks and of 
such colours as I said before, would sell well, as I think both 
cloth and kerseys of mingled colours will do the like. It were not 
amiss to make trial of bayes, sayes, cottons, perpetuanoes and 
other stuffs, which may be afforded at a low rate, as also of 
fustians such as are made in England and if it please you to 
send a chest or two of cony skins, lamb and budge or to make 
some of them into gowns or kerimons, as they call them here, 
such as Captain John Saris our General carried a sample of from 
hence (I mean of such a fashion). The Emperor took the four cul- 
verins and one saker for one thousand four hundred taels and 
10 barrels of powder at one hundred eighty and four taels, and 
600 bars of lead poise 115 pecul and 10 catties at 6 condrins per 
catty (ten condrins making six pence) is six hundred and nine [ty 
taels] . We have also sold about half our pepper for 65 mass the 
pecul (the mass being sixpence), and most part of our allejas, 
Amad [avaz ?] cassidienils, pintadoes, pisgars and such striped 



and spotted stuff at divers prices ; but for red zelas, blue byrams 
and dutties, they will not away ; the reason is the abundance of 
linen cloth made in these parts and far better cheap than in any 
part of Christendom. And for tin, it will not sell here for the 
price it cost in England ; and iron is here both better and better 
cheap than in England. Neither as yet can I sell any of the rest 
of our elephants' teeth ; but if it please God we get trade into 
China, as I hope we shall, then they will be [ ] where are 

three or four Chinese my friends who are labouring to get us 
trade in their country and do not doubt it will take effect. The 
place which they think fittest is an island and near to the city of 
Lanquin (Nanking), to which place we may go from hence, if the 
wind be good, in three or four days. Our demand is for three 
ships a year to come and go and to leave only factors sufficient to 
do the business. If we can but procure this, I doubt not but in 
short time we may get into the mainland itself, for, as the Chinese 
themselves tell me, their Emperor is come to the knowledge 
how the Emperor of Japan hath received us and what large privi- 
leges he hath granted us. But the Hollanders are ill spoken of 
on each part by means of their continual robbing and pilfering 
the junks of China, which at first they put upon Englishmen, but 
now it is known to the contrary. The Chinese do tell me that if 
it please the King's Majesty of England to write unto their 
Emperor and send a present, that it will be taken in good part, 
and safely conveyed unto him. If it please God this take effect, 
then I hope your Worships will let me have the credit in pur- 
suing of it. I speak not this in respect I am assured it will take 
effect, yet my hope is great and, as the saying is : nothing seek, 
nothing find. If somebody did not seek after it, it could not be 
effected ; for sure I am the Chinese will not seek after us to come 
unto them. I did think to have sent these elephants' teeth which 
are left to Syam, but I am persuaded to the contrary ; and there- 
fore will keep them and send so much money in place. At present 
we have bought a junk of some two hundred tons. She doth 
stand your Worships with repairing and setting out above 1,000/. 
sterling, besides the cargazon of goods which go in her. She is 
called the Sea Adventure, and now attendeth the first fair wind 
to set forwards towards Syam. Mr. Wm. Adams goeth captain 


and master in her, and Mr. Richard Wickham and Mr. Edmund 
Saycr for merchants. I send one thousand pounds sterling be- 
sides the worth of the elephants' [teeth . . . ] , above two hand 

and fifty pounds sterling in rials of eight, with 4 chests cl< tth Cam- 
baia, which [are not vendible ?] here viz. : zelas, byrams, candc- 
quisnill, chader lullawy and such like, with 5 bales dutties and ten 
corge, and some hundred pounds sterling in Japan armour, pikes, 
cattans, bows and arrows and other trifles to give away in presents 
to the king of Syam and others, as the custom is, and that is 
overplus will be sold for profit, and is better than to carry so much 
money. We have bought the house which our General left us 
seated in, for which as then we paid after forty pounds a year, in 
the fee simple and repairing or rather new-building doth stand 
your Worships already in above three hundred pounds sterling, it 
being builded with [walls on every ?] side a yard thick, and 
covered over with tiles to make it fire-free, we being daily in 
[danger ?] before to lose all by fire. The Hollanders have laid 
out above two thousand pounds sterling already about building 
them an house and yet still a-building etc. Also may it please 
your Worships to understand that I have with the consent of the 
rest entertained into your Worships' service a Dutchman called 
Gisbright Tuning for 80 taels or twenty pounds sterling per annum. 
He came into Japan when Mr. Adams came and speaketh the 
language of this country perfectly and hath entrance to speak 
with the Emperor, if need so require. The man is poor and had 
his house and all that ever he had burned but lately. The man 
is sufficient to do good business if occasion serve to employ him, 
and is willing and diligent. Mr. Wm. Adams hath paid me 
twenty pounds sterling your Worships lent his wife in England. 
He paid it presently after the Clove was gone. I find the man 
tractable and willing to do your worships the best service he may, 
and hath taken great pains about the repairing our junk called 
the Sea Adventure ; otherwise she would not have been ready to 
have made the Syam voyage this year. He hath great desire to 
find out the Northern Passage for England from hence and 
thinketh it an easy matter to be done, in respect the Emperor of 
this place offereth his assistance; and your Worships shall find me 
as walling as any man it shall please you to employ into these 


parts to second him etc. The Emperor [ofj Japan hath banished 
all Jesuits, priests, friars, and nuns out of all his dominions, some 
being gone for the Phillippinas, the rest for Amacou (Macao) in 
China. It is thought wars will ensue in Japan betwixt the 
Emperor and Fidaia Same, son to Ticus Same the deceased 
Emperor. Mr. John Jourdain, the captain and cape merchant 
under your Worships at Bantam, hath advised me to my great 
grief of the mortality happened to Sir Henry Middleton and his 
company with the loss of the Trades [Increase . . . . 1 . He 
also advised me that a month [before the ?] date of his letter, 
which was the 30th of May last, [departed the Darling ?] bound 
from Bantam for Patania and there to take [ ] and so to 

come for Firando. But since I received another letter from Mr. 
Win. Ebrett [from] Pattania the 23rd of June last, wherein he 
adviseth me he can hear no news of her, [so] he doubteth she is 
cast away. If it had pleased God she had come hither before the 
[junk] had been bought (as she might well have done) it would 
have saved your Worships the best part of 1,000/. sterling in cash. 
And so, beseeching the Almighty [to] bless your Worships in all 
your proceedings, I rest 

Your Worships' in duty at command, 

Ric. Cocks. 

We cannot per any means get trade as yet from Tushma into 
Corea, neither have they of Tushma any other privileges but to 
enter into one little town or fortress, and in pain of death not to 
go without the walls thereof to the landward, and yet the king of 
Tushma is no subject to the Emperor of Japan. We could vent 
nothing but pepper at Tushma, neither no great quantity of that 
and the weight is much bigger than that of Japan, but sold at a 
better rate. I am given to understand that up in the country of 
Corea they have great cities and betwixt that and the sea mighty 
bogs, so that no man can travel on horseback nor very hardly on 
foot. But for remedy against that they have invented great 
waggons or carts which go upon broad flat wheels under sail as 
ships do ; so that, observing monsoons, they transport their 
goods to and fro in these sailing waggons. They have damasks, 
satins," taffetas and other silk stuffs made there as well as in 


China. It is said that Ticus Same, otherwise called Quabicondono, 
(the deceased Emperor) did pretend to have conveyed a great 
army in these sailing waggons to have assaulted the Emperor of 
China on a sudden in his great city of Paquin (Pekin), where he 
is ordinarily resident ; but he was prevented by a Corean noble- 
man, who poisoned himself to poison the Emperor and other great 
men of Japan, which is the occasion that the Japans have lost all 
that which some twenty-two years past they had gotten posses- 
sion of in Corea etc. Ric. Cocks. 


Richard Cocks to Adam Denton, English merchant in Patania. 
Firando in Japan, the 25th of November, 1614. 

fR. DENTON, Your joint letter written in that of Har- 
nando Ximenes in Bantam the first of June, came to 
my hand in Firando the 27th of July following, which is 
the occasion I wrote you these few lines in answer to 
Pattania, as you desired. I cannot as yet brag of any beneficial 
trade we have found in these parts, yet time may find it out for 
us as well as it hath done for others ; and it may be into China 
itself; and the rather for that the Emperor of Japan hath ban- 
ished all Jesuits, priests, friars and nuns out of Japan and pulled 
down their churches and monasteries ; as it is said the Emperor of 
China means to do the like at Macou (Macao). It is the misde- 
meanour and covetousness of the Jesuits (as most report) that 
causeth this alteration. Also here is some rumour of wars like to 
ensue in Japan between Ogusho Same, the Emperor that now is, 
and Fidaia Same, a young man of 22 years, son to Ticus 
Same the deceased Emperor. And for sales of commodities, 
our broadcloth goeth away per little and little at 15, 14, 13, 
and 12 taies the tattamy or Japan measure (which is some- 
thing more than two English yards), blacks in most request ; but 
stammels not so much sought after as heretofore, and flame colour, 
Venice red and sea-water greens nothing at all esteemed. The 
Hollanders, to make money, have sold at such base prices that 


they have spoiled our markets. And for cloth of Cambaya, that 
in most request is allejas of Amad [avaz?] , pintadoes, pisgars, broad 
pintadoes, chader pintadoes, cassidienils, cajany harer, bacar Bar- 
oche, Tabshill macura, Tabshill grand and boralls, as also white 
baftas. These sorts of cloth will sell for some profit, but red 
zelas, blue byrams, candequisnill and chaders lullawys will not 
sell at any price, neither make they any great reckoning of dut- 
ties. I write you thus at large, because when you find fit oppor- 
tunity you may advise Captain Jourdain and Mr. Ball thereof to 
Bantam, to the intent that, when any shipping cometh from 
thence to Firando, they may send some of those sorts that will 
vent here, if they lie by the [ ] there. Raw silk at 

present is not worth above 230 taels the pecul (the tael is 5s. ster- 
ling) ; and yet the Macou ship brought but 300 peculs silk this 
year, which is but a small matter in respect of that quantity they 
were wont to bring heretofore, but by means of this bruit of wars 
everyone looks on and keeps their money by them, it being a 
thing light to carry. Brazil or red wood is worth 4 taels the 
pecul, and deer skins, 30 taels 100 skins, and buffalo horns 
20 taels the 100 horns ; and for all other stuffs, as velvets, satins, 
grograms, damasks and taffetas, they are sold at divers prices 
according to goodness. Bantam pepper we sell for six taels and a 
half the pecul ; but the Patania pepper is better, and as I under- 
stand the Dutch sell it at 10 taels or 100 mass the pecul, and 
cloves at 3 mass the catty, and nutmegs the like. But we have 
none of those commodities. Lead is now 'worth 6 taels the 
pecul, because of the bruit of these wars ; otherwise it would be 
better cheap. And tin not worth so much here as in England, 
and iron the like. This letter cometh per our junk, called the 
Sea Adventure, we have bought and now bound for Syam. She 
is of burden some 200 tons and Mr. Wm. Adams goeth captain 
and master in her, and Mr. Richard Wickham and Mr. Edmund 
Sayer for merchants. I send you per Mr. Wickham a jar of rusk 
or white biscuit, which I pray you may be parted betwixt 

A you and Mr. Wm. Ebrett and received as a token of 
my good will ; the jar is marked as in the margin, 
with a ticket on it wherein your name is written. I 
have written Mr. Ebrett answer of the receipt of his letter of the 


23rd of June, dated in Patania. And so with my very hearty 
commendations to you both, with the rest of our good friends 
and acquaintances, I commit you all to the protection of the 
Almighty, resting 

Your very loving friend, 

Kic. Cocks. 
I marvel what is become of the Darling. If she had come 
hither before the junk had been bought, it would have saved the 
Company the best part of 1,000/. sterling in cash. I am little 
beholden to Mr. Ball and the rest which came in the Eighth 
Voyage, for none writes me who is alive or who is dead, nor so 
much as of the mortality happened to Sir Henry Middleton and 
his company nor what became of the Peppercorn. I pray you, 
as conveniently you may, write me what you know hereof. I 
have written Mr. Ebrctt at large of our loss in Cochinchina and 
death of Mr. Tempest Peacock and willed him to make it known 
unto you. R. C. 


The Commission and Invoice of goods shipped in the 

Sea Adventure for Siam. 

Firando in Japan, the 25th of November, 1614. 

R. WICKHAM, I know it is needless to give instruc- 
tions to them which know how to do well of them- 
selves, neither can I say more than formerly I have done 
at your going up to Edo. Only, as then, so now, again 
I wish (and heartily entreat you) not to give any occasion of dis- 
content to Mr. Adams, but rather bear with him both for your 
own good, and the good of the worshipful Company; for fair 
words are as soon spoken as foul, and cause a man to pass 
through the world as well amongst foes as friends. 

Neither is it needful to speak unto you of the feminine gender, 
although the liberty of these parts of the world is over much in 
that kind and were I to give admonition to my own brother I 
would say much more, and doubt not but you my friend will 
accept hereof in good part etc. 


I am not of opinion, neither will give you counsel, to land any 
goods on the coast of Camboja, or Cochinchina, if in case you 
should not get to your port of discharge in Syam (which I make 
no doubt but you will). If not, stand upon your guard and 
barter with such as come aboard if you find it beneficial for the 
worshipful Company, otherwise return the goods back in the 
junk, for our late loss in Cochinchina is not yet out of my 
memory, although there was nothing done therein but by a 
general consent as you yourself can witness. But, God sending 
you to your port of discharge in Syam, then I pray you use all 
expedition you may to procure the lading of our junk with brazil 
(or red wood), deer skins, raw silk, pieces or China stuffs, or any 
other matters you shall understand by good proof may be for 
most profit for our worshipful employers, in doing whereof you 
are best to take the counsel and assistance of Mr. Lucas 
Antheunis and Mr. John Gourney, unto whom I have written to 
that effect. I think brazil wood will yield the Company most 
profit and with it we may compass the lading of the [junk] with 
our own cargazon of moneys and commodities, with an overplus to 
employ in deer skins or any other finer commodities. For I would 
willingly the whole lading should come for the worshipful Com- 
pany Adventurers in the Eighth Voyage if our stock be sufficient 
to compass it ; if not then had I rather the worshipful Company's 
goods of any other voyage should come in her than that of 
strangers, in paying ordinary freight according to custom, for that 
the junk with charges of setting her out hath cost our employers 
much money etc. 

And if you buy deer-skins, a care must be had in choosing of 
them large and without holes ; they are worth at present (as I 
am informed) 30 taels, one with another, the hundred skins I 
mean, great and small together. And red wood 4 taels the pecul, 
and raw silk the pecul 230 taels. For other China stuffs you 
know we sold according to goodness. There is also a kind of 
fish-skins to make scabbards and handles for cattans, which is a 
very good commodity if they be well chosen, or else they are 
worth little or nothing. Also buffaloes' horns are sold here for 
20 taels the 100 horns ; but I know not whether any be to be had 
at Syam, for these came from Phillipines. 


And for a present to be given to the king of Syam or any 
others, take the counsel of Mr. Lucas Antheunis or such others 
as have lain longest in the country, both for the quality and 
quantity. It is said that these armours, guns, pikes, cattans and 
bows and arrows are most esteemed of, and to that intent were 
bought ; but what resteth or is overplus will be sold for profit 
and is better than to carry so much money. Take Mr. Adams' 
counsel herein ; it will give him content and do you no hurt. 

And if you find it fit (and for our employers' benefit) to leave 
a man in those parts, then with the counsel of Mr. Lucas Anthe- 
unis (or others which are experienced in those affairs) you may 
leave Edmund Sayer ; but do it not except upon good occasion, 
for you know we are but few and that our want is much here, etc. 
And make Edmund Sayer acquainted with such business as 
you do, which in some sort will be a discharge for yourself, how- 
soever matters may fall out, and be a credit and encouragement 
to the young man, and bring him to know how to do such busi- 
ness, for every man must have a time to learn etc. 

And if you find any of the worshipful Company's servants 
willing to come hither, of what voyage soever they be, bring them 
along with you and let their goods have passage upon reasonable 
composition, and they shall find me here ready to assist them 
how I may. And if you find Mr. John Gourney at Syam then 
deliver him the letter I sent him, with the worshipful Company's 
packet letters ; but if he be not there then open his letter and 
use the best means you can to send both his letter and the Com- 
pany's packet to Captain Jourdain for Bantam by the first sure 
conveyance, with directions to see the packet sent 
for England with all speed possible, for that it impor- 
teth. And the other two letters to Mr. Adam Denton 
and Mr. Wm. Ebrett I pray you send to them to 
Patania per first sure conveyance etc. And for the 
great leather bag marked as in the margin, wherein is 
seven hundred forty and eight taels Japan plate, it is for so much 
received of John Joosen per advice from Mr. Lucas Antheunis 
for account of the right worshipful Company Adventurers in the 
Seventh Voyage, which bag of money you are to deliver to Mr. Lucas 
Antheunis for the use of the right worshipful aforesaid, etc. 


And the time of the monsoon for the return of this junk the 
Sea Adventure towards Firando in Japan being come, I desire 
you to despatch her away and not to be an occasion of her stay 
upon what surmise soever, as you will answer to the contrary ; 
for it is better to have her to come back without part of her 
lading than unadvisedly to adventure the rest. But I hope your 
forwardness in the business will be such that I need not to stand 
upon this point ; and the rather that you carry most part of 
your cargazon in ready money etc. 

And if I have forgotten anything that (upon good ground) you 
may find fitting for our worshipful employers' benefit, then I refer 
it to your own discretion, desiring you to enquire and look out, 
wheresoever you shall come, what trade may be had into any 
other places whereinto yet we have had no entry, and how we 
may have entrance into them, with the benefit that may arise to 
the right worshipful Company thereby ; in doing whereof it can- 
not choose but redound to your great credit and reputation. 
And if you find any fit conveyance to write me before your 
return then I pray you let no such opportunity overpass, as you 
shall find the like from me. And so I beseech the Lord God 
to send you a prosperous voyage and safely to return. Amen. 

Your very loving friend, 

Ric. Cocks. 

The cargazon of merchandise and moneys are as follows, 
viz. : — 

Taels. Mass. Cond. 

Cloth cambaia, 36 corge 03 pieces, 

[details omitted] cost - - - 0,313 o 3 

Armour and weapons, quita soils (or 
sombreros), fans, boxes, dried 
tunnyfish, gunpowder, mate- 
rials for casting shot &c. [details 
omitted] - 

Money in bags ... 

Ready money - 

Sum total of the whole carga- 
zon, goods and money, is 












Besides the leather bag of seven hundred forty and eight tacls 
Japan plate in bars sent to Mr. Lucas Antheunis for account of the 
right worshipful Company Adventurers in the Seventh Voyage. 

I am given to understand that there is some tonnage in 
hold due to the officers of the junk. What it is let them have it, 
and rather more than less, for I hope we shall make more 
voyages, and therefore good to please these sort of people, etc. 
And when you come to sea if any lurkers go along, thinking to 
make benefit of empty cabins, seek them out and make them to 
pay or sleep on the hatches ; and if any cabins be empty at return 
fill them with light merchandise for the worshipful Company our 
employers ; let not sharkers go beyond you in this case. And so 
the Lord prosper you in your proceedings and send you a safe 
return. Amen. 

Your very loving friend at command, 

Kic. Cocks. 


A consultation of merchants whose names are hereunder written, 
held the 28th November, 1614, in Suratt, concerning a dis- 
covery of the coasts and parts of Peartia (Persia) for trade of 
merchandising, viz. 

NE Richard Steel, an Englishman, who came lately 
through Turkey and Peartia and now having been 
here these five months past hath from time to time 
given such reasons unto Mr. Tho. Aldworthe and 
Wm. Biddulph of great hope for trade and commerce in Pearsia, 
and especially the convenience of place for shipping to arrive and 
discharge at, whereof General Downton will make particular 
relation, and the concordancy of divers reports from others with 
this of Richard Steel gave cause of this consultation, whereof 
when we had with our best judgments debated and considered, it 
was generally thought fit and concluded that the said Steel, 


accompanied with John Crouther, should proceed in the said 
discovery under such a competent charge as by our estimation 
may amount unto 150^. ; the manner of payment thereof, for the 
avoiding of the danger of robbery or other accidents, was not now 
concluded but referred to further consideration. 

General Nich. Downton. 

Will. Edwards. 

Tho. Aldworthe. 

Tho. Elkington. 

Edw. Dodsworth. 

Tho. Mitford. 


Captain Nicholas Downton to Sir Robert Sherley. 


When in the Peppercorn I parted from you at 
Saldania, my poor means for so long a passage con- 
sidered, I little thought from this place ever to have 
written to your Honour into Persia, yet God of His mercy (not- 
withstanding the great mortality amongst my people) continued 
my life not only home, but also though in weak estate carried 
by the desire of my mind this far outwards towards Java, 
Moluccoes, Japan and China, if I find fit encouragement. And 
here meeting divers of my countrymen, as Mr. Thomas Aldworthe 
of Bristowe and Richard Steel, by whom I was informed of your 
landing, and evil usage by the Portugals and their favourers at 
Sinda, with the loss of divers of your followers, by name not 
knowing whom, and of your long abode in the Mogore's court, 
Sir, by a true heart I swear I shall always rejoice in hearing of 
your happy fortunes and also have a friendly feeling sadness if I 
should hear the contrary. It gladdeth me to hear that my Lady 
Sherley hath so well overcome her sea travel, and departed Agra 
in health. William Hawkins died homewards ; so did most of 
the people in that ship. He was buried in Ireland, and his wife 
Y126S. p 


is married to Gabriel Towerson. Mr. Towerson did visit your 
son, and informed me of his health. Myself put into Ireland, for 
want of better winds and strength of people to work my ship, and 
there stayed till the depth of winter before I had means to bring 
her home ; where being arrived, by reason of extremity of cold 
and other infirmities of body, I went little out of my chamber till 
I was carried to these ships made ready for this journey, wherein 
though weak I desired to be transported into a warmer climate. 
Sir, besides the ancient desire long dwelling in me, for to under- 
stand or find out fit place for ships safely to ride and do business 
within the king of Persia his dominions, the little conference I 
had with your Honour at Saldania of the hopes withinland for 
sales of cloth, and other our country commodities or to barter and 
exchange them for the commodities of those countries, together 
with your report of the magnanimity and noble virtues of that 
king, much increase my desire that our countrymen may have 
intercourse into Persia. Diligent have I since been by all means 
possible to inform myself of some place fit to arrive on the coast, 
wherein Jasques is the most hope we have ; yet that is no harbour 
nor safeguard for ships at all times, but may find time in fair 
weather, if we have the country to friend, both to land and receive 
goods, but it is a world of inconveniences when men can have no 
hope of quiet being by sea. Also I hear that in the town are 
divers Portugals, which are always enemies to all our proceedings 
and by reproachful slanders use ever to incense all nations against 
us ; besides, according to their force, they will show their malice, 
but I will leave that to the trial of time. And though I remain 
destitute of a main and principal ground fit to lay a foundation 
upon (which is safe harbour for our ships) my estate or credit in 
this business stands in hazard, since my commendations or 
scandal I expect to follow according to the success. And as the 
charge will be great and dangerous if it miss, so wise men desire 
to be strengthened with the best assurance by likelihood that 
they may, before they will adventure their goods, yet I have now 
resolved, leaving the success to the pleasure of God. I purpose 
to put the Indian Company to that expense in sending this 
bearer Richard Steel to you into Persia, desiring your help in this 
business, which may as I think increase your honour with the 


king for bringing trade by sea into his country, and bind your 
countrymen more to honour and respect you, to which by all good 
offices I do assure myself your heart is inclined. If these my 
endeavours effect nothing, I shall be for ever disgraced for under- 
taking a business beyond my commission. If it prove well, the 
Indian Company will not fail to be thankful to you, and I, that 
have no ability to do good or hurt, shall be bound to pray for you 
for lending your best assistance to save my credit, for I forget no 
syllable of what concerning this business I formerly have received 
from you. The thing principally to entreat you for is to move 
the king, and know his Majesty's pleasure, whether he will grant 
and give his firm and chop for the subjects of the King of 
England to have free intercourse and peaceable commerce 
throughout all his dominions, which if his Highness will grant, 
then that it may please him that Jasques may be prepared by his 
directions for the courteous entertainment of the English, when 
it shall please God to send any of our ships thither, as also for 
their quiet transportation from thence to the court and other 
places as occasion shall import ; and also that it may please you 
to give Richard Steel, who is now the Indian Company's servant, 
all furtherance for his information concerning merchandising 
business, as also your help for his quiet passage out of Persia 
homewards, to give account to the Indian Company of his good 
endeavours herein, and the like to whomsoever shall come in his 
company, who is to return to Surat, there to make our factory 
understand the same, the better to govern themselves according 
as occasion offereth itself. So with all true affection and friendly 
respect, I remember my service to your Honour, ever resting 

Your loving friend, 

Nich. Downton. 

p 2 



John Sandcrofte to the East India Company. 
Laus Deo. In Zurat, the 29th November, 1614. 

IGHT worshipful Sir and Sirs, 

May it please you, the igth April we crossed the 
line in 4 degrees 43 minutes in circa variation. The 
15th June we arrived at Saldania thanks be to God in 
safety, viz. the Gift, Hector, Hope and Solomon. May it please 
you, Captain Best arrived at Saldania the 20th February last and 
stayed there 14 days; Captain Newport the 21st March, departed 
the 31st ditto ; Mr. Pet arrived there 21st of May, departed the 7th 
of June. The 30th of June we set sail from Saldania ; the 6th of 
August we arrived at St. Augustine in St. Lawrence with the 
4 ships, thanks be given to God, having had many contrary winds 
since we came from the Cape of Bona Esperanza. At St. 
Augustine we bought some 20 head of cattle, most of them ex- 
cellent good and fat and cost 5, 6, and 7 shillings per head, and 
for a silver chain worth 8 or 9 shillings two beasts of the best 
sort. The people did much desire chains such as came from the 
masters' whistles, being all silver ; those which were gilt they 
would not take at any rate. If we had had more chains they 
would have sold us more cattle. The second of September we 
crossed the line. The 9th ditto we arrived in the bay of Delisha 
in the island of Socatra. The 12th ditto the cape merchants 
bought of the king all his aloes which were merchantable, which 
was 27 kintals in circa at thirty dollars per kintal, whereof 
14 kintales were dry, the rest more green ; but all excellent goods. 
The 14th ditto we. set sail from thence. The 23rd ditto the mon- 
soon left us. The second of October we fell with Dabul, being in 
17 degrees 35 minutes in circa. The 15th ditto we arrived in the 
road of Swallie in good safety, thanks be to God, having lost in 
the four ships twelve men in circa, but not any one merchant or 
other man of note ; and the rest of the people in better health 
than they were when we came out of England, which I pray God 



long to continue. May it please your Worships, about a year 
since, the Portingals took in this road a great ship of a n or 
1,200 tons called the Remewe richly laden, and divers great men 
were interested therein, and the Great Mogul's mother was a 
great adventurer, which caused the Great Mogul to drive the 
Portingals out of this place and hath made peace with the king of 
Decane who hath joined their forces together and hath besieged 
most of the forts belonging to the Portingals between this and 
Goa. The Moors have vowed to drive them out of this country, 
which they might easily do with the help of these four ships. 
The Viceroy of this place did much import our General to go to 
Daman with the ships, which is some 13 leagues off, to keep the 
road that the frigates might not bring in no victuals to the 
besieged, but in regard our General could not do it, the Viceroy 
would have forced him to go, whereupon he hath much detracted 
time, but now all is in good forwardness, and I think Mr. Ed- 
wards will be ready to go for Agra within two days at the farthest, 
and is promised by the Viceroy to do him all the kindness he 
can ; and he sent for Mr. Edwards two days since and gave him 
a present worth 300 dollars in circa. The 23rd of this month 
Mr. Emsworth and Mr. Wood departed this life. The rest of the 
merchants are in good health, thanks be to God. I cannot advise 
your Worships of the prices of commodities in this place, in 
regard there hath not anything been bought or sold since our 
coming, only a few swords at 7 and 8 dollars per piece. Here 
is great store of goods in the country, and we are to go to 
Amadavar, Cambaia and Brothera to buy goods for the lading of 
one of the ships, but which of the ships shall go home it is 
not known. Mr. Oxwicke and Mr. Young went to Baroach 
the 23rd ditto to buy cotton yarn and other goods. Here 
is one Mr. Steel, who is employed into Persia to discover 
trade, and Mr. Crouther is to go with him. Mr. Steel do 
pretend he is able to carry ships to a port in Persia where silk 
may be bought at js. per pound. We do hear of the death of Sir 
Henry Middleton and of the most part of his men, which is much 
lamented. At our coming to this place we found Mr. Aldworthe 
and Mr. Biddulph, who have been very well used. Mr. Canning 
died long before our coming. And thus with remembrance of my 


humble duty and prayer to the Almighty for the long continuance 
of your Worships' good healths and happy success in all your 

Your Worships' servant in all duty to be commanded, 

John Sandcrofte. 

Laus Deo. In Amadavar, the 19th December, 1614. 

IGHT worshipful Sir and Sirs, 

May it please you, the 13th of this month we 
arrived here in safety, thanks be to God, having 
brought up with us 12 chests money to buy goods for 
the lading of one of the ships for England, and to send for Agra 
88 broad cloths, 192 sword blades, a chest of looking-glasses, a 
trunk of comb-cases, divers pictures, and burning-glasses, besides 
the present ; but the particulars cannot advise, in that have them 
not. Mr. Edwards, Mr. Rogers, Mr. Mitford, Mr. Browne, 
Mr. Young, Mr. Ufflett, Mr. Fettiplace, Mr. Smith, Mr. Prowde 
is to go for Agra ; Mr. Aldworthe, Mr. Dodsworth, Mr. Pres- 
ton, Mr. Battie and Mr. Elmore is to stay here to provide 
goods ; Mr. Hamden, Mr. Humphrey Elkington, Richard Pitt 
and myself are appointed to go to-morrow to Cambaya, to buy 
what goods we can at reasonable prices that serves for England. 
May it please you here is great store of goods in the country 
and at reasonable rates. It is reported here is Serkesse 
(Sarkhej) indigo enough to lade three or four ships. The 
merchants hold it at 10, 11, and 12 rupees the maund (the maund 
contains 32 or 33 lbs. English in circa ; 2 rupees 5 pice make 
a rial of 8, being new ; the old rials is worth 2 rupees and 10 pice, 
the rial being 164 pice in circa). This day we bought 50 maund 
of rich indigo as good as ever I saw in Aleppo, for 15 rupees the 
maund. We sold this day 6 broadcloths at 8£ rupees the covad 
(being 34 inches) and 13 sword blades at 14 rupees per blade. 
The Portingals here burnt divers small towns, which hath brought 
these people to be their utter enemies. There stayed nobody at 
Brothera, in that the gumlac did not prove this year and that 


2I 5 

there was none to be had. As occasion shall be offered I will not 
fail, God willing, to write your Worships by every conveyance. 
This is a very good country, a very good air and a quiet sort of 
people. I should have been glad to have spent my time in these 
parts, if it had not pleased your Worships otherwise to dispose of 
me, to which am very well content. And thus, with remembrance 
of my humble duty, commit your Worships to the gracious pro- 
tection of the Almighty. 

Your Worships' servant in all duty to be commanded, 

John Sandcrofte. 


Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, aboard the Sea Adventure, 
at or near Firando. 

Firando, in Japan, the 2nd of December, 1614. 

R. WICKHAM, Yours dated yesterday, or rather at 
10 o'clock yesternight, came this morning to my hands 
with the 13^ mass, which I gave to Mr. Nealson. If 
Captain Adams will not carry John Phebe with him, 
let him use his own discretion etc. Even now per Yasimon Dono 
I have received your other letter and am much grieved at the 
news of another leak. Captain Adams wrote me nothing thereof, 
and Yasimon Dono the bringer hereof saith it is a matter of 
nothing and will easily be stopped within ship, and for that pur- 
pose is come to fetch two or three barks to unlade stones into. 
I know Captain Adams will not adventure his life in desperate 
sort if he saw any just occasion. If the wind be out of the way, 
I ^ would be glad of your company. I have not received any 
money for Ed. Sayer. They which owe it are none of the 
Hastings in paying. I had rather it were in his purse than mine, 
etc. (I mean in Ed. Sayer's). You gave me a great lock to put 



on a chest or door, but I know not where it is, neither where the 
key of the lock of your chamber door is. If Toshtro have that 
key let him return it per this bringer ; and write me a word where 
the great lock and key is. Mr. Nealson saith you gave it him but 
that he received it not. Commend me to Ed. Sayer, Signor 
Damian and Signor John. And so I end, with hearty commen- 
dations to yourself, resting 

Your loving friend at command, 

Ric. Cocks. 


Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, aboard the Sea Adventure, 
at Cochi, in Firando. 

R. WICKHAM, John Japan promised me to leave me 
the writings of the boy Tushma, how he bought him, 
and render up his right to me. Let him send me those 
writings if he have them, or send me word where I 
shall find them. I send John Phebe of purpose to bring this 
letter to you, understanding the junk is ready to put to sea. 

Ric. Cocks. 
Firando, 3rd December, 1614. 




A document in Japanese, being a list of parcels, with their weights : 
in all, seven packages, wrapped tip in leather, matting, etc. Sakuyemon 
gives his sealed receipt for them on the 22nd August [1613] . Pro- 
bably he had undertaken to carry them to some other part of Japan? 
1 Communicated by Dr. Riess, of Tokio University. 



Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, aboard the Sea Adventure, 
at Cochi in Firando. 

Firando, in Japan, the 3rd of December, 1614. 

R. WICKHAM, Your letter with the paper in Japan 
characters I have received, and am heartily glad the 
leaks prove otherwise than was expected. Also I have 
spoken to Mr. Nealson and received your scissors of 
him, and send them along to you per the bearer hereof, John 
Phebe. And for John Ocanano the Spaniard, I know not what 
other course you should take with him but set him ashore at 
Syam, for as I understand him that was his desire. Only if any 
English ship be there to carry him to Bantam, I know you will 
favour him in what you may ; or else send him to Patania, if 
shipping be there to carry him. I for my part have not been for- 
getful to give him something out of my poverty. If you or others 
do the like, no doubt God will reward you, etc. I verily think 
now that you will have a fair wind, and therefore the Lord 
prosper you in your affairs and send you a good voyage and safely 
to return. Amen. 

Your loving friend at command, 

Ric. Cocks. 
On back : 

I pray you send me your packing bill with the number of 
chests and fardles, and what is in them, to put in the waste 




Thomas Elkington to John Oxvvicke, at Barochc. 
In Surrat, this 8th December, 1614. 

IOVING Friend, Your health desired etc. By letters 
received from Mr. Edwards and the rest I have under- 
stood of their safe arrival and departure from Baroch. 
They advise me for the payment of 3,000/. or there- 
about, if you charge me therewithal ; it shall be accomplished 
whensoever you do the same according to their order. Our 
General for use of the ships is to be fitted with some strong 
dutties, which here are not to be had ; therefore he would have 
you to provide and send him so soon as you can 20 corge of the 
strongest you can there procure, being for the mending and 
making of sails ; and hereafter as he shall have cause of more he 
will advise you. Our elephants' teeth we have sold at 70 mamoo- 
dies the maund, but not yet all delivered or money received, but 
hope for all. And this is all the sales of import that hitherto we 
have made. News we have not much to advise you ; only on 
Sunday last passed by, within musket shot of the ships, 60 sail of 
frigates of the Portingals, which, as far as those aboard could 
perceive, went towards the northward. 

Thus for present not having other, I rest and leave you to 

Your loving friend, 

Thomas Elkington. 


Thomas Aldworthe to John Oxwicke in Barocha. 
Brodera, this 9th of December, 1614. 

^R. OXWICKE, We hear there is a difference between 
Narangee and the other broker, so must you with your 
discretion temper it that the general business be not 
hindered ; for though we ought to respect Narangee as 
an honest man and our broker, yet if any other broker can fit us 
with better bargains than he, you are in such a case to take your 


advantage as heretofore told you ; when not, then fitter to use 
one than two. Only have a care the business be not delayed, 
and for your better assistance Mr. Farewell is sent down, for that 
we have no cause to leave any Englishmen here as we thought to 
have done. So hoping on your careful endeavours, I commend 
you to God. 

Your loving friend, 

Tho. Aldworthe. 

Herewith are sent you 
3 musters 2^, 3, 5, of white baftas 
with their prices. They are half an 
inch narrower and one covad shorter 
than those of Barocha. 


Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke in Baroche. 

Laus Deo. In Surrat, the 10th December, 1614. 

flOVING Friend, Hearty commendations with desire of 
your health etc. Two days past I wrote you a few 
lines, requesting you to provide for our General 20 corge 
of strong dutties such as may be fit for making and 
mending of sails and that it be done with as much speed as you 
can. Now you shall understand that yours of the 7th present I 
have received by the Nabob's peon and according to your writing 
have sent you by him z\ covads stammel and 2| covads Venice 
red, not having any cloth of the colours you sent for muster, and 
10 sword blades crooked, in price of which you may use your 
discretion and go the nearer hand with him in regard of the kind- 
ness he hath showed to Mr. Edwards. We have not here sold 
any under 40 mamoodies the piece and so with you I think they 
may be very well worth. Your own are not yet out of the custom 
house ; else would have sent them. I perceive you have hitherto 
done little in the providing of those commodities that are there to 


be had. You being there present shall see what is most requisite, 
yet withal it were good to consider of the small time we have 
remaining to do much business in. You write of a note that 
Mr. Edwards should send for the 5 covados cloth, but I never 
received any such ; notwithstanding upon your own letter have 
sent them. Thus for present not having other, I commit you to 
God's holy protection, resting 

Your loving friend, 

Thomas Elkington. 

To Mr. Bayly Ball I pray commend me and request him to 
hold me excused that I write him not. I am not forgetful of his 
things with the Nabob, yet nothing done therein. 


See under No. 189. 


Richard Cocks to the Company of Merchant Adventurers of 
England resident in Middleburgh. 

[Firando, 10th December, 1614.] 

IGHT worshipful Sir and Sirs, 

May it please you to understand that I, being 
[ ] unworthy brother of that your 

right [worshipful Company] of Merchant Adventurers 
of England thought [it] my duty, being in these remote 
parts of the world, [to write] unto your Worships of my health 
and welfare, not being [able by] means of other employments 
to make my personal appearance as otherwise I would do, 


if place and opportunity would give me leave, which I beseech 
your Worships to take notice of [and not] let me fall into any 
broke of the house, for may it [please your Worships] to under- 
stand that for the space of 15 or 16 [years I] have been very 
little or no time at all in England, my employments being still in 
foreign parts ; and it is now almost [ ] years past since 

my last departure out of England in the Clove of London, under 
the command of Captain John Saris our [General] , where we 
passed a most long and tedious voyage of almost three years, 
doubling the Cape Bona Speranza and coming along the southern 
parts of Ethiopia, entering in [the Red Sea ?] and visiting other 
islands and places along [ ] Cambaia and India, 

till we arrived at Bantam, and from thence went and visited 
[ ] islands of Molucos, and so took [our course for 

the ?] mighty empire of Japan, arriving [ ] the 

1 2th day of June 1613 [ ] . Large privileges of the 

Emperor [ ] all parts of his dominions, with promise 

[ ] further discovery to the northwards [ ]. The 

Dutch arrived here some three years before [and obtained ?] the 
like privileges, they being assisted [therein by William ?] Adams, 
an Englishman who hath remained [ ] in these parts and 

now is entertained into the [service of the] right worshipful 
Company of English Merchants trading [into the] Indies, etc. 
Also may it please your Worships to understand that of late the 
Emperor of Japan hath banished all [Jesuits], priests, friars and 
nuns out of his whole dominions of Japan, shipping them away 
some for Amacan (Macao) in China (where it is said they will 
have but cold entertainment) and the rest for the Manillias or 
Phillippinas, and hath pulled down and [ ] all their 

monasteries and churches. They lay the fault of this [ 
or alteration in the arrival of our nation in these parts, though it 
is well known their own merits and bad behaviour [are the] chief 
occasion thereof. Once gone they are, and many here nothing 
sorrow thereat etc. At present here is [rumours of?] wars in 
Japan betwixt Ogusho Same, the Emperor [ ] and 

Fidaia Same, the son of Ticus Same [the deceased Emperor ?] , 
Fidaia Same the young prince being strongly [ ] or 

fortress of Osekey with 80,000 or 100,000 [ ] come 


of it in the end God He knoweth [ ] other is in 

person [ ] an army of 300,000 men. I know not 

what else [ ] advise your Worships of, and leave you 

with all your [affairs to the] holy protection of the Almighty etc. 
From the [English ?] house at Firando in Japan, the 10th of 
December, 1614. 

Your Worships' most humble servant at command, 

Ric. Cocks. 

Inclosed I send your Worships a Japan almanac whereby you 
may see their order of printing, letters and characters, and how 
they divide the year into twelve months. 


Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, aboard the Sea Adventure, 

at Cochi in Firando. 

Firando, in Japan, the 10th December, 1614. 

R. WICKHAM, I perceive per the words of Captain 
Adams that he is sorry he was mistaken in advising or 
writing against you as he did the other day. He tells 
me you and he are very good friends and drank to- 
gether this morning. I am heartily glad it is so and hope it will 
continue, or that you for your part will give no occasion to the 
contrary. I think this cold weather will bring in a northerly wind, 
which God grant. I pray you commend me to Signor Ed. Sayer, 
Signor John de Ocanano and the rest of our friends, and so rest 

Your loving friend at command, 

Ric. Cocks. 
I understand Mr. Eaton 
is well received and spoke 
to Fidaia Same before he went 
to Sackay, who used him kindly. 




Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, aboard the 

Sea Adventure, at Cochi in Firando. 

Firando in Japan, the 10th December, 1614. 

R WICKHAM, I thought you and Ed. Sayer would 
have come to dinner, as I expected Captain Adams 
would have done the like ; but your host came and told 
me that foul weather stayed you. I send John Phebe 
with a little fresh fish for you and Captain Adams, and did think 
to have come myself, but that I am now writing to my country- 
man Eaton, and think the way is foul if I should have come to 
you per land. Commend me to Ed. Sayer, Signors John and 
Damian. And so I rest 

Your loving friend at command, 

Ric. Cocks. 


Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, aboard the Sea Adventure, 
at Cochi in Firando. 

Firando in Japan, the 12th December, 1614. 

R. WICKHAM, Captain Adams writes me he was your 
guest at supper ashore. I wish many such meetings 
may be, as well aboard, which would give me much 
content, and so have I writ him. I send 30 loaves 
fresh bread by John Japan, 15 for you and Ed. Sayer and 15 for 
Captain Adams ; also two great sacks rice by John Japan for 
you ; and I sent 22 great sacks rice before to Captain Adams, for 
that he said the long stay of the junk caused the company to 
desire it, of which you may take notice. I hope the wind will 
be good in the morning, at which time the Holland ship meaneth 


to come out, and God willing I will come and see you in her, if 
you be not gone out before. Commend me to all good friends in 
general, and the Lord send you a prosperous voyage and safe 
return. Amen. 

Your very loving friend at command, 

Ric. Cocks. 


A remembrance to be done per my good friend 
Wm. Biddulph, viz. : 

M PRIM IS, to call for these things out of the Custom 
house : 

One damask piece 5 foot long, which is in a black 
case pinned with fourpenny nails. 
More, 1 dozen of white hafted knives of 12s. per dozen. 
More, 2 pair of knives of 4s. 6d. p [erj p [air] . 
More, 1 knife of 2s. 6d. 

Entered in the name of Tho. King these abovesaid. 
More, 2 damask guns long. 

More, 6 sword blades with scabbards to them, bound up in a 
white woollen cloth. 

More, 5 pair fine hafted knives. 

More, 4 sword blades wrapped in two linen pieces of cloth 
next the hilt bound with thread. 

Per these marks you may know all those things that remain 
in the Custom house, and do with them hereafter as I shall 
write you more at large from Borocha. 
More, 1 suit of apparel not yet finished. 

Your friend to use, 

John Oxwicke. 


Wm. Biddulph to John Oxwicke in Barocha. 
Laus Deo. In [Surat] the 12th of December, 1614. 

OOD Mr. Oxwicke, Yours of the 7th I have received, 
perceiving thereby you were informed by Mr. Ald- 
worthe and Mr. Dodsworth that your things were out 
of the Custom-house, which is altogether unknown to 
me, having demanded them of the Customer many times, but as 
yet they would not be at leisure to deliver them. Howsoever I 
will not rest until I have got them out of their hands, but, for the 
sending of them to you, without can find good company will let 
them rest here, for the way is very dangerous. For the tailors, 
have moved them oft to come to you ; but they answer they are 
not used to travel so far afoot, and indeed the most and best are 
at present aboard the General. Your suit of apparel is finished, 
and so I will do with that and the rest of your things when they 
come into my hands according as you shall give order in your 
next, the way being very dangerous without good company. Thus 
not remembering further at present, but pray you excuse me in 
not writing oftener unto you, but, God willing, as occasion is 
offered I shall be bold to trouble you. Praying for your health 
and to bless and prosper all you take in hand, with my hearty 
love to yourself, I commit you to the protection of the Almighty 
and rest 

Your loving friend to command, 

Wm. Biddulph. 


Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke in Baroch. 
Laus Deo. In Surrat, the 14th December, 1614. 

OVING friend Mr. Oxwicke, Hearty commendations, 
with desire of your health etc. My last unto you was 
by the Nabob's peon, by whom according to your 
order I sent you ten crooked sword blades, z\ covads 
stammel and 2^ covads Venice red, not having any of that colour 
you sent the muster of; the same I hope to come unto your 

Y 1268. o 


hands in safety. Two days past I sent you a letter from our 
General by Mr. Biddulph's conveyance, wherein I doubt not but 
he hath writ his mind touching your proceedings there, our hopes 
now being that you are in some good forwardness with that 
business, whereof we do long to hear ; but if you should find 
them still to hold up their commodities at extraordinary rates, as 
our General's opinion is, so I think it were very fitting you made 
some certain semblance of coming away, whereby the sooner to 
bring them to reason. For such moneys as Mr. Edwards gave 
order to furnish you withal, whensoever you charge me withal, 
your bills shall be paid at sight. Yesterday we received letters 
from Mr. Thomas Keridge from Agemer and therewith a letter 
from the Mogul to Mocrob Chan, but not to that effect we 
expected, which was for our better usage, which would not be 
granted for that Mocrob Chan had not written of our arrival, this 
letter being for the sending up of the present without seeing of it. 
So that we stand in some doubt, were it not that we fear it is too 
publicly known that a letter is come unto us, whether to deliver 
it or no, for that we think it will rather increase his spleen unto 
us, for that he will suppose it was of our procuring, and good 
none at all it can do, in regard what hath passed concerning the 
present and that it is gone, as our General shall advise, to whom 
Mr. Keridge his letters are directed. I will proceed. For sales 
we find them very slow ; no great inquiry made after anything. 
Our lead, quicksilver and vermilion we will now hasten hither 
and then shall see what the time will bring forth. God grant we 
may find it to content. Thus, with my hearty commendations to 
Mr. Bayly Ball with Esay Butt, I commit you to God's holy 
protection and rest 

Your loving friend, 

Thomas Elkington. 




Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, aboard the Sea Adventure, 
at Cochi in Firando. 

Firando in Japan, the 15th of December, 1614. 
R. WICKHAM, I walked yesterday in the afternoon to 
your lodging at Cochi, according as I informed you in 
my letter per John Phebe I would do, but found you 
were removed to the place where the junk is. So I 
returned back, but sent Simon our juribasso to you with a dozen 
of bread to be parted betwixt you and Captain Adams. I make 
John Phebe did deliver you the two fishes and letter I wrote you 
yesterday. He is now grown stately and will not serve in the 
English house for comprador ; so he and I are parted. God 
speed him well etc. If the wind be out of the way, I would be 
glad of your company with Signor Ed. Sayer and Signor John 
Ocanano. Signor Damian is here looking out for a caffro which is 
run from his master ; he cannot choose but meet with him, for he 
was in this house yesterday and is in town. I know not what 
else to write, but end with hearty commendations to yourself and 
the rest, resting 

Your loving friend at command, 

Ric. Cocks. 


Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, aboard the Sea Adventure, 
at Cochi in Firando. 

Firando, in Japan, the 15th December, 1614. 

R. WICKHAM, Your letter dated this day I have re- 
ceived with your barrel morofaco, for which I give you 
thanks. I am sorry it was not my fortune to have 
met you yesterday at Cochi. I do not marvel that 
that fool, John Japan, playeth the ass, for I always esteemed him 
a simple fellow. He is not here, for I have sent out to look for 

Q 2 


him ; and as I am given to understand he is gone in a bark for 
sea. So I think he is gone for Langasaque. If any man have 
played the fool it is I in trusting him too much. The Spaniards 
have laid hands on the caffro and so may you tell Signor Damian, 
if he be not come away before this come to your hands. George 
our caffro saw him when he was taken. I have done your com- 
mendations to Mr. Nealson. I make no doubt but Damian 
delivered you the letter I sent you this day. That knave Simon 
the caffro is not he I took him for. When he was sick I bade my 
boy lend him a warm kerimon to walk up and down in till he was 
well, but he gave it to a whore in this street, on whose back my 
boy espying it took possession. . I also gave him a Surat coat of 
allejas Amad [avad] which I saw upon the back of a Japan at 
our door this day. In fine he is a knave and better lost than 
found. I have bought a parcel of live freshwater fish, which I 
mean to send to you and Captain Adams per first conveyance ; 
unto whom I pray commend me if he be not come for Firando, 
as I think he is. And so with hearty commendations in general 
I leave you to the holy protection of the Almighty. 

Your loving friend at command, 

Ric. Cocks. 


Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke and Christopher Farewell. 
Laus Deo. In Surrat, the 16th December, 1614. 

j|0VING friends, Hearty commendations, with desire of 
your healths and continuance thereof etc. My last to 
you, Mr. Oxwicke, was of the 14th present wherein I 
writ as cause served, to which do refer me ; since 
which I have received two of yours, one of the 13th from Gagara 
(Gajera, near Jambusar) and one of the 15th from Baroch, with 
one from you, Mr. Farewell, of the same date, with letters from 
our friends which you left at Brothera, being very glad to hear of 


their safe arrival there, hoping that [ . . . . before ?] this they 
are arrived at Amad [avad . . . . ] indigo, which being good 
[ ] had been more ; but Mr. Edwards having advised you 

to withhold it must be followed, and so you did intend, and to em- 
ploy yourselves [in] the buying of the baftas, wherein you do well 
to use all good stratagems to bring those crafty people to some 
[ ] . Yet I hope ere this you have made some entrance 

[ ] . And for the moneys Mr. Edwards hath ordered 

you should charge [me ?] withal, as formerly I have writ, you 
may do it whensoever or how much thereof you please, and your 
bills, God willing, shall be paid at sight. The cloth and sword- 
blades sent per the Nabob's peon I [now ?] understand you have 
received the same. For the cloth I writ you not the price 
thereof, for that I thought it had been given per Mr. Edwards. 
As yet we have sold not so much as a covad of any cloth, but 
our order is for the stametts at 25 mamoodies the covad and the 
red 22^ mamoodies, the covad of this place being a yard within 
an inch ; and that measure we have sent you, doubting whether 
that of Baroche be so large or not. And as for the sword blades, 
as I writ you we sell not the worst here for less than 40 ma- 
moodies. Notwithstanding, being such a trifle, knowing better 
than myself the Nabob's pleasure done to Mr. Edwards and what 
more he may do unto you, may [decide ?] what you shall see 
most [ ] not to expect a price to be set [ ] 

business to your [ ] . 

We here have news that [ ] Portugal frigates have 

been at Goga and there burned 120 ships whereof ten great, the 
Remew being one of them, and so are gone to some other place. 
The people here are in very great fear of them and have re- 
quested our General to ride at the bar with two of his ships, to 
whom I have writ thereof, and I think he will do it. Thus, not 
having others at present, I commit you and your affairs to the 
protection of the Almighty, resting 

Your loving friend, 

Thomas Elkington. 




Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, aboard 

the Sea Adventure, at Cochi in Firando. 

Firando in Japan, the 16th of December, 1614. 

R. WICKHAM, Your answer of my letter sent per 
Martin I have received, perceiving how the hobgoblin 
led John Japan through the mountains but I rather 
take it to be his drunken nole, etc. I wrote you yester- 
day how the Spaniards had laid hands on the caffro, which is 
true ; but presently the king's brother sent for him and caused 
him to be brought to his house and that the Spaniards should 
attend his brother's pleasure until he returned from hunting. 
They came to me (I mean the Spaniards) to crave my assistance 
in the matter. I told them I was a stranger as they were ; yet at 
their request I went to Oyendono and asked his opinion, but he 
resteth doubtful of the matter. The reason is as he told me 
because the Spaniards carried away our men the last year, not- 
withstanding the king of this place wrote them and desired the 
contrary, as Safiandono did the like, so it seems they mean to use 
the same measure to them. It is said the king meaneth to 
muster all his soldiers in barks by water this day and make a 
great show. I wish you were here to see it and eat your part of a 
neat's tongue to dinner. I know not what else to write but desire 
the two buckets the fresh fish went yesternight in may be re- 
turned. And so with hearty commendations to you and the rest, 
I rest and remain 

Your loving friend at command, 

Ric. Cocks. 


ERONIMO DE VARRADA, at Nangasaki, to the 
English at Firando, Dec. ^f , 1614. (In Portuguese.) 



Raphe Preston to John Oxwicke in Barroch. 
From Amedever (Ahmedabad), the 17th December, 1614. 

JR. OXWICKE, My kindest salutes, with desire of your 
health, etc. Your letter received with thanks for 
your kind remembrance, wherein I wish requivolence. 
Whereas you made account that Mr. Sandcrofte and 
myself was at Brodra, for that there was none of that commodity 
which was aimed at, as gumlac, it was thought fitting not to 
leave any there, as Mr. Farewell our friend can inform you if he 
have not already. For the news in these parts, such as they be, 
understand briefly: for indigo, here is great store and cheap, 
being offered the same for lod. the seer the best : but as yet have 
gone through for none, but purpose very speedily to make a 
partido for a great quantity ; and here baftas are reasonable, but 
for anything I know they are minded to proceed in that place. 
Some two days hence our friends go for Cambia, whither I should 
have gone had not an accident happened, which I have touched 
on at large in my letter to Mr. Farewell, which party, good Mr. 
Oxwicke, understand aright. [He] is one that I dare assume is 
no haggard to prey upon carrion. Mistake me not ; my meaning 
is he will not seek his own where it tends to the disgrace of 
another. You are both wise and both, I hope, will understand 
yourselves. Oppositions have been always and will still be. You 
are not alone, you have partners to sympathize with you. Rest 
assured all will be for the best, and calumniators will one day be 
made manifest. Well, I leave them in the meantime to God and 
in the meantime wish patience ; and rest with my best well 
wishes to you both and end, 

Your loving friend, 

Raphe Preston. 

Pray you commend me to Mr. Ball, 
Esay Butt and John your lad. 




Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke in Barochc. 

Surrat, this 17th January, 1614. 

R. OXWICKE, I heartily commend me unto you, etc. 
Yesterday, by one of our peons that went with 18 
fardles cloth and 4 cases bottles for Amadavar, I wrote 
you a few lines and by him sent you sealed in a piece 
of canvas 87 mamoodies 10 pice for our General. After which I 
received yours per Bamond of the 15th present, wherein you 
write to have sent from hence some of our packers, which after 
much ado I procured and have sent you six. They are very un- 
willing to come, fearing they shall not be permitted to work 
there ; if so I was forced to promise them they should be paid for 
their going and coming. And for that they have no house or 
friends there, they desire they may lie in yours. Thus for present 

God keep you. 

Your loving friend, 

Tho. Elkington. 


A remembrance given to my good friend Christopher Farewell for 
Baroch, the 19th of December, 1614, in Brothera [by Thos. 

OVING Friend Christopher, at your coming to Baroch, 
whither God send you in safety, I pray you deliver 
to Mr. John Oxwicke the letters which you carry for 
him, the contents importing principally that whereas 
the business being of import and little assistance there for the 
performance of the same it is thought fit that yourself should 
equally be joined with him in the performance thereof, which I 
desire you would do with all carefulness for your own credit and 
the general good, and that you both run in the same in an equal 


yoke of friendship, which will be a principal furtherance to the 
business. You carry with you a muster of calicoes of three sorts 
with their prices, as they are here to be had ; but for that we 
esteem them dear, and that the great plenty of them in all parts 
of this country gives hopes of better pennyworths, you shall do 
well to be very careful in your buying, for thereby much may be 
advanced. But for that the time is short and we subject thereto, 
you must proceed the best you may, of these sorts which you 
carry with you. We have bought none but those sorts, expecting 
advice from you by every occasion, and accordingly Mr. Ald- 
worthe at his return from Amadavar will buy or leave in this 
place. For indigo I wish you forbear to buy till Mr. Aldworthe 
further advise you from Amadavar, for that it is hoped it will be 
found better cheap than the musters that we saw at Baroche. 


[Richard Wickham] to Richard Cocks in Firando. 

Oxima (Amami Oosima, one of the Liu-Kiu Islands), December 

the 23rd, 1614. 

|OVING Friend Mr. Cocks, My heartiest commenda- 
tions remembered, etc. Having a fair gale at N.N.E. 
on Saturday, the 17th ditto, we set sail from the road 
of Cochin (Cochi) with fair weather all the same day ; 
but all the same night we had much lightning with much wind, 
and the next day very foul weather so that we could not bear 
much sail, being seven leagues to the southward of Mexma 
(Me-sima). This morning our [ ? ] Firando leaks began to in- 
crease, so that this day and the whole night following the Japan 
men never left pumping and bailing in many places or petackas of 
the hold. The 19th the storm increased so that we all doubted 
to see any more land, our leaky junk having almost tired the 
most part of the mariners labouring to heave out and pump the 
water continually, which struck the merchants and other idle 


passengers into such a fear that they began to murmur and 
mutiny, saying that we had brought them out in a rotten junk to 
drown them ; and so they all agreeing with the mariners came the 
next morning unto Captain Adams and afterwards unto me, saying 
that if we would not stand with some of the Lequeos that they 
would not pump a stroke, being, as they said and so I do well 
know, all extremely laboured and tired so that to hold on our 
course for the coast of China they would never agree thereunto, 
although both by Captain Adams' reckoning and mine, as we told 
them, we were neither of us 30 leagues off the coast of China. 
And at that present the wind veering to the northwest so that we 
could not lie our course, and seeing ourselves in extreme peril of 
death if that our leaks should increase never so little more, having 
now not above 15 men, being the officers, which could stand upon 
their legs, the rest being either sea-sick or almost dead with 
labour ; so that the 20th about 10 of the morning we stayed our 
course for the Lequeo Grande, having by observation at noon, as 
near as the weather would give leave, 29 25', and per Captain 
Adams 28 57' ; and so steering east and by south and east some- 
times, our men bailing and pumping night and day, and much ado 
we had to seek some of the leaks within board ; some few places 
notwithstanding the foul weather we stopped, yet by no means 
could free her. And the 22nd by the break of day it pleased God 
that we had sight of the island of Fuego alias Javea with other 
two small islands adjoining, and within half an hour after we 
had sight of the island of Oxima, 9 leagues to the southwestward 
of Fogo and also of divers other small islands to the southwards 
of Oxima or Oshima, being the northernmost of the Lequeo 
Islands. On the northwest side of this island of Oxima we came 
to an anchor this evening in a very fair harbour, where the 
Governor and others came aboard and promised us all the friend- 
ship that the place afforded, upon whom we bestowed a langanatt 
or pike. But he hath advised us to go for Nafe (Nafa), being the 
chief harbour on the island of Lequeo Grande (Okinawa-sima), 
where the king is resident, and there God willing we make 
account to stop our leaks, chiefly by bringing our ship on ground, 
which otherwise we cannot possibly accomplish without apparent 
hazard of all. The time and winds we have lost doth grieve me 


to write of, through the unfortunate proof of our leaky ship. I 
am sorry I was not worthy to be a help to have prevented so 
great a hindrance, nevertheless, God most merciful, that hath 
delivered us out of this danger which we have passed, will still 
help us and further us in our proceedings ; so that I trust within 
this month or less we shall be ready to proceed upon our voyage 
again, which God willing we purpose to attempt about the fine of 
January, if wind and weather serve. There hath been a China 
junk lately cast away which came from Satchma (Satsuma) and 
bound for Nanguin (Nanking). There is also one other arrived 
on some part of this island, which likewise this year departed 
from Nangasaque or Satchma for the coast of China, and 
determineth within few days to go to Nafe on the Lequeo Grande, 
whither, God willing, we determine to go unto, for we cannot 
effect our purpose in this place. The [ ] more than 

you did expect, but now there is no remedy but patience for all 
[ ] . For my part my best endeavours shall not be 

wanting to help what [ ] . If I see likelihood of 

conveyance I will write you of our proceedings ; until which time 
I most heartily commit you and all your [ ] blessing 

of the Almighty God, the giver of all prosperity and happy 
success, desiring you to commend me to Mr. Eaton and to our 
friend Mr. Nealson, with the [ ] Firando. And so 

for the present I rest 

Your loving friend to command, 

[Richard Wickham] . 

P.S. — The bearer hereof is the Governor of this island, being 
within these two months bound for Satchma, and hath promised 
conveyance of our letters, for he is vassal unto the [ ] , 

as also those of Lequeo Islands are. These people do much 
resemble the Chinese yet [speak ?] the Japan tongue, although 
with difficulty to be understood of the Japans. They wear 
[their] hair long, bound up like the Chinese, with a bodkin 
thrust through, but it is made up [on the] right side of their 
heads ; and are a very gentle and courteous people. 


Ric. [Wickham]. 

236 ;t is- ma c s records 


Thomas Mitford to Sir Thomas Smith, Governor, And the 

Committees of the Last Irulia Company. 

giGHT Worshipful, 

Mv service remember* !. Being arrived in • 
Indian country in good safety with the loss of 

few men in our fleet, whereof two m< 1 
Mr. Emsworth and Timothy Wood, for which the Almighty 
make us ever thankful, amongst many others I thought it 

unfit to certify you of our proceedings here since our 
in the country. 

The 14th of October, 1614, we arrived in the road <>f Swally, 
where our General sent an 

Surrat of our arrival and to request the principal of thei 
come aboard our ships to advise us of the state and condition of 
the country, and in what safety we might land OUT goods, 
what store of commodities were fitting for our country, with their 

The 16th Mr. Thomas Aldwurthe came aboard and 
that the countries within themselves . only at \ 

with the Portingals ; our safeties there not to be doubted, all 
former matters being concluded and ended ; and for buyio 
commodities we could not have come in a more tit time, by 
reason of the wars betwixt the Portingals and the Indians, which 
had continued for these two years past, so that tlv 
very little or no commodities transported by sea. Mr. Aldworthe 
likewise acquainted us of the death of Paul Canning and 
that of necessity one must reside at Agra, both f<>r holding 
respondency with the Mogore as for the buying of commodities 
at certain times of the year; and therefore at a Council holden 
the iSth of October, Mr. William Edwards was made choice of 
to reside at Agra with seven other merchants, and Mr. Thomas 
Aldworthe to remain principal at Surrat with the rest of the 
merchants. And having so disposed of the factories we made all 
haste that could be for the landing of our goods, that we might 
proceed about our business for the lading one ship or more for 


England, as well for your encouragement in proceeding here as 
to give you notice of a port in Percia called Jascas, lying betwixt 
Sinde and Ormouce in the latitude of 26°, where ships of 
great burthen may very well come unto ; and therefore if you will 
send shipping thither no question but you may have a trade 
settled there, which will be very commodious if God give a 
blessing unto it. For I have been informed by many (espe- 
cially by one Richard Steel, merchant, who came from Aleppo to 
Spahan in Percia and so into India, with one John Midnall, who 
died at the Mogore's court, and that by means of the said Steel 
all his goods and moneys are in deposito in the Mogore's 
treasurer's hands, which amount unto five or six hundred pounds, 
to make good the rest of an account due unto Mr. Leat, Mr. 
Abbot and others that were interested in his Percian voyage), 
that Percia will vent five hundred cloths and one thousand 
kerseys, Agam colours, per annum to very great profit, besides tin 
in bars, lead, iron, cony skins, fitches and other commodities of 
the like sorts, for the Percian country is so cold that for six 
months in the year they wear cloth; and also there is divers 
commodities of India will give great profit there. Upon which 
encouragements, by a general consent of a council, we have 
entertained the said Richard Steel in your sen-ice to come home 
through Percia again for better discovering of the country, and 
have given him only money to bear his charges. More he did 
not require, but doth wholly refer himself unto you for a reward 
when his labour of discovery shall be shewn. We have also 
appointed John Crouther to go along with him to Spahan and 
then to return to us again for our better instruction of Indian 
commodities vendible in those parts ; but if either should die 
before their coming to Spahan then is the other to proceed for 


At our landing at Surrat we stood betwixt hope and despair 
for the space of a month whether we should proceed in these 
countries or no, for by Mocrob Chan, chief governor of Surat, 
we had many wrongs done us, ourselves stayed so that we could 
have no recourse to our ships, our goods taken and used at his 
pleasure, our arms that we brought for our defence taken from us, 
and forced us to show the king's presents, which formerly we had 


certified to the court should not be seen until they were ; 
to the Mogore (only to make us break promise, to bring us in 
disgrace with the Emperor), and so with delays and by I 
kept us in Surrat from proceeding about our businesses until the 

last of November; and then with much ado were licensed to 
proceed for the buying of commodities. The 3rd we cam< 
Barroch, where great store ofcalicoes are made; and having 
the musters of many sorts, as also of cotton yarn and indi 
l.ft three merchants therewith a commission for the buyii 
these commodities, if they could be had at reasonable pri 

The 9th we came to Brodera, where commonly is store of 
gumlac, where we purposed to have left two merchants, but not 
finding any quantity we departed without leaving any thi i 

The 13th we came to Amadavrs, which city was the seat of 
the king of the Gogerats ; it is a great town as spacious as the 
city and suburbs of London, where we found not many commo- 
dities for our purpose, only indigoes, of which there is commonly 
great store, for the countries round about doth bring their com- 
modities here to be sold. 

The 20th we sent three merchants to Cambay with two 
thousand rupees to be employed in quilts and carpets. 

Here in Amadavares we stayed 20 days to provide ourselves 
of carts and camels for our journey for Agra ; in which tin* 
bought 15 churls of indigo Chirkes at 10, io.}, n, u and 
rupees per maund, which is thirty-two pounds. Some indi] 
of Byana there were in town, of which we had bought but little 
quantity. Thus having no further at present to certify you of, 
I humbly take my leave and rest 

Your servant to be commanded, 

Thomas Mitford. 
December 26th, 1614. 



John Crouther to the Governor and Committees of the East 

India Company. 

Amadavar, the 26th of December, anno 1614. 

^GHT Worshipful, my reverent duty in all humble 
manner remembered, etc. Having received certain 
notice of the return of one of the ships from this place 
for England, and myself being to undertake a long 
and tedious journey as hereafter I will declare unto your Wor- 
ships, I thought it a part of duty before my departure to give 
your Worships advertisement of all occurrences according as the 
shortness of time and place will permit me. Wherefore, to let 
pass the tedious discourse of our voyage betwixt England and 
Surat, fearing to be troublesome and knowing your Worships shall 
receive ample advice from the General and masters, it may please 
you to understand that the 15th of October we arrived in the 
road of Suallye, where the same day Mr. Aldworthe came aboard 
unto us, who brought us certain advice of the wars betwixt the 
Portingals and the Mogul : that Chaoull was besieged by the 
king of Decanee and Damon by the Mogul his forces, and that 
Mocrob Chan was general of the forces against Damon and 
governor of the kingdom of Surat. The next day Mr. Aldworthe 
with three of the factors went up to Surat to entreat Mocrob 
Chan that he would be pleased to give us the benefit of the king's 
firman which he had granted unto us, and that he would go down 
unto the general to ratify the same. He seemed at the first to 
receive great content that we were arrived, but excused himself 
that he could not go down aboard the ships by reason that their 
Ramdam was not expired, and, that being past, we should have 
what in reason we would desire ; yet underhand secretly he had 
given a special command that none should dare to buy any of our 
commodities without his license. He delayed us in this kind 
three or four days till at last, being importuned by Mr. Aldworthe 
and Mr. Dodsworth, he sent Hadgeeozan, whom the General 
received, and invited him to go aboard, but he excused himself; 


so the General having bestowed a present upon himself and 

another upon Mocrob Chan which he sent l>v him, he dep 
with great shows of content. In his company went Mr. Ald- 
worthe, Mr. Emsworth, and Mr. Mitford. Mr. Elkington three 

days afterwards w> nt up to Mr. Emsworth to \i-it him, he being 

fallen sick of a tlux and a fever. Now Mocrob Chan, having 
these merchants in his power, began to show himself in hi- true 
colours, discovering the secret rancour of his poisoned stomach 
and the hidden malice which he beareth unto our nation. I i 
ently lie caused all the ways to be kept betwixt the town and 
the ships by his servants and soldiers, that no letters nor provision 
might be brought unto us; withal demanding us to land the 
goods we had, and to go with the ships against Damon, which if 
we would not consent unto, then we should take what goods we 
had in the country and so depart. Whereupon some few bales 
of indigo and packs of cotton wools were sent aboard, which Mr. 
Aldworthe had provided before our coming. Mocrob (dun 
seeing that he could not prevail, and thinking we would rather 
forsake the country than yield unto his demands, rather for fear 
of the king's displeasure than for any good-will he bore unto us, 
gave us the benefit of the king's firman. In this sort, by this 
malicious wretch's occasion we were delayed until the 7th of 
November before we could unlade any goods, at which time we 
discharged and sent unto Surat by carts overland all your packs 
of cloth, all the pictures, two chests of sword blades, 12 chests of 
money, the Mogul's present, 3 chests with cases of bottles, with 
all the trunks of looking-glasses. The 8th, Mr. Edwards with 
most of the factors went up to Surat, where instead of a welcome 
we were most basely searched, Mr. Edwards himself not being 
exempted. This course they took with all the rest of your goods, 
opening the packs of cloth, the trunks of looking-glasses and 
whatsoever, not sparing the king's presents, whereupon there 
grew some difference betwixt ».he governor and our cape mer- 
chants, but instead of kind usage he cast them in the teeth with 
Sir Henry Middleton's doings in the Red Sea, threatening that 
now he would seek to have restitution. In this manner we were 
detained until the last of November, at which time Mr. Edwards 
with most of your factors departed upon the journey towards this 


place with the aforesaid 12 chests of money, the cloth and all 
other goods which we had before discharged. We arrived here 
the 13th of this month, and to-morrow Mr. Edwards meaneth to 
take his journey towards Agra, with Mr. Mitford, John Browne, 
Nicholas Uffiett, Robert Young, Henry Smith and Roger Prowde, 
Francis Fettiplace and myself. Mr. Aldworthe, Mr. Dodsworth 
and some others do remain here for the providing of indigo. 
Humphrey Elkington, Edward Hamden and Richard Pitt are 
sent to see what good may be done at Cambaya ; John Oxwicke 
with three others are left at Baroche (two days' journey from 
Surat in our way to this place) to provide cotton yarn and calicoes, 
and Mr. Thomas Elkington, Edmund Aspinall with others are 
left at Surat. 

Thus far in the amplest manner that time and place will per- 
mit me, I have showed to your Worships the estate of our business. 
Concerning the estate of the country for sales and employments, 
it may please you to understand that your vermilion, quicksilver 
and elephants' teeth are in great request and will prove good 
commodities in this place ; your cloth little respected and there 
is only six bargained for at 20 rupees the covad, which are not as 
yet delivered. Your cases of looking-glasses and knives are little 
enquired after in these parts ; it is thought they and the cloth will 
prove good commodities at the court. Your sword blades, some 
few of the crooked ones have been sold at 14 rupees and of the 
straight at 12. For the lead and iron, I fear they will be forced 
to seek a new market for it. The country here is full of com- 
modities, for by reason of the wars with the Portingals there hath 
been but little shipped for the Red Sea or any other parts these 
two years. There are bought here at several prices, as from 
10 to 14 rupees the maund, at least 500 maunds of indigoes. As 
yet they hold up their indigoes somewhat dear, but when they 
shall perceive the small quantity that we intend to buy they will 
fall apace, for they have great store lying upon their hands and 
no vent for it. 

At our being at Surat, upon certain encouragements which 

Mr. Aldworthe by letters received from Sir Robert Sherley for 

the discovering of trade into Persia, as also upon a notice of a 

port in the king of Persia's country called Jasques, fit for our 

Y 1268. R 


ships of burden to come unto, and nut of any gre it d f the 

Portingals, it was concluded by the consent of the General and 
council that one of your Worships' factors, for which busim 
pleased them to make choice of myself, should be sent hit 1 
in the company of one Richard Steel, a young man of Bristol, 
which came hither overland out of Persia in the company of one 
John Midnall, which deceased at Agra; there by the means of 
Sir Robert Sherley to learn how the king will be affect d to this 
trade, as also to desire his letters unto the Governor of J asques 
for our good entertainment, and to discover to the utmost of our 
power what commodities of ours will vent in those parts and the 
fittest places for the venting of them. Our business being accom- 
plished there, Richard Steel is to proceed on forward to Aleppo 
and from theme with all speed for England to acquaint your 
Worships what is done in the business, and myself to return into 
these parts. This business, although it was agreed upon at Suratej 
yet was it not fully concluded until yesterday, which is the r< D 
that, having so little time for to provide ourselves (for we intend, 
God willing, to begin our journey to-morrow), that I have not so 
amply advised you of all matters nor in so good form as willingly 
I would ; but out of Persia, if it please God, I will advise you of all 
occurrences from this forward. In the mean space I 
your Worships to pardon these rude and scribbled lines and 
impute it rather unto want of time than to any negligence in me. 
And thus ceasing further to trouble your Worships at present, 
I humbly take my leave, remaining 

Your Worships' servant ever to be commanded, 

Jo. Crouthcr. 



William Edwards to Sir Thomas Smith, Governor of the 
East India Company. 

Anno 1614, the 26th of December, in Amadavaz. 

IGHT Worshipful, the best of my service and wishes I 
tender as rightly due unto your many favours, etc. 

In my general advice I have related what my little 
experience in those parts affords my pen and therefore 
needless to trouble your Worship with the same herein. But 
forasmuch as the same is general I have thought it not unfit to 
acquaint you with some occurrences passed here by the council of 
merchants in the point of residing at Agra, or the court of the 
Great Mogul, which is that whereas your Worship and Company 
out of your undeserved opinions have preferred me to that em- 
ployment, and that in our consultations the merchants, having 
rather respect unto your Worship and Company's wisdom than 
any desert in me, have appointed me thereunto, and howsoever 
my intent and purpose was to run in profession and fashion and 
other circumstances of a merchant, yet my endeavours herein and 
in what else for the general good shall appear cheerfully forwards, 
and as my desire hath ever been to show my thankfulness unto 
your Worships' love, so have I opportunity in a small measure 
not to deserve but to continue your favourable opinions of my 
sincere intentions. Your two young kinsmen, Mr. Henry Smith 
and Mr. Roger Prowde, I have obtained to go along with me for 
Agra by their own desires, but some oppositions in others. There 
the Persian language is commonly spoken, which passeth through 
all these countries ; here in Surat it is in little use, though most 
understand it ; so I esteem they shall much more profit there 
than here. 

But in this employment at Agra, as it appears in our consul- 
tations, the necessity of residency with the king is such, by the 
report of Mr. Aldworthe and one Richard Steel, an Englishman, 
of whom mention is made in my general advice, as cannot be 
avoided, and he to be a man sent immediately from our king, for 
that the title of merchant is of them despised, as appears in the 

R 2 


letter of Paul Canning's sent for England by Mr. Aldworthe. 
The expense answerable must of necessity follow, and whi reas in 
the said consultation an estimation of 300/. expense per annum is 
set down, Paul Canning's letter having since been reviewed by 
Mr. Aldworthe and the rest it appears thereby that between four, 
five, or six hundred pounds per annum is the least thai can defray 
the needful expense for himself and three or four persons more* 
These things have somewhat troubled my thoughts, in respect of 
the strict capitulation in your commission, insisting on the point 
of frugality and abridgment of Paul Canning's charges, which by 
the computation of Mr. Aldworthe is much to be enlarged. He, 
being known to be a merchant both by profession and charge, was 
wholly neglected, whereof he complained in his letter to Mr. 
Aldworthe, wherefore the necessity being such as cither to keep 
residency with the king or to give over this trade, we have jointly 
concluded to make one year's experience of the charge, or till 
your next ships' arrival here; and herein hoping of your Wor- 
ship's and Company's good acceptance of my endeavours I do 
with all willingness undertake this charge, which God make 

Your servant Mr. Nelson, by virtue of your Worship's letter in 
his behalf and his own desires, proceedeth to Agra with me, who 
may in time be able to do your Worship and Company good 

Right worshipful Sir, whereas it pleased your Worship and 
Company to deliver me in your commission fit for residence in 
the court of the Great Mogul, and that the merchants appointed 
to determine the same have proceeded accordingly in their choice, 
it was long debating in what manner and title I should proceed, 
wherein my especial aim was to follow the letter of your commis- 
sion in observing the fashion and profession of a merchant ; 
whereunto was answered that if I should do so, it were much 
better not to proceed, and so not to expect the continuance of a 
trade, for that the title of a merchant is despised in the court, as 
by experience in Paul Canning and Thomas Keridge, who while 
they professed to belong to our king, and of his followers, they 
were gracious in the eyes of the king and nobles, but afterwards 
were much neglected. Wherefore, though jealous of giving 


offence, yet the necessity of the present occasion makes me 
presume on your allowance and good acceptance of my sincere 
endeavours herein, and so it is ordained I proceed under the title 
of the king's messenger and servant, as will appear in our consul- 
tation. My humble request is that your Worship and Company 
will conceive my intentions to be as I have professed and shall by 
God's assistance manifest loyal and sincere. 

Some disquiet it hath given me for the breach of your commis- 
sion, though with all the allowance that this place can give, which 
makes me bold to be thus tedious unto your Worship in my own 
excuse herein, but I am too bold with your patience. 

There is a lewd fellow in the Hector, of whom, though against 
my custom, I must give notice of, Henry Brighust, one of the 
quartermasters, of whom our General can say much for the times 
past ; he is mutinous and scandalous and fit to work the destruc- 
tion of a fleet. One thing among many I shall acquaint your 
Worship with, and is that gathering divers together of his consort- 
ship he professeth in these words, that if this trade were continued 
Sir Thomas Smith and his crew for their private benefits will 
overthrow the state of the commonwealth of England ; which 
grew unto a public question among themselves pro and contra a 
long while, for which he hardly escaped severe punishment ; but 
by the mediation of divers in the ship, I was content to refer him 
to your Worship and Company for his reward. He is generally 
evilly conditioned and therefore I thought it my duty to advise of 
so disdeserving a man. 

I have been bold to consign unto your Worship by the order 
of Mr. Robert Bell one truss of quilts and carpets 
ffi -OlZ? marked as in the margin, which he ordained me to buy 
for his particular use, which it may please your Wor- 
ship to cause to be delivered him. So with my humble service 
and prayer for your Worship's many happy years of government 
over us I commend you to God's protection. 

Letter continued from Ajmere. 

Right worshipful Sir, we are now in the 14th March, and the 
above is copy of one sent by sea in your returned ships. And 
now it may please you to understand that our entertainment by 


the Great Mogul hath been very honourable, as in my general 
advice at large appeareth, and our expectation of a contenting 
trade hereafter without obstacle or impediment, the Portin 
being at present in deep disgrace with the king and people and 
wearied in their proceedings, and hopeless of prevailing in their 
purpose of surprising of or burning of Surat, whereby they hoped 
to have fashioned their own peace; and now that they perceive 
our ships to arrive on the coast at the last of the westerly 
monsoons, and depart about the last of the easterly monsoons, 
in the interim whereof no ships can stir on the coast, whereby 
they arc prevented in their purposes, they doubtless will give ov< r 
this place (so the king thinketh and so he wisheth) ; and the 
country being full of commodities, viz: of indigoes of all sorts, and 
calicoes also of all sorts, with cotton yarn, drugs and Others, 
sufficient to lade every year 1,000 tons by weight. And as the 
people of this country of all sorts pretend to love us, so I am sine 
they fear us concerning their seas, for great and small are mer- 
chants, and hereafter, the Portingals standing in these present 
terms with them, they either will desire our waft of their ships for 
the Red Sea or to freight our ships thither, wherein a course 
would be thought upon, and order given in the same. 

I presented the Mogul with your Worship's picture, which he 
esteemed so well for the workmanship that the day after he sent 
for all his painters in public to see the same, who did admire it 
and confessed that none of them could anything mar imitate the 
same which makes him prize it above all the rest, and esteems it 
for a jewel. 

In the returned ship gocth a pair of playing tables without 
tablemen, which will follow. Let it please your Worship to 
accept of them as a token of my remembrance, and acknowledg- 
ment of the great debt I owe you. And so committing your 
Worship to the merciful protection of God's providence, I rest 
Your Worship's humble ever at command, 

Will. Edwards. 



Thomas Aldworthe to the East India Company. 

Amadavas, this 27th of December, 1614 (stilo anglicano). 

IGHT Worshipful, my duty remembered, etc. These 
are certifying your Worships that in November last 
was twelvemonth, I wrote you from this place by 
letters I sent to Meselapatan with the James, wherein 
I certified you at large of all things that passed here with us until 
that time ; after which I wrote you again in September last by the 
aforesaid way with Mr. Peter Floris, who wrote me that he meant 
to depart from Meselapatan in October last, and so for Bantam, 
and after that for England ; and although he make a long voyage 
of it, yet by his writing me it seems it will prove profitable in the 
end, which God grant. Your Worships shall now perceive that 
it hath pleased God to send safe to Suratt Captain Nicholas 
Downton with his four ships, who arrived at Sually Road on the 
15th of October last, with all his people in health ; whereupon I 
repaired aboard them the next day following, and after consulta- 
tions had according to your orders given, it was concluded that 
Mr. William Edwards should go up to Agra to be resident there, 
with the king, and myself to remain in Suratt as before for the 
ordering of your business in these parts. In which consultations 
aforesaid it was determined that present provision should be made 
for the relading of the Solomon with the greater part indigo, and 
some baftas and cotton yarn to fill her, for which purpose Mr. 
Dodsworth with three or four more came up with me to this 
place, in company of Mr. Edwards, the better to safeguard our 
moneys. We came hither on the 13th of this instant having been 
long detained in Suratt by Mocrob Chan his foolish weakness, 
who is now Viceroy of those parts, yet no fear of danger. And 
here we find indigo of Sarques at a more reasonable rate than we 
expected, by reason of the wars between the Portingals and the 
Moors, which yet continues, through the taking of a ship of 
Suratt as I have formerly written you ; by which means we 
shall be able to lade a greater quantity of indigo than was deter- 
mined aboard the ships, insomuch that we are yet in good hope 


to lade two ships herehence ; when not, to lade the Hector at 
least. God willing, our best endeavours shall not be wanting. 
We are at present in some good forwardness and have (as it \\ 
under hand and packed near 500 churls, which will stand us in 
about 12 and 13 rupees per maund, one with the other; our time 
limited to be ready by the last of January next, or within 15 da) 3 
after. I hope we shall not much exceed it, yet for the lading of 
two ships a little more will break no square. Mr. Edwards is at 
present on his departure for Agra. Mr. Emsworth, and one Mr. 
Wood a young merchant, both died at Surat before our coming 
therehence; all the rest of our merchants in health. 

And whereas I have heretofore written your Worships con- 
cerning the state of Persia for venting of our cloth, so did I make 
known unto General Downton with the rest of your merchants as 
much as I had learned touching the same, who upon hearing ol it 
they all embraced it, and liked well of the course. And to this 
purpose have they chosen one Mr. Richard Steel, who came from 
Aleppo through Persia, of whom I have formerly written you, 
and another of your merchants named John Crouther to accom- 
pany him overland to Persia with letters to Sir Robert Sherley, 
who hath formerly written me for that business. Richard Steel is 
to pass through Turkey homewards and John Crouther to return 
back hither with informations from Persia. We all are in good 
hope of this b.usiness, being a matter of good consequence and 
are much encouraged by the bearer hereof, Mr. Richard Steel, to 
whom for particular passages here with us I refer me, for that he 
hath been remaining with us these 5 or 6 months at Surat, being 
I partly stayed him for the Persian business, for that I stand still 
in doubt that our cloth will not vent here as we first hoped. Mr. 
Edwards carrieth up with him about 80 broad cloths to try what 
they will do at Agra. Your elephants' teeth are sold in Suratt at 
70 mamoodies per maund ; but your lead and quicksilver remain 
there yet unsold. Howsoever, I hope to do them away to serve 
our turn. Thus being in the midst of our business and this 
bearer on his departure, I crave pardon for writing short, and so 
will commend your Worships all to God's merciful protection. 
Your Worships' to be commanded, 

Tho. Aldworthe. 


I have formerly written and sent to Mr. Nich. Crispe the copy 
of Mr. Best's letters and mine, whereby may plainly be seen how 
dishonestly he hath dealt with me in his writing. 

Tho. Aid. 

Since the above written I received letters from Meselapatan 
that the Globe was to depart well laden for Bantam, and so for 
England, in the beginning of this December. 


William Edwards, Thos. Aldworthe and Edward Dodsworth to 
John Oxwicke, Chris. Farewell and Bayly Ball at Barocha. 

Amadavas, this 29th of December, 1614. 

,R. OXWICKE, Mr. Farewell and Mr. Ball, my kind 
commendations unto you all remembered etc. Yester- 
day we received Mr. Farewell's and Mr. Ball's letters, 
perceiving the quantity of indigo there to be had and 
at reasonable rates, insomuch that Mr. Ball writes us that he may 
now buy for 18 mamoodies as good as that which cost 20 ma- 
moodies before, but that Mr. Oxwicke tells him that he is not to 
meddle with the prices thereof, save only in the choice of it, 
which makes us much to marvel, being you are all there for the 
general business, and so should all join together for the general good 
thereof. Wherefore we pray you all to consider better hereof and 
not to have the business done as it were in corners, secretly, but 
with a mutual consent and with clear hearts openly. For the 
packing up cf your indigo it must be done after the manner of 
Sarques in round fardles containing 5 maunds per fardle with 
leather and straw accordingly, even as it must go aboard, for we 
intend not that it shall go to Suratt but directly from Vriaw to 
Sually, Mocrob Chan having promised us so for that and all the 
rest of indigo. Our request is that you will get of the best as near 
as you can ; and whereas you write about the rupees, they are of 


84 pice the piece, and we here buy of good Sarques indigo for 
11 rupees the maund, they allowing us 42 seers of the new and 
41 seers of the old to the maund, the seer being of 18 pisas ; and 
out of the net of the money they deduct i| per cent for vataw, in 
all which you must be careful and to take the advice of Narangee. 
Thus in haste, as you see, we leave you until next conveyance, 
and commend you all to God's protection. 

Your loving friends, 

Will. Edwards. 

Tho. Aldworthe. 

Edward Dodsworth. 


Edward Dodsworth to the East India Company. 

Amadavas, the 30th December, 1614. 

IGHT Worshipful, and Worshipful, my service re- 
membered etc. My last from Saldania I doubt not 
but you have received, which although importing but 
only of our safe arrival there, with the state of our 
people, yet doubt I not of your friendly acceptance thereof, which 
is as much as I desire ; and now, right Worshipful, having such an 
opportunity as by this bearer Mr. Richard Steel, who is deter- 
mined of by our General and the rest of that council appointed 
by your Worships, to return for England by the way of Persia for 
the discovery of that trade, I thought it the least part of my 
duty to acquaint your Worships with the rest of our proceedings. 
May it therefore please you that after our departure from the 
Cape we arrived at St. Lawrence in the Bay Augustine by the 
sixth of August, where, after 7 days staying, for some small chains 
of silver to the value of 13s. sterling we bought to the number of 
twenty beasts to the great refreshing of our people. From hence 
we departed the 12th ditto, and having a prosperous passage and 
no hindrance with currents, for that we held our course on the 


eastern side of John de Nova and not on the western as with 
Captain Saris which was a great help unto us, rather finding helps 
than hindrances of the tides with fair shoalings, we arrived at 
Socotora by the 9th of September in the road of Delishaw, where 
we were kindly entertained by the king and acquainted by him of 
the state of our English at Surat, likewise that the Moors and 
Portingals were at wars each with other, and had so continued 
ever since their entertaining of Mr. Aldworthe, the Portingals 
having taken one of their ships which came from the Red Sea, 
worth in ready money 130,000 pounds. 

After the buying of some small quantity of aloes we departed 
Socotora the 13th of September and arrived at the bar of Surratt 
by the 20th of October in health and safety, God be praised ; 
where we only found Mr. Thomas Aldworthe, William Biddulph 
and John Young, Mr. Aldworthe's servant, Mr. Canning being 
departed this life in January 1612, in whose stead Mr. Thomas 
Keridge was sent to remain at Agra, but neither of them respected 
by the Mogore, for that by their report his greatness cannot 
descend to affect the title of merchant. Consultations being had 
for the settling of our business according to your Worships' order 
in your commission, it was thought fitting that Mr. William 
Edwards should proceed to remain at Agra, for that of necessity 
there must be one, and Mr. Thomas Aldworthe to remain at 
Surat in regard of his acquaintance and experience there. And 
not having any cause to distrust of these people, we proceeded for 
the landing of our goods, desiring of Mocrob Chan (who is Viceroy 
appointed for those parts) leave for free passage thereof. But he, 
except we would with our ships assist them against the Por- 
tingals, made us absolute denial, wishing us to depart the country, 
whereupon Mr. Aldworthe, much discontented in regard that 
through his encouragement we were most of us come ashore, 
began to make sale of the goods remaining, which the Governor 
perceiving and that he could not draw us to his desire but that we 
were resolved to depart, permitted us to land our goods, yet with 
the rifling of all our commodities to furnish himself with what he 
pleased, as also with other delays, insomuch that it was the first 
of December before we departed Suratt towards Amadavar to 
accomplish lading for the Solomon according to our determination 


aboard, and the 13th before our coming [to] Amadavar. So that 
our time is short to accomplish such a business, yet doubt not 
but to effect it, for that here is reasonable store of Cirques indigo, 
sufficient for the lading of all our four ships if our stock were 
more. For the prices and hopes of this trade, in regard this 
bearer is to pass through so many dangerous countries, and being 
uncertain to whose hands this letter may come, I cease to write, 
purposing to certify your Worships more at large by the ship that 
returns from hence. This bearer Mr. Steel, through the good 
encouragement received from Mr. Aldworthe for obtaining a trade 
in Persia, who hath ever since his understanding of the commo- 
diousness of that trade (both for the vending of our English as 
also of the good return to be made from thence to England) been 
diligent in searching how the same might be accomplished, and 
understanding by sufficient pilots of a commodious place for ships 
of 1,000 tons to ride and anchor, but which is within 30 leagues 
of Armous (Ormus), called Jasques, and again confirmed by 
this bearer through his experience in his travels through those 
countries, emboldened us to entertain him for the discovery 
thoroughly of that trade, to obtain if possibly he can the king's 
letters for our free trade and commerce within his dominions, 
and he to advertise your Worships thereof in England. We 
have likewise as assistant joined Mr. John Crouther (one of our 
merchants) with him in this business, to proceed with him to 
Hisphaon (Ispahan) and from thence to return to Suratt for to 
advise us of what vent there will be for our cloth, in regard we 
doubt of some quantity to be sent in the next ships for these 
parts, which to be kept here will be much prejudicial to it, for 
that this place will not vent (by Mr. Aldworthe's experience) 
100 cloths in a year. They are furnished with 160/. for their 
journey with letters of recommendation to Sir Robert Sherley for 
his assistance in this business, which God grant by His will a 
blessing unto. 

Mr. Emsworth and Mr. Wood departed this life shortly after 
their coming ashore, who had been visited with the flux, which is 
incident to our English in this place. Of Mr. Emsworth, who 
was to remain here with us at Suratt, we shall have a want both 
in respect of his discretion and staid carnage as also of his 


sufficiency. Further at present, for the dangers this bearer is to 
pass, I have not to enlarge but purpose by the ships to acquaint 
you with our proceedings in particular. And thus with the 
remembrance of my duty I commit you with your whole pro- 
ceedings to God's merciful protection and rest ever at your 
Worships' service, 

Edward Dodsworth. 


Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke and Chris. Farewell at 


Laus Deo. In Surat, the 31st December, 1614. 

OVING Friends, I heartily commend me unto you with 
desire of your health etc. Yesterday I wrote you a 
few lines for the enclosure chiefly of one to Amadar to 
our friends there, which I pray so send as you find 
conveyance to send away. 

You shall understand that of late here is much of that sort of 
indigo you have there about you come hither, which is called 
Jambusy (Jambusar), with some of Jengulie, which I conceive will 
be had here at most for 20 mamoodies the maund and the seer of 
18 pisas, but it is such stuff that I dare not meddle with it at any 
rate, being, I doubt me, of a sort that Mr. Dodsworth told me by 
chance amongst the rest of the indigo they had in the Red Sea a 
fardle or 3 or 4 thereof was mingled, which they could not sell to 
any reasonable returning in England. Therefore thought good to 
advise you thereof to the end you might advise yourself well of it 
for entrance into any great parcel thereof till such time as your 
pattamar were returned from Amadavar whereby you may have 
Mr. Aldworthe and Mr. Dodsworth's opinion at large thereof. I 
also thought good to give you some sight of the prices here and 
quantity whereby you may the better rule yourself, persuading 
myself that after a small time of forbearance it will be had here 


for 18 mamoodies ; besides there is a sixth part difference in weight, 
and somewhat will be saved in charges; and for that you ma\ the 
better see what it is, I send you here the muster of a p 
offered me which I seemed (?) not to hearken after, which you 
may compare with yours there and write me your mind. What I 
write is not to d you from what you have order for, or 

what you think shall be m :icial for the Company; but 

only do advise you how matters pass here, whereby you may the 
better govern yourself there. 

The frigates still remain in the river, by means whereof wc can 
discharge no goods by water. Our ships I hear to be gone to 
Swallv again, but have n<> certainty thereof. If so, I will procure 
to have the rest of our goods ashore by land, to effi ct whi< h the 
Nabob hath promised his furtherance. So for the present not 
having others I commit you to God, and rest 

Your loving friend, 

Tho. Elkington. 


Ralph Preston to the East India Company. 

Laus Deo. In Amadaver, the 1st of January, 1614. 

(IGHT Worshipful and Worshipful, my duty premised 
etc. Being at this place and but newly entered into 
our business, betwixt hope and fear rested doubtful, 
being at war within myself whether I might not be 
taxed of arrogancy as not fitting, being for Bantam, or not so 
convenient, being hitherto kept ignorant of the occurrences other 
than they were general, unless I would seek it out of my own 
brain, in regard whereof at an ecstasy with myself whether I 
might write or no, lest the subjects thereof should be unsound 
and the matter impertinent : again the conveyance somewhat 
uncertain whether that this by the bearer or that by the ships 
might first come to your hands : in fine to write of any cer- 
tainty other than to this present hath passed till Mr. Edwards 


have been aloft with the Great Mogul we cannot, being the place 
where all injuries done our nation must be reformed and our 
trade better settled. In the end resolved to write to someone in 
particular ; but then considering how far I might incur imputa- 
tion in general reconciled my doubtings and aimed at all chiefly 
to tender my duty to all, entreating your favourable censures both 
in the manner and matter, wherein to avoid prolixity will be brief 
and leave the rest to be enlarged by others. 

Now pleaseth, right Worshipful and Worshipful, to under- 
stand that the 7th of March, 1613, we set sail from the Downs 
and passed the island of Canaries the 25th ditto. In the interim 
we in the Hope lost a man by the board and the Gift had another, 
as it was reported, killed himself with drinking hot waters ; and, 
as I take it, the Hector lost another of a natural death. The 
15th of June we arrived in Saldania Road, where we understood 
General Best was gone home for England in the Dragon and like- 
wise Captain Newport, and upon Pengwyne Island found the 
cooper's name of the Clove, one Silver, who writ such a day 
homeward bound. After the first day our General put our sick 
men ashore, which was not many, from all the four ships not 
above nine or ten at the most, and they of the Gift and Hector ; 
and having watered and refreshed ourselves as well as we could, 
never the better for Cory's entertainment in England, and after 
we had spent some 14 days there. In that time the Gift lost a 
man by an accident ; and before we came into the road the 
Hector sprang her foremast. Arriving the 6th of August in the 
bay of St. Lawrence, where we found better refreshing, both for 
beeves and wood and reasonable good water, the people showing 
themselves both civil and loving, being the properest men that I 
have seen, much like the niggers in Gynney (Guinea). Their 
beeves were excellent good and fat and good cheap, not above 4s. 
and 55. English money the piece, which money goeth there cur- 
rently, especially sixpences ; but that which they most regard are 
silver chains, such as are upon mariners' whistles, bloodstones, 
nutmegs, red counters (?) and Jews' harps ; and there we found 
that Captain Newport touched outward bound. And after we 
had stayed there about some seven or eight days, we set sail and 
the gth of September arrived at Socatra, where we were exceeding 


kindly used by the king of that place, who also received g 
content from us and loath that we should depart from him so 
soon as we did. The island is very barren, yet yieldeth 
store of goats and dates, of which he made a present f'>r our 
General; and after his people sold them for a rial of eight the 
piece as many as we would, and dates. The second day we dealt 
with him for his aloes Socatrina, he having not above 27 kintals, 
which we bought for 30 rials of eight the kintal or thereabouts, as 
I remember without my journal, the kintal being about <)b lb->. to 
as near as we could make it without weights for our purpose and 
a stillero, the want whereof made us to allow of theirs, wherein 
some deserveth to be blamed in that we brought not with us both 
stillero avoirdupois and troy weight, which had been as n 
as any one thing that we brought, whatsoever occasion we should 
have; and, a I 1 member, I spoke to some at home whom it 
might concern, having them in petty voyages. And not amiss 
thai they which come there hereafter look to his hand which 
holdeth the end of the stillero, otherwise, with a loose with his 
hand, he will get by the weight. And in conclusion of this point, 
were I worthy to give advice, could wish that the king might be 
respected, in regard of his love to our nation, before others ; it 
not being lost that is any way bestowed on him, he being so royal 
a fellow in judgment, discourse, affability and quickness in appre- 
hension, both in natural causes and points touching Christianity, 
as any that I have heard of; entreating excuse if I have been too 
forward, howsoever the benefit will be yours, when your Worships 
shall consider the benefit that may redound to those ships which 
may be taken short of their monsoons and so be driven to spend 
some time in the Red Sea; I say then, having this place to friend, 
as I take you have had formerly. Again I heard him make pro- 
testation that none but the English should have his commodities 
if they pleased, but that I take but complimental, he being free 
to sell to whom he will if they will come to his price, be of what 
nation soever, so that they wrong not those that shall shelter 
themselves under his protection. And so, after three or four days 
spent, set sail, making all the haste we could to save our mon- 
soons. Made the land about Dabull the second of October and, 
stopping tides along the coast, came to sight of the bar of Suratt 


the 15th ditto, and into Swalley Road the 20th. In the interim cer- 
tain Portingals' frigates dogged us all along the coast after that we 
were descried but durst not come near us; only two frigates came 
off to us when we were thwart of Choul, which was then and still 
is besieged by the king of Deckaney (Deccan), who came from the 
general of his forces with a present and to offer us that kindness 
which the place would afford, by whom we understood that the 
Portingals had lost the base town, but could not win the walled 
town and castle, though there lay a hundred thousand soldiers 
before it, as themselves reported ; and being dismissed with a 
present and compliments, we heard afterwards that if they could 
have drawn our General with the ships before the town they were 
of opinion that the Portingals would have yielded the town. The 
next day a Portingal frigate came to offer their service, but was 
not suffered to come aboard, so departed malcontent. The 22nd 
ditto Bayly Ball was sent to Suratt to give notice of our coming, 
whom Mocrob Chan used courteously and gave him a vest, seem- 
ing to rejoice much at the news. The next day Mr. Aldworthe, 
one Richard Steel and Ric. (sic) Biddulph came aboard the admiral, 
where, after salutations passed, related the state of the country, 
which I refer to those which heard it ; only in general we heard 
of the death of Signor Paul Canning and one or two more, and 
that Signor Tho. Keridge was gone for Agra to take Paul Canning 
his business into his hands, which how it standeth must likewise 
refer your Worships to Mr. Aldworthe's advice ; also that 
Damaun was besieged, but to little purpose, and that the Por- 
tingals was much distressed in all places of this country and in 
the Dickanes, and upon our coming they have vowed and given 
out that they will not now leave them till they have expelled them 
their countries, whereupon your Worships may imagine the state 
of the Portingal at present ; yet for that some of them are here 
in credit still, as one Ferdinando Salvador etc. whom I'll touch in 
a word when I come to speak of him more properly. Now con- 
cerning the entertainment of Mocrob Chan, pleaseth it, right 
Worshipful and Worshipful, to understand briefly, for if I should 
but touch every particular should be over tedious, besides run 
myself into a labyrinth ; therefore will cursorily pass it over and 
so leave it to your better consideration, as I said before. At our 
Y 1268. s 


first coming Bayly Ball was sent and afterwards the great man 
was expected below, according to custom, who not coming bred 
some doubt, whereupon it was held lit to send Mr. AJdworthe, in 
company with others, to know 1 rare, whom he began to 

expostulate with and to speak of many businesses. Amoi 
others he would have our ships go against Damon, which being 
opposed, desired two of them, which would not be yielded unto ; 
whereupon he told them plainly that if they did refuse, here was 
no place for us, alleging that for our sakes they had made the 
Portingals their enemies, with many other speeches to the like 
effect, which I will omit, me wordswhich he dista I I 

from another. In the end he sent down Hogenozan, who 
received both for himself and Mocrob (Mian, and kind 

respects passed between him and our General, and so took I 
one of the other, Mr. Aldworthe and others going up in company 
with him to Suratt to understand how the presents \ 
accepted. The next day we heard below that Hogenozan was 
gone against Damon, and Mocrob Chan would not hear of the 
landing of any of our goods, and farther that we might be gone and 
commanded his people from the seaside which sold bread etc. 
Whereupon our people offered to be gone, who was after* 
stayed upon his command and some of them abused. In fine the 
next day all was well again and we should land our goods. Till 
the 6th of November time was spent and little done ; the 7th we 
landed some of our goods ; and the 8th Mr. Edwards etc. came 
to Surat, where they could not be admitted till license was given 
and every one searched. Now what disgusts, detractions and 
questions, besides abuses offered not alone to one but to all in our 
customs etc. till the last ditto, I must likewise omit, only in a 
word deliver my opinion of Mocrob Chan, and so leave and pro- 
ceed to that which followeth. I conceive him to be a secret 
enemy to us and a secret friend to the Portingals ; or else he 
detracted the time, as I always told my companions, till he heard 
from the king, which made him use much fantasy and delays, and 
being still put to it, his last refuge was that he must see the 
presents brought for the king, which he did, though he promised 
the contrary, only would have his will, and when it came to the 
push would refuse, because he would have the day. I said secret 


friend to the Portingal and my reason was : commonly when we 
came to Mocrob Chan, we should find Portingals Jesuits busy in 
conference with him, the elder of them, being two in number, a 
man sometime in favour with the king, and for anything we know 
may be maintained by Mocrob Chan. Again there is another called 
Musketo, sometime a merchant and now a fugitive and persecutor 
of his own countrymen, yet would befriend us to the great man 
if we would have accepted of his kindness. And whereas I 
touched one Ferdinandus Salvador, one reported to be the king's 
merchant and in great credit aloft and with this man below, who 
received him into Suratt with great grace in his palanquin carried 
on men's shoulders covered with velvet and 40 or 50 horse to 
bring him in ; and after some five days gave out that he would 
go in company with us for this place, pretending business there ; 
who coming thither before us, found at our coming thither that 
he was gone to the king with some matters which he had bought 
for him ; it being reported that the king should offer him forty 
thousand rupees to lay out in toys for him at Goah, which he 
refused out of a Portingal flourish. Now what may be thought 
hereof, giving out that he would go no farther than Amadever, 
and then again being in favour with the king, something may be 
done, and to be assumed what will they leave undone so that 
they may hinder our proceedings, if not prevented by your wis- 
doms and those here whom it may concern. 

Concerning our proceed from Suratt to this place, the last of 
November we parted from Suratt and came hither the 13th of 
December. By the way we left Signor John Oxwicke and others 
to buy baftas in Baroche, where they be best cheap, as also 
cotton yarn. Some fine calicoes Mr. Aldeworthe had bought 
before our coming, which are too fine for England but will serve 
for Barbary if quiet ; but the sorts they now resolve upon, which 
are from i\ and 3 to 7 mamoodies per piece, will, we hope, be 
very fitting. Since our coming others are sent to Cambia, as 
Signor Holmden, to provide quilts and green ginger, etc. ; and had 
gum-lac been to have been had in Brodra, I had stayed there for 
that purpose, but it hath failed there this year and none to be got 
unless at Bramporte (Berhanpur), where order is given for all that 
is there. And here remaineth Mr. Aldworthe, Mr. DodswortrTetc, 

s 2 


who have been providing indigo ever since we came, having 
bought some 180 churls already which will come out about 12 and 
13d. the lb.; making no doubt but to lade two ships much about 
that rate, here being great store to be had; and two days past 
heard that they at Baroche had bought 200 maunds at ni. 
the seer very good and could buy more for 2,000/. if liked of. 
This great quantity groweth by reason that they have had no vent 
this three years, not since Sir Henry Middleton was in the Red 
Sea and the wars begun between these people and the Portingals, 
which maketh it so cheap and plenty. Hereafter I am of opinion 
that it will be dearer and less store, as I understand it hath been, 
yet not to be doubted but if the trade be settled here, as I doubt 
not, God to friend, that both this place and Lahoare will yield 
good store every year. Therefore in my opinion considering the 
break in tonnage in sending it in such bags as these, it will not be 
amiss that there be shaken chests or some other device of purpose 
to prevent that inconvenience. We hope within forty days to lade 
two ships, especially having sold our elephants' teeth at 70 ma- 
moodics the maund (which is 40 seers here and 31 and 32 lbs. 
English), and here aloft would have yielded a far better price. 
They made 4,000/. sterling money ; otherwise we should not have 
accomplished unless that we had made use of that stock provided 
for another place. And to conclude of our progress to this place 
pleaseth it your Worships to understand that although Mocrob 
Chan sent us out basely without guard of soldiers nor we could 
not have our arms till we came to the gates of Suratt, we found 
our entertainment better afterwards with the other Governors, 
who used us with good respect and sent good convoys along with 
us from most places; yet all the way in great danger of thieves 
called Rashbouts, who sought all opportunity to assault us both 
day and night by no small companies, it being given out that we 
carried fifteen carts-load of specie, which made us stand upon our 
guard the more and to trust more to ourselves under God than to 
our convoys, half of us watching half the night and the other 
the rest and sometimes all, with bullets in mouth and matches in 
cock and divers times alarms given ; holding ourselves able to 
encounter 200 horse in the night, by reason our caravan was great 
with carts, etc., which made us barricades, and by day 100, and 


before we would have parted with our goods, etc., 500 should have 
bought our lives at dear rates. And so much for our journey 
hither. Now as to-morrow Mr. Edwards is to depart hence 
towards the court, who had gone before this time, but that the 
Governor of this town was gone for Gogo upon news that the town 
and some ships was burnt. His deputy told us that he had not a 
sufficient convoy till the Governor came to town, which we might 
give some credit unto for that the Rashbouts pursued divers 
travellers to the gates of this city, and here reported that they 
killed some for small matters. Yesterday came letters from Surat 
wherein came letters from the king which was enclosed in our 
packet, but what they did import know not otherwise than in 
general ; only the presents was not to be seen by Mocrob Chan 
or any other, and that the ambassador should be kindly used and 
sent up with all expedition and safety fitting his person. Now must 
hold the reputation of an ambassador or else not respected, for he 
which shall hold correspondency with the king must be such a 
one, and no merchant, unless covertly, for their pride is such that 
they scorn them, making no more reckoning of them than of 
banyans, whom they hold little better than slaves ; and should so 
appear by Mocrob Chan his speech upon occasion that if we 
would be in the nature of banyans, we should have free trade ; by 
which may be gathered the minds of the greatest, so that, for 
anything I can conceive, it must not now be carried in the fashion 
of a merchant as you desired ; being further of the mind that if 
the Turkey trade fail, as very likely it will, and this and the 
Persian trade go forward, as I hope it will, then this place will 
bear it and afford an ambassador or consul, such an one as Sir 
Tho. Glover, a man full of spirit, able both to defend and offend, 
if our enemies should go about any ways to wrong us, as no ques- 
tion but that they will, either covertly or openly, when we think 
ourselves most safest. Again may be a means to keep the 
Flemings from trading here, humbly entreating you not to mis- 
construe my good meaning herein, for I do not disparage any, 
holding them fit men in their places, and to manage as great a 
matter as this, if exhibition accordingly ; only as a poor member 
and submissive servant deliver my poor opinion, which, right 
Worshipful and Worshipful, I will leave to your wise and grave 


considerations, being very sorry if I have soared too high, humbly 
entreating you again to impute it to my want of better employ- 
ment at present. And yet a little farther though I incur imputa- 
tion : I suppose that when your Worships shall fall into the 
reckoning of their salary who are to be aloft and of the charge 
that must of necessity follow the carriage of that business in the 
fashion before mentioned will very near accomplish the other strain. 
Now touching Peartia, upon deliberate terms it was thought 
fitting to send one Mr. Richard Steel, a merchant, as far as I 
know one employed in those parts by the knight baronet, Mr. 
Leate, and Mr. Stapers, about a business which I take was partly 
effected ; who, having seen and well observed the course of trade 
in those parts, saw how easy a thing it was, if a right project were 
taken, to settle a factory there, which being made known to Mr. 
Aldworthe before our coming, we finding the said Steel here, and 
good reasons given pro et con, the charges was next examined, 
which was estimated at first to 200/. for himself and two more, to 
say, himself to go overland to Alippo after that he had capitulated 
with the king of Percia and with Sir Robert Sherley, which being 
done and the others having informed themselves upon some 
certainty, to return back again. Our General being acquainted 
herewith liked well of the project, only upon some former speeches 
which he and Mr. Aldworthe had had about a convenient place 
or road where shipping might come to lade and unlade besides 
Ormouse (Ormus), desired conference with the party which had 
been at the place, where ships of 1,000 tons might ride in safety 
out of the danger of the Portingals, who did at that time so satisfy 
him that he would send no mariner. So it was appointed that 
one John Crouther and another at Agra should go along with the 
said Mr. Steel. Here is one that is a peon in the house which 
hath been at the place, where ships of great burthen may have 
water enough, whose report agreeth with the other. Many have 
discovered Percia, but none have looked after a convenient place 
for shipping' except Ormouse, which the Portingals hold, which 
place Sir Robert Sherley hath discoursed of at large and his letters 
extant to that purpose, therefore will refer your Worships to that 
discourse, which I make account Mr. Aldworthe hath advised of 
already. Only by the way it will not be amiss to be jealous, even 


sometimes of the best purposes, specially in this of so great con- 
sequence. If it may please God that the same be effected, it will 
be a worthy business for our land, it being a place of great vent 
for cloth, partly upon my own experience ; being in Russea, some 
of the merchants there told me that they made five for one of our 
sorting blues such as we send for that place, besides divers drugs, 
which I could have bought there reasonable, as rhubarb, etc., 
which come from thence ; also red yewts (?) is well sold there, 
but how near to those parts which is aimed at now know not. 
But to my purpose. The winds which serve our ships for the 
place aimed at will also serve for to bring them hither, and the 
returns from thence will accommodate them here for specie, as I 
partly understand, which would be a principal thing, it being the 
matter opposed and still objected against the Company ; I say it 
would stop the mouths of all men, besides the correspondency 
between these parts, which will be much advantage unto us, 
which God grant and that the declining of other trades may be 
complete in this worthy society. What request these commo- 
dities now sent are in at present and how sold, I cannot certainly 
advise, referring the same to those which have the managing of 
the business, who would that others should understand as little as 
might be. Yet so far as my knowledge, pleaseth it your Worships 
to be advised that cloth, if good colours, will be well sold, these 
people desiring true colours and good cloth. Seven cloths we 
make account are as good as sold to the Governor of this city for 
20 mamoodies the covad, and no question but that this country 
will vent some quantity after that they are once accustomed to 
the wearing thereof. Quicksilver well requested, but none sold 
as yet, but offered 220 rupees the maund ; elephants' teeth in good 
request ; crooked sword blades well sold for 15 rupees the piece 
and privates better ; glasses well esteemed for gifts but few sold ; 
waters desired but loath to go to the price ; pictures the like, but 
valued to men's fancy. Touching lead, yet ignorant of the price ; 
yet yesterday we had writing from Surat that they were offered 
a partido of 300 churls indigo, to take half lead and half money. 

Now a word or two of the news in general. The king is at 
Agemere, 150 course this side Agra ; Can Canna sent against a 
Rashbout called Raynawes, who holds him to it. A little before 


purp ise ; al of tl 

1 i <>ut of Portugall, which M I 

with certain oth< i ht with oui 1 that tl 

maki ■ i him. 'II. 

I i, makii 
and persons 1 

in o >n< lusii 'ii but i I lii 

I th and tl humbly • 

my leave. And 1 

! than this ; a wortl 

will and : prim ;; 

i men fearing < t the 

one of another, and 

; with that harmonj lity that th I 

pleased 11 with health, 

and betl than when I 

And none in oui in) of tl nything I k: 

can complain of want, I m< m of thii 
and ii" « \ il example given for 1 I of 1 

venture Borne disti mp red brain «>r m fellow m 

his mOUth and >.iy tin- mi I I 

reply that upon my know 

tionable, oui ing tender their health 

. though we wanted Ii I I must 

well provided, which <>ur put 
upon occasions. In fine, thanks be to G 
sweet .ii ind fitting reasonable nun. pi 

not seen bett rnment upon an} that I b d on, 

nor better provided for, the length ofthi 
not the least to be observed thi ment and know! 

that was between merchant and mariner. This i 
instead of many pn v - tor Mr. rth; all the 

way somewhat inclined to sickness, h ■■ ing with 

him, besides given much to melancholy, which made m 
him many times that the thought of his former estate procured it, 
and strived by all means to put him from it, though subject myself 


unto it. His disease began aboard, being a flux, and ended his 
life the 22nd of November last, on which day we buried him and 
one Signor Wood, who died within an hour one of another, both 
so rich in Christ that they ministered great comfort to us all, 
which I pray God give us grace to make use of to His glory and 
our own spiritual comfort. 

By reason of many petty charges which groweth upon travels 
here in this country both above and below, it will not be amiss to 
appoint some good husband which shall have care thereof, and to 
that end acquainted some of my companions ; not that it is any 
fault of the principals but of inferiors under them but may you 
allege it is their fault if not looked into. I do but touch it by the 
way, for that otherwise a gainful trade may in time be discouraged, 
humbly entreating, right Worshipful and Worshipful, to hold me 
excused and to pardon my boldness, if any, it having been fitter 
for one of this place than for myself to advise on this manner, 
being a Bantamese, that killing place ; howsoever exposed, yet 
will say with the prophet David " God is good and my lot is fallen 
in a good ground," though not for the health of my body, I doubt 
not for my soul ; and yet must tell you not before my appointed 
time, for my days be numbered, and therefore will with that holy 
man Job wait till my change come ; and seeing I am frustrate of 
this place could wish that I might do you service in the furtherest 
parts, let their conditions be what they will ; not doubting but to 
hold correspondency with them in any civil fashion. And so, not 
having others at present, will ever praise God for you and never 
cease to pray for your healths and prosperities with increase of 
commerce and the end everlasting life, which God grant for His 

son Christ's sake. Amen. 

Your humble servant to be commanded, 

Raphe Preston. 

For that I have not writ to any friend, humbly entreat you to 
certify friends of my health as Mr. Cardler of the Assurance 
Office, where I have a brother lies, my master's sons, Mr. John 
and Wm. Gore and the bachelors, which are of the Company, 
Robert and Ralph Gore, one Mr. Johnson sometime a draper in 
Watling Street, and Captain Baker, with Mr. Wm. Atkinson, 
clerk to the Muscovy Company, etc. 



A COMMISSION given by OS whose names arc hereunder 
written in the behalf of the right honourable and right 
worshipful Company of Merchants trading to the 1 I 
Indies unto our good friends Mr. Richard Steel and Mr. John 
Crouther, merchants, QOW bound, by I . upon a 

discovery to be by them made in and through P 
the use and behoof of the said East India Company, which 
journey God make prosperous and send you with good suc- 
cess unto your country. 

IIRST at your coming to Adgemerc, whither Cod send 
■ ty, yon shall 1 X Mr. William i 

wards the sum of six hundred rials of eight for and 
toward- t! of your foresaid journey, which we 

esteem by our computation will be sufficient for that busin 

For the safe passing of which moneys your care must beat 
your coming to Agra to inform yourselves of such sufficient men 
as will take such moneys upon their bills of exchange to be repaid 
either in Lahor or Sphan (Ispahan), as you shall think fittii 
deliver for the better and more safe furnishing of your occasions. 
And for that many accidents are incident in such long travels 
and that some disaster may befall you whereby your provision of 
moneys may fall short, we have therefore delivered you letters 
of credit unto the Right Honourable Sir Robert Sherley, knight, 
in particular and also a general letter unto all English and other 
Christians of what nation soever in Sphan, for the furnishing of 
such other moneys as your necessity shall require unto the value 
of 50/. sterling to be repaid upon sight of your bills of exchange, 
either in England or Agra. 

After your departure from Agra, you are to proceed on your 
journey towards Sphan with as much expedition as conveniently 
you may, and in all places where you shall pass, to inform your- 
selves of the state and condition of those countries, what hope of 
trade and commerce they give both for sales of commodities to 
be brought thither from England and likewise what returns may 
be made fitting for England or other parts of Christendom. 


Especially, when you come near to Sphan, you are with all care- 
fulness and diligence to learn the condition of the countries 
between Sphan and Jasques on the sea coast, what hope of trade 
to be made between the said two places, what towns and cities of 
note, what commodities they give and what they receive as also 
what manner of transportation for goods and merchandise is 
between Jasques and Sphan, with the weights, measures and 
moneys of every chief place in your travels, with all other cir- 
cumstances fit to be observed in such a discovery. When it 
shall please God to bring you safely to Sphan you are to address 
yourselves unto Sir Robert Sherley and to deliver unto him such 
letters as you carry along for him, to procure by his assistance 
letters from the king of Persia unto all his governors, captains 
and commanders of all the sea coasts in his dominions for the 
fair and peaceable entertainment of our men, ships, and goods 
in all such parts as they shall arrive at. And if it shall happen 
your provision of moneys to [fall ?] short, then you may deliver 
unto Sir Robert Sherley the letter of credit which you carry 
directed to him, and not otherwise. 

And when you shall have had full satisfaction in the points 
of your discovery, you are to make two journals of your daily 
proceedings from the time of your setting forth from Adgemere 
until your departure from Sphan, which are to be underwritten 
by you both. From whence Richard Steele is directed to go for 
England with one of the said journals, and John Crouther to 
return with all convenient speed directly to Agra or Adgemere 
with the other; for the better satisfaction of the honourable 
and worshipful Company in England and also for the better 
directions of us in our proceedings here in these parts. 

But if it should please God that either of you should decease 
in this your journey either by sickness or accident, which God 
forbid, before your separation at Sphan, that then the survivor 
shall proceed directly for England with a reason of such dis- 
covery as he or they shall have made. 

And for the more certainty and better satisfaction of him that 
shall return for Agra and Adgemere, it is ordained that he shall 
have for his charges back out of the remaining moneys resting 
unspent the one half of so much as your charges shall amount 



unto until your coming to Sphan, besides the charges of a camel 
and camelman allowed him, provided that besides there rem 
a competent sum of money to carry the said Richard Steel into 
England; or otherwise according to this computation yon shall 
make a division of your remainder. 

Not doubting but out of your L,'o,>d discretions and loving 
friendship each to other, you will so carry this business as it I 
redound to both \ putations. And so ing God 

to bless you in these your ; Qgs we commend you to His 

protection, who direct all your thoughts and actions t" His -lay. 

Your loving friends, 

Will. Edwards. 
Tho. Aldworthe. 
Edward 1 1 I ■■■• irth. 
Thomas Mitford. 
In Amadil:'. \ 
the 2nd of January, [614. 


John Jourdain and others to the Governor and Committees 
of the East India Company. 

Bantam, the 2nd of January, 1614. 

IGHT Worshipful, our duties remembered, etc. May 
it please you to understand that by the Concord, who 
arrived here the 8th of September last, we received 
your Worships' letters, understanding thereby at full 
your minds concerning all matters, which with the help of God 
we will effect and follow in all points as near as God shall give 
us grace etc. 

And first, concerning the Concord : shortly after her arrival 
it pleased God to take to his mercy Giles Hawkins and after him 
Mr. Flood and Mr. Petty with some others of the common men. 


Those chief men being dead, it was thought fitting to view the 
commission, to know whom your Worships had ordained to 
succeed ; and finding by the said commission and the two boxes 
which we opened that, after the death of Mr. Flood, that none 
was nominated but was to be chosen by a general consent of 
merchants, at first it was thought necessary to leave the charge 
of the ship to Mr. Benet, in the meantime not having any other 
more sufficient. In this time the James arrived here from Pot- 
tany without order for her lading, only 3,000 rials which 
Mr. Gourney sent in her, he supposing that money or pepper 
might be had for certain commodities left here in Bantam rated 
per him at 13,000 rials or thereabouts ; which, if it had been sold 
at those rates, had not been half enough to have laden the ship 
with pepper. But we, finding so little hope of sale for money or 
pepper, to help the sale thereof we offered the one half money 
with the cloth to put it off, yet could not be heard, for that the 
Hollanders sold of the same sorts of goods to be paid the next 
year at 100 per 100 less than the James' goods was rated at, and 
to all sorts of people that would have it, running risks, whether 
ever they shall be paid the one half. Whether they doth it to 
cross us in our trade of Choramandell or not we know not, but 
sure we are that the losses remains on themselves, for that they 
have sold better cheap than it cost them in the country from 
whence it came. Now that which was left here by Mr. Gourney 
the one half thereof or more is not vendible in this country, 
because it is Chera Mallaia and the people here will wear no other 
fashion but their own, which is Chera Java. But now the James 
being come to receive her lading, the captain requires us to lade 
her for the account of the same voyage. We conclude that the 
ship of necessity must be laden, but upon account of the Ninth 
Voyage it cannot be, for that there is not wherewith to do it. 
Therefore it was thought necessary to value the goods belonging 
to the voyage as it is worth ready money and take it to account 
of the Joint Stock, and to lade so much pepper as the goods 
doth amount unto, provided always that your Worships are con- 
tent therewith at home ; and whether the goods here remaining 
the profit thereof shall be for the account of the Joint Stock or 
for the Ninth Voyage (for that the goods must be transported to 


other places, not being vendible in Bantam) this is wholly referred 
unto your Worships' pleasure. But in the meantime there is 
laden aboard the James 6,000 sacks of pepper, which is the pro- 
ceed of the goods according to the valuation and the 3,000 rials 
received from Pottany, as per the account in the journal may 
appear, etc. 

And since, having considered farther of your Worships' order 
willing us to look far and near for other commodities and for 
venting of our own, which in Bantam will not be sold this ten 
years, as also having understood of the weakness of the Concord 
both of ship and men to carry her for England, and the small 
quantity of pepper that she will carry and the great hopes we 
have received per via de Macassar and by others which lately 
came from Amboina, that they have kept great part of their cloves 
of the last year for the English, and the Bandanezes making 
continual wars with the Hollanders, hoping of the English ; all 
these reasons having been duly considered by the council of 
merchants it is thought necessary to send the Concord thither 
with divers commodities which is not here vendible, in the charge 
of George Ball, who is ordained to be principal factor for the 
voyage. The goods and money which we determine to send in 
her is as appeareth per invoice. The reason why the Concord 
hath stayed here so long since her voyage was determined to go 
that way is because we were in hope to have had some more men 
out of the ships which are to come out of England, and some 
other ship to go in company, for the more force with more facility 
the cloves will be gotten. We have built a pinnace of some 
25 tons of a junk which came from Sacadana, which doth go in 
company of the ship, which will be a great help to fetch cloves 
where the ship cannot go ; but we have not men sufficient to man 
them both, for having provided the James with twelve men and 
with those that are dead there will not remain above 25 men for 
the ship and the pinnace, therefore we determine to get some 
10 or 12 blacks which will serve to do ordinary work. We are 
the more earnest to send that way because that if there should 
not go some ship this year there will be little hope to do any 
good hereafter ; and this ship being so weak above water that it 
were great danger to send her for England. For Mr. Petty 


before his death would not adventure to carry any dry commo- 
dities betwixt the decks, only pepper in the hold. Therefore we 
have laden aboard the James for the account of the Joint Stock 
57 chests of all sorts of China silks, 24 chests of benjamin, 
3,673 sacks of Bantam pepper, 172^ peculs of cloves as per the 
particulars may appear in the invoice and bills of lading ; also we 
have laden 100 bahars of Priaman pepper at 400 lbs. suttle to the 
bahar, which was taken out of the Osiander and laden for the 
account of the Tenth Voyage, notwithstanding it is in the bills 
of lading for the account of the Joint Stock, which we did only 
to avoid cavils with the captain of the James, he being no great 
amigos with the captain of the Osiander nor any other. Here is 
left about 30 chests of silks of the worse sorts, which the James 
could not stow. We were in hope to have sent these silks in 
some ship belonging to the Joint Stock, but in regard of the 
insufficiency of the Concord, and the long stay of the fleet which 
your Worships writ should come forth the last spring, and the 
danger which might ensue by keeping them until the next year, 
made us to lade them in this ship, which we did by council, Cap- 
tain Marlowe having required the same and the James being a 
sufficient ship for the purpose. And for that they stood in need 
of divers necessaries there is delivered them out of the Concord 
twelve men with divers other provisions as per the purser's note 
may appear, which could very ill be spared, but that necessity 
doth constrain us thereunto for the better security of your Wor- 
ships' goods. 

Now as concerning the Darling, she set sail from hence for 
Sacadana the 10th of [March,] and from thence she was to go 
for Pottany, there to buy all the Lankin silk of the Chinese 
junks, carrying with them for that purpose a good stock of money 
and commodities, as per the journal may appear ; but coming to 
Sacadana they made their abode there so long (contrary to order) 
that before they came to Pottany the Hollanders had bought up 
all the silk and other commodities ; the long stay of the Darling 
at Sacadana being to little purpose, as per the copies of their 
letters sent from thence may appear. The Hollanders' pinnace 
which departed from Bantam five weeks after them were at Pot- 
tany a month before them and had bought up all the silks before 


their arrival, which was the cause that the Darling took in cer- 
tain goods out of the James and gone for Siam. From them 1 
know not what course they doth mind to take, for hitherto they 

have in all points digressed from commission. We do not doubt 
but Mr. Gourney and Mr. Larkin doth advise at large of all things 

in this ship, etc. 

Now concerning the Globe, we daily look for her, much 
marvelling of their long stay, doubting of the getting OVCT the 
bar, which is the cause that Mr. Floris doth also doubt of bet 
late coming to Bantam and therefore hath [wrote] to provide 
against his coming about 4,000 sacks of pepper, which we 1 
[effected] and is all ready milled and laid in the warehouses. And 
as for the estate of their voyage, we refer it to Mr. Floris' li 
which goeth herewith, etc. 

And for the project of the voyage now pretended in the 
Concord, it is agreed per a general council of merchants, viz. 
that she, by God's grace, go first for Macassar there to take 
account of Geo. Cokayne, and what rice is there bought to take 
into their ship, as also what goods shall be there remaining fitting 
for Banda or the Moullucas, and leave other goods there which 
shall be found most vendible in Macassar, as also to take into 
their ship Mr. Welden who is there remaining and a perfect 
linguist in the Mallaia and Ternatan tongues and well acquainted 
with the country people and coast, I mean of Amboina and 
Banda ; and from thence with all convenient speed to proceed for 
Amboina or Banda. If first at Banda, then upon good considera- 
tion to leave there Sophony Cozucke and some other with such 
a quantity of goods as shall be thought necessary, Sophony 
Cozucke being already acquainted with the country people and 
language. But if they may with more conveniency fall first with 
Amboina, then to repair to a place called Lugho, where the 
Darling was the last year, and the chief Aurancaya of the country 
a friend to the English and indifferent, or rather an enemy, to the 
Hollanders, who sought his life because he gave us entertainment 
in the Darling ; but of late he hath made the king of Ternater 
acquainted therewith and he hath given him leave to entertain all 
nations and especially the English, for which cause, as we are 
informed, this Aurancaya caused the country people to keep their 


cloves for us this year and seeing that no ships came was con- 
strained at the last of the year to sell the one half unto the 
Hollanders, and the rest they have kept for the English. From 
this place of Lugho is but half a day's journey by land to Cam- 
bello, Lasede and Ceran, which three places yieldeth as many 
cloves as the half of Amboina and the people affable and desirous 
to trade with us and are in no subjection to the Hollanders, only 
trading with them as with all other merchants. And because the 
ship cannot conveniently go to all these places, we send this 
pinnace to go from port to port to bring cloves to the ship, which 
may remain in Lugho or Cambello, which shall be thought most 
convenient ; and if occasion be she may go from thence for 
Banda to give advice and so return to the ship again, as also to 
search out any other place near thereabout, where trade may be 
had. The goods which we send to those parts is Guzarate and 
Choramandell clothing, some money in rials, and some gold. 
The gold will yield 50 per cent, profit or more ; and cloves 
will be sooner gotten for rice and gold than for any other 
commodity whatsoever, because the rice is their food, the gold 
their treasure against they die and therefore they will give an 
extraordinary price for it, etc. 

And as concerning the estate of the business here in Bantam, 
according to your Worships' orders there is notice taken of all 
such goods as is here remaining for several accounts and voyages 
and have rated the same accordingly and brought it to account 
of the Joint Stock as per the journal now sent may appear. 
And as for some voyages which were in the custody of William 
Sheppard, left by the death of Mr. Jones, I send herewith the 
copy of William Sheppard's account given at his departure for 
Pottany in the James, whereby may be seen what was remaining ; 
which by reason of his sickness (as I perceive) was not left in 
better form, but Mr. Gourney being desirous of him in that 
voyage in lieu of Rich. Cobb, who remaineth here in Bantam ; 
the cause is that, if Mr. Cobb had gone in the ship, Mr. Gourney 
would not have proceeded in the voyage. The reason that he 
alleged was that both in the ship and land he was very trouble- 
some and a breeder of quarrels and debate amongst parties, and 
insufficient to do any business which did belong unto a merchant. 
Y 1268. T 


And now in the time of his abode in Bantam his behaviour and 
carriage hath verified the same, for by drunkenness, fighting and 
railing, agreeing with no man and making strife with all men and 
will obey no command, hath made all honest men to loathe his 
company ; therefore by a general consent he was deprived of the 
council of merchants as not able to conceal the secrets of the 
worshipful Company. Therefore we desired and required 
Captain Marlowe to carry him home in the James, which as 
yet he refuseth to do, alleging frivolous reasons to the contrary ; 
sometimes saying that we must lay in victuals for him with two 
servants to attend him, and at other times that he dares not 
carry the Company's servants home without their order. But, 
God sending the James well home, we do not doubt but your 
Worships shall be at full acquainted with the disorders of this 
voyage. In all places where they have been they have left them- 
selves famous with infamy to our nation, what by fighting, 
brabbling and contention amongst themselves, troubling all men 
where they come, hath been the cause that all, both strangers 
and others, are weary of their company ; and he that should 
govern all is chief cause of these disorders, for what discord 
hath been among them his hand hath not been out of it, either 
taking part with one or other, or breaking out in such terms of 
railing that he is little set by by his own company and less by 
strangers. And he is one of the first which doth trade publicly, 
contrary to your Worships' order, and in all places where he hath 
been. Therefore we were constrained to buy a parcel of Chora - 
mandell cloths of him to the value of 1,700 rials because he had 
sold some quantity at low rates and brought down the price to 
the great prejudice of the worshipful Company. And at present 
he hath in the ship about 10 or 12 chests of benjamin for his 
proper [account] and doth refuse to take in 15 peculs of cloves 
which Mr. Petty had bought for himself before his death at his 
first coming to Bantam and offered first 39 rials per pecul, which 
we understanding thereof advised him [the contrary] , shewing him 
that he went about to raise the prices of commodities, contrary to 
order, he answering that he did nothing but what he had order to 
do ; wherefore we showed him your Worships' letters to the 
contrary, and being thereat moved went aboard his ship, but after 


secretly caused some of his company to buy the 15 peculs of 
cloves ; and being in his sickness desired, if it pleased God to call 
him, that they might be sent home unto the worshipful Com- 
pany, and to advise that they were bought with his own money, 
and they might deal with him as they pleased ; which we required 
Captain Marlowe to do, which he refused, saying they could take 
in no more goods for the Company but was desirous to buy them 
for his own account. So if they were for his own account they 
might be carried for England, but, being for the worshipful 
Company's account, the ship could carry no more. These and 
many other wrongs he doth because he thinks to cross us that 
remain here aland, for that we do not feed his insatiable desire 
with wine and give him such extraordinary duty (as himself hath 
said) as if three of the Committees were present. These things 
are not written by way of complaint or envy, but only to make 
known, as our duty binds us, those things which are prejudicial 
to the proceedings of the worshipful Company, etc. 

Now after the departure of these ships we shall remain very 
weak, both of merchants and others, in regard that we are forced 
to have people at both houses, because at the old house lieth all 
the Guzaratt goods which were formerly in four warehouses subject 
to fire, rain and stealing ; therefore we have brought it all into one 
house and have laid it in the best manner we could devise to keep 
it from worms, which formerly have done great spoil where it lay 
before : so that we were constrained to open as many packs as we 
perceived to be perished, and have taken out the rotten and sold 
it at trust as well as we might, and have repacked the remainder 
in small bales, each sort by itself, for that we find many names 
of the cloths mistaken, as many sorts having three and four 
names for one sort of cloth, and the reason is, being bought in 
the Red Sea of sundry persons, viz. of Guzaratts, Mogores, 
Arabs, Turks, and Industans, each of them giving a several name 
according to their languages, which will be a great error in the 
end in keeping the accounts, except all the goods be opened and 
a new collection made according to their true names, which will 
ask some time. For if the collection already drawn continue as 
it is according to the packing bill, when it comes to draw a 
balance of every several account there will be found many 

T 2 


parcels over and many short ; AS also it will be very dimml* 
the sale unto those that shall come hen ifter that knows not 
the sorts. 

And as touching the building of our new house in the 
where now we make <mr abode, being a place nvenient 

and near the river, which is obtained with pi ind fair pro- 

mises by a writing from the Pengran Protector, wherein he doth 
give leave to build, and for : 'it of the walls ; 

measure; and, thinking ourselves therewith secure, we 1 
pared many necessaries for the same and fitted the place to I 
to build; which he perceiving began anew with us, I we 

may not build above 3 fathom high from the foundation to the 
roof, and we must not make any house at Jaccattra ; if we do it 
shall be at hi I • take the pi >t of ground and house fr<>m 

us again; and we must deliver him our old man-inn house, for 
that he will not have us to have two houses. Whereupon we I 
left to proceed any farther until we find him in a better humour, 
or other order from y>ur Worships. Therefore we have 
with the king of Jaccattra to hold his friendship and he hath 
given us leave to build at our pi id hath given us a piece 

of ground near the waterside, and for custom we are to pay as 
the Hollanders doth, which is a small matter; not that he will 
constrain us, but to give him something as a present. Now the 
Pengran Protector of Bantam, understanding thereof, seems to 
be very angry thereat and doth threaten to take from us the plot 
of ground which he hath given us to build on, and a 
is animated by the Hollanders, for that they would not have 
be so near neighbours to them ; as also we have been crossed by 
them at Jaccattra and at all other places where factories are. for 
in matters of trade they are worse enemies to us than the Por- 
tingals ; insomuch that in buying of silks the last year they 
raised the prices, under colour to make a consortship with us 
thinking in the meantime to get the most part into their hands, 
and when it came to conclusion their demand was to have 
30 peculs of Lanken silk first laid aside for them, and the re- 
mainder, which might be some 40 peculs, should be parted 
equally betwixt us, so by this means they should have 50 peculs 
and we 20. Whereupon we disagreed and parted each of us to 


do our best. And now at the receipt of pepper, we demanding 
our debtors to bring in their pepper, they began to raise the price, 
giving 15 rials per 10 sacks, we having bought at 13J the dearest ; 
and this they did thinking to have all into their own hands, know- 
ing that the Chineses for covetousness, to gain 1^ rials in 10 sacks 
and receive present money, would bring them the most part, the 
Chineses little esteeming their words and less their honesty. 
For this cause we shall be the longer receiving in of our debts in 
pepper ; and to go to law with them here it is in vain, for that 
answer hath been made to us by the chief officers that if the 
debtors cannot pay us we must stay until they are able, etc. 

The Hollanders doth take such extraordinary courses in 
putting out their cloths to the Chineses, and at such low rates to 
be paid the next year in pepper, that we cannot sell any of ours, 
because it is not so vendible in the country, for they giveth them 
choice of commodities, that which is fitting for the country, 
whereof we have little store. They have already delivered out 
above 40,000 rials, thinking by that means to get all the pepper 
into their hands the next year. And as for our commodities 
there is not any that will look on it ; therefore fitting that it 
should be transported to other countries where some part thereof 
may be vented, which cannot be done without men and shipping. 
And as for the sailors there will be no dealing with them unless 
agreement be made with them at home for to stay in the country 
and for their wages ; otherwise they will look to have wages 
beforehand, else they will not stay in the country. And as for 
the merchants which are here remaining, I could wish for some 
more of the like faculty and carriage, being all sufficient men for 
their places. After the departure of the Concord here will 
remain four besides myself, viz. Richard Westby, John Baylie, 
Samuel Boyle and Wm. Nicolls, who was purser's mate in the 
Dragon. Now for the factories which are in other places it is 
necessary to have staid men there that may procure the good of 
the Company and the love of the people by their good carriage, 
which out of this small number that are here cannot be spared, 
but our hope is of supplies in the next ships ; which at their 
coming we hold it necessary to place factories at Jappara under 
the king of Mattran (Mataram ?) and at Gracia (Grissee) both 


lying upon Java ; as also at Timour, where there is store of 
sandal-wood to be bought, which is a very good commodity at 
the Coast and Suratt, as also here in Bantam when the China 
junks come ; as likewise these places will vent those commo- 
dities which will not sell here in many years. 

And as for the trade of Sacadana, there is as yet but little 
profit had from thence but we have better hopes hereafter, if 
there were someone of experience and care of his business. 
The country doth vent but a small quantity of cloth, but it may 
be at Borneo, which is the chiefest place of trade, there will be 
better sale, and bezoar stones gotten for it. Also there is a place 
called Sambas betwixt Sacadana and Borneo, where there is 
some hope of store of diamonds, where Cassarian David was sent 
by Mr. Larkin, but as yet no certain news what good may be 
there done ; only the king and people of the country are desirous 
of trade. At present we want a pinnace and men to supply that 
factory of Sacadana and the rest thereabouts etc. Here are 
commodities lying on our hands which to be sent for England 
are scarce worth the freight, as cinnamon and porcelain, which 
would yield good profit in Suratt or Dabull, with other merchan- 
dise that arc here to be had vendible in those places ; for which 
purpose we want a small ship of some force, such as the Osiander, 
to go to and fro, which would not be only profitable for the sale 
of such goods as are here to be gotten but also the return would 
yield here great profit, we now understanding what goods is 
most vendible in these countries, and what the country of Suratt 
and Dabull doth yield etc. 

And whereas your Worships doth write, in a letter directed to 
Ed. Camden or [the chief] factor, to use all means to under- 
stand of the dealings of Augustine Spalding concerning certain 
cloves whereof he is accused to buy at a low price and sold [to] 
the worshipful Company at a dear rate, dealing underhand with 
the Chineses, I have diligently inquired about that matter but 
cannot understand by any circumstance to be guilty therein, only 
upon suspicion because of his familiarity with the Chineses, and 
of some 10 or 15 peculs, which he bought at 15 rials per pecul 
before the coming of the ships for his proper account, being full 
of dirt and not worth the money after they were garbled or 


cleansed, which he carried for his own account in the Solomon. 
Thus much I understand per Keewee, who was half with him in 
this bargain of cloves etc. 

Now concerning the Trades Increase that was laid up on the 
ooze (?) as per the Dragon, Clove and Expedition your Worships 
have at large understood : about two months past she was fired 
by night suddenly from stem to stern that none could come near 
to quench it, which we suppose was done of purpose by the 
Javas, because formerly she had been set on fire twice and by 
great help we quenched it again, which now was impossible to 
do, because she was, as we suppose, laid all fore and aft with this 
country pitch, otherwise she could not have so suddenly taken 
fire, which we suspect was done by the better sort of Javas by 
the instigation of a renegado Spaniard which is turned Moor, 
putting them in the head that in time she might serve in lieu of 
a castle. She was burnt in one night close to the water, and 
what was remaining of her it is sold for 1,050 rials, as per account 
may appear. 

Thus having advised your Worships of all matters which at 
present is in memory, and what is wanting in this shall by God's 
grace be performed in the next, we leave, praying the Almighty 
to bless your proceedings and augment the estate of the worshipful 
Company to His glory and the honour of our nation. Amen. 

Your servant in all duty, 

John Jourdain. 

Geo. Ball. 

Richard Westby. 

John Baylie. 

Sam. Boyle. 

Postscript. — Right Worshipful, this former letter being dated 
the 2nd ditto it pleased God that the Globe safely arrived from 
Mesopatam, weak of men and other. And being required per 
Captain Marlowe and Mr. Floris to assist them in a court per 
them called for the good of the worshipful Company, wherein it 
was concluded that the Concord should be laid up for the general 
good of both voyages, according to the copy of the conclusion 
sent herewith as may at large appear ; and whereas there was 


laden aboard the James 3,673 sacks of Bantam pepper for the 
account of the Joint Stock, according as the bills of lading makes 
mention, it is now otherwise concluded, viz. that the Globe is to 
take in the Priaman pepper which was in the Osiandcr, and 
the Globe to receive so much of Bantam pepper out of the James 
being formerly laden for the Joint Stock according to the tonnage 
as per rato, the freight to be paid according as your Worships in 
your discretions shall ordain. The copies of courts and agree- 
ments concerning these matters I send herewith ; if not in as 
ample manner as I desire, the troublesome captain of the James 
is cause thereof, who doth disquiet both house and fleet, that I 
could better temporize with John Davis in his drink than with 
this insatiable captain in his best wits, he being cross in all 
actions that doth concern the worshipful Company's business. 
And as concerning the accounts and the state of Bantam, your 
Worships shall understand at large per the copy of the journal 
now sent, which doth extend unto the 13th day of January, 1614 ; 
and what doth hereafter pass until the departure of the Globe 
(which I hope will be within ten days) I will, God willing, enlarge 
the rest, the time not permitting at present otherwise. Here- 
withal I send a note of what provision is put into the James, 
also of the men. And at present I conclude, commending your 
Worships to the merciful protection of Almighty God etc. 
Bantam the 15th of January, 1614. 

Your Worships' servant, 

John Jourdain. 



Christopher Farewell to John Oxwicke at Baroche. 
Gembuzar, 3rd January, 1614. 

R. OXWICKE, with my love I salute you, wishing 
your health as my own etc. Yours of this present I 
received by Narranse, wherein you write you marvel 
that neither of us would advise you of our safe arrival 
here, whereof we both in our several letters certified you, and 
sent them by some of our peons of return. Howsoever, it 
seemeth he hath not delivered them, and also I then wrote you of 
5 carts of indigo, which Narranse had the same night laden for 
Baroche, and timely the next morning sent them away, himself 
carefully seeing the indigoes passed over the river without taking 
wet. Concerning our proceedings here you shall understand that, 
having bargained for a matter of 70 and odd maunds of anil at 
several prices, when we came to compare them with the musters, 
they were far inferior to them in all respects of goodness, being 
almost one third part dirt and sand and every way such as pre- 
sently I washed my hands of them ; expecting to-morrow other 
musters from the Aldea, wherein, as occasion shall be offered, we 
purpose to proceed ; but as for quantity or choice, by Narranse's 
report these parts afford neither, only some small partidos and 
those not very good. If the abovesaid had been to content, we 
had agreed for the delivery of them at Baroch free of all cost, 
and there to have taken the weight of them, with other condi- 
tions according to the custom of these places. And whereas you 
write for Mr. Ball and Narranse, they both would have gone to- 
morrow morning, but that I doubt (upon our no good success 
hitherto, and but little likelihood of any hereafter) we shall all 
depart within these three days at the furthest, which at the sight 
of musters pd. shall speedily be determined and so to make 
but one journey of it, but then at the furthest they shall not fail, 
God willing, to be with you ; for I perceive you are troubled with 
a bad commodity, wherein the deceit of Patell and the rest 
appeareth, with whom, as I wrote you, Narranse had great con- 
troversies, who when he saw great part of Patell's not to answer 
to the musters, by much ado abated him upon 43 maunds (which 


you had agreed for 22 mamoodies per maund) two mamoodics per 
maund, and of other 13 maunds he abated him half a mamoodie 
per maund. Narranse saith he standeth bound before the B 
for 4,800 and odd mamoodies, the money of the said anil sent, 
who standeth doubtful what will become of the matter if \ ■ • li 
refuse the bargain, as his son's letter doth make doubtful ; but 
he hopeth that you will so far forth respect your word, as he saith 
he hath followed your order and advice, so that no prejudice 
befall him. Thus, with Mr. Ball's commendations, I commit 
you and your affairs to God, and do rest 

Your loving friend, 

Chr. Farewell. 


Thomas Aldworthc to John Oxwickc, Christopher Farewell and 
Bayly Ball, at Baroche. 
Amadavas, this 4th of January, 1614. 

R. OXWICKE, Mr. Farewell and the rest, I commend 
me to you all etc. Yours of the 28th December I 
received, perceiving the good hopes you have there to 

be fitted with indigo that may serve our turn, as 
Mr. Ball wrote us ; and therefore I could wish you to go through 
for some 200 fardles or churls, which may contain five maunds 
per churl, having moneys there to accomplish it. From Cam- 
baya we are not to expect the quantity we thought to have done, 
and therefore hoping of all your cares in the choosing of that 
indigo that may serve for England. We could wish you to get 
what you can of the better sort and not of that which will not 
swim, which is base and not worth the sending. And so, not 
having farther at present, I commend you all to God's protection. 
Mr. Oxwicke, I pray you not to detain our foot-post, but let 
him go through, for our letters require haste ; for the last time 
you sent him out of the way to Cambaya, which hindered us 

Your loving friend, 

Tho. Aldworthc. 



r John Oxwicke to Thomas Elkington. 

Baroche, the 8th January, 1614. 

R. ELKINGTON, Yours of the 5th January. I have 
received. For the chop of the Nabob I have received 
as in a former letter I did write you, which is suffi- 
cient to serve the turn ; and for the orders that I 
receive from Amadavaz, I do intend they shall be followed, which 
is the main I do aim at ; and for such letters which come to my 
hand that are yours, I do always dispeed them away so soon as 
possible ; also when I have letters from thence and you none, I 
do advise of what they do write, as in a couple before this I have, 
or anything else needful. When I send you goods I will let you 
know thereof a day before, according to your desire, be it from 
other parts or from hence. The banyan which brought your 
letter told me, as you writ, that he had 100 corge of baftas, 
which I did desire to have sight thereof, but as yet I hear nothing 
from him. I shall well like of them if a pennyworth may be had 
or as good cheap as we do now buy ; and so to deliver a letter for 
payment there. 

And in your letter, Mr. Elkington, you do much admire I do 
affect privately so much as to send away Esay Butt. Now 
Mr. Farewell and Mr. Ball being gone, for their being absent it 
was necessary both or none, or myself and Mr. Ball (which was 
not so fit for me to neglect this business here) ; and for Esay 
Butt it was thought meet by yourself when I was there I should 
return him, not for any particular meaning of thought to be 
private, for I do affect it as little as any, and for such as are 
appointed in this business with me do and shall know of all that 
passeth as far forth as myself, and for such I am a companion to 
run alongst withal and with others a friend and companion too, 
but not in my business, I mean Esay Butt, unless the Company 
had thought it fit to join him with me in commission ; then 
should I have been well pleased. For the security of the estate 


of the business, it is secure here as there by the grace of God, 
and if you please to send a better guard they shall be welcome. 
Thus, with hearty commendations to yourself and the rest, I 

commit you all to God. 

Your loving friend, 

John Oxwicke. 

Mr. Farewell is returned with Mr. Ball and now we will b 
to pack. They have bought no indigo. 


A Court called the 9th of January, 1614. 

HEREAS the James, Globe and Osiander riding in the 
road of Bantam, two of them, viz. tin- James and 
Osiander, being laden and ready to set sail, the third 
being the Globe newly arrived, in consideration of 
their unfitness to proceed of their pretended voyage for England, 
per reason of their great need of men and other nccessiti' 
general court was called by Captain Marlowe and Mr. Floris by 
reason of their wants this 9th January, 1614, wherein they 
demand men for their supply, not daring, nor no ways holding 
it convenient, to set sail with so weak a company as each of them 
have at present, having no other ships or means to supply their 
wants but the Osiander and Concord, it being held fitting by all 
the court that one ship should proceed to the Molluccocs for- 
merly pretended, as well for a future good unto the right wor- 
shipful Company as a present benefit in her now intended 
voyage ; it being with deliberation thought and well considered 
of by all in general in the present court, and finding an impossi- 
bility that all the ships, manned as they are, can proceed without 
great danger and hazard both to the ships and goods, therefore 
of force one must stay to supply the wants of the other two, it 
was concluded in general that the Osiander was the fittest ship to 


stay for the supply of the James and Globe, by reason she is 
of least charge and fittest to stay in the country, her men to be 
divided according to their wants and to be put into the James 
and Globe ; Edward Christian, formerly captain of the Osiander 
to be captain and commander of the Globe in as ample manner 
as formerly was Captain Hippon ; Master Peter Floris to deliver 
him the king's commission for the better government of the ship 
and men ; Nathaniel Salmon, formerly master of the Osiander, 
to go into the Globe there to remain master, and John Skinner, 
formerly master of the Globe, he being willing to do the Com- 
pany service here in the country, to go into the Osiander, there 
to remain master ; and Walter Bennett, formerly appointed 
master of the Concord, to go into the James there to remain 
master's-mate ; and Mr. Alexander, formerly master's-mate of the 
Osiander, to go into the Speedwell there to remain master ; the 
Concord to remain a roader in the road of Bantam until further 
supply from England, and the Osiander being thought a fitter 
ship to proceed of a voyage formerly pretended to the Molluc- 
coes. And whereas it was formerly concluded that the James 
being ready should go over for Moroffe and there to abide the 
coming of the Globe, it is now ordered that she shall proceed for 
the Cape of Good Hope and there to stay the coming of the 
Globe thirty days, and if the Globe shall not come thither within 
the term of so many days, she is then to slay at St. Hellenna 
fifteen days in hope of the Globe's coming thither, having here 
entered into agreement, meeting at either of these places within 
the time afore-limited to hold consortship without parting each 
from other until they arrive in England, except stress of weather 
force them thereunto, each assisting one another both with 
defence and all comforts what they may. In confirmation 
whereof they have hereunto set their hands in the presence of 
Captain Jourdain and the rest of the factors, Captain Marlowe 
and Captain Christian having each of them a copy hereof whose 
names are on the other side. 

Edmond Marlowe. John Jourdain. George Chauncey. 

Edward Christian. George Ball. Richard Cobb. 

Peter Floris. Richard Westby. Samuel Boyle. 

John Davis. John Baylie. William Nicolls. 



Thomas Aldworthc to John Oxwicke, Christopher Farewell, 
and Bayly Ball, at Baroche. 

Amadavas, this 12th of January, 1614. 

[R. OXWICKE, Mr. Farewell, Mr. Ball, I kindly com- 
mend me to you etc. Your three letters yesternight I 
received, with the bags of divers musters, perceiving 
the deceitful making of indigoes in those parts, whereof 
I spake enough at my being there with Mr. Edwards and the rest, 
though then not hearkened unto ; wherefore, the case standing as 
now it doth, and having received letters from our General for our 
speedy despatch, for that he will not stay beyond the end of this 
present month, we are now to use all diligence to that effect and 
so I could wish you all to make the best of that business you have 
begun, that it may be in good sort sent to the ships with what 
convenient speed you may. In my opinion [Narranse ought?] to 
be free from damage, being employed by you [there?] for that 
business and therefore you must now compose it that it may 
turn to the least disadvantage you can for all sides, reserving 
always your credits, that no imputation be justly laid upon the 
English. I hope you will have ready there one hundred fardlcs at 
least, that trial may be made at home what good will be done 
therewith. It is now too late to send you musters which you 
write for, and we, being in the business at present, must now go 
through it, hoping to despatch ourselves herehence by the 20th 
of this instant, with indigo enough to lade the Solomon, if not 
the Hector. I pray you to get as much cotton yarn as you may, 
with all things else according to order, that you may have all things 
ready by the time limited and to mark your fardles of indigo with 
the letter B, to be known from the rest. And thus in haste I 
commend you all to God's good protection. 

Your loving friend, 

Tho. Aldworthe. 

If you did not heretofore acquaint Mr. Ball with your pro- 
ceedings you did ill, but if you did, then you ought to rebuke 


Mr. Ball that wrote to the contrary ; for you needed not to use 
your comparisons with [us ?] except we had first written you 
that we could aim better at the Company's business than your- 
self. Howsoever, I am glad of your care and sufficiency. 

Tho. Aid. 

I have given your foot-post two mamoodies. I pray you send 
him forthwith to Suratt with these letters. 


[Wm. Nicolls ?] to the East India Company. 
Sent by Capt. Marlowe, in the James. 
In Bantam, this 14th of January, 1614. 

|IGHT Worshipful, My humble duty remembered, etc. 
It may please you my last was from Tecoo by Captain 
Newport in the Expedition, wherein I certified of all 
things pertinent. Since which, by means of a leak in 
the Osiander through the worm, Captain Christian was forced to 
set sail for Bantam to new sheathe, leaving me (as General Best 
had formerly appointed) principal, and three others to assist me, 
viz. (sic) The 10th of January 1613 he departed from Tecoo, and 
the 26th of June following returned ; in which time of his absence 
I sold some 18 bales of your goods, having left me 30 bales and 
bought of pepper only 41 bahars, being one day permitted trade 
and the other none. The cause was by that the Governor and 
Pon Leema precedent had hope to have brought us to their own 
bows, to give their own price in commodity and for pepper when 
the ship returned, making account that we should have been tied 
to such a strait, what through her great quantity of goods and 
want of relading, that they might make their own markets on us. 
But their hopes were frustrate and our hand better to your Wor- 
ships' profits, although the hazard something to have lived so long 
amongst so rude a nation in so weak a case, but only with four 


persons in all, whereof two, viz. John Postle, an honest, careful 
man, and Thomas Symons, surgeon's mate, were two-thirds of 
the time very sick, and only left myself and Richard Lane to 
effect all kinds of business by day, as watch by turns the whole 
night, to our most unmeasurable toil and danger of loss of goods 
and lives, having been many times assaulted to be robbed with 
three or four ways broken into our yard by night and even 
the walls attempted to be cut down upon us, which we still pre- 
vented by good heed, many times shooting off our muskets 
through the walls of our house to their great danger, although 
our hap was never to light on any one of them, as they lost their 

At last the ioth of January aforesaid arrived Captain Christian 
in the Osiander, whom I fully possessed with all occurrences 
passed in the pursuit of my business, advising him to threaten 
them to complain unto the king for having denied me that quiet 
trade which he had granted by his letter and warned them to 
afford the English, as also declaring our great loss sustained 
thereby, which I told them still in private, the captain might 
not dare but complain of and prove the king's mind, not only for 
the present abuses but for the time future, that thereafter your 
Worships might accordingly dispose of your shipping for mer- 
chandising from Suratt, and not furnish goods for that place 
where were wild abuses offered ; all which savoured of some truth 
with them, insomuch as they persuaded the owners of the pepper 
to sell us for 12 baftas the bahar, pretending to them that their 
former purposes were for their especial avail, which not taking 
effect, they should do them but reason to content us at present, 
and free them from danger which they were in, if we complained ; 
yet underhand we were forced to give to the Governor and Pon 
Leema if dollars and for the king's custom one dollar or bafta 
upon each bahar, which all charges stood your Worships in 
14I dollars the bahar first penny ; and all charges added doth not 
stand your Worships in above 15^ dollars, having bought neither 
more nor less than 525 bahars, 2 qrs., 22 catties, as by the account 
thereof hereinclosed. So would I have given your Worships an 
exact account of all my sales of your goods in form of debtor and 
creditor, but Captain Christian demanding view of my day-book 


at sea, when I was very sick of a fever, I delivered it unto him, 
which now he detaineth, pretending it belongeth only unto him 
to give your Worships an account, being principal by name in the 
business, but not by nature, for I have not only sold your goods 
for gold even all that were uttered at Tecoo, but bought and 
bargained for all the pepper likewise, which was never had in 
those parts by any English for less than rive dollars more the 
bahar, all charges cast into a medium, which Captain Christian 
seeing maketh account to assume all as done by himself by 
accounting unto your Worships ; and yet was always willing I 
should do all things therein by pain and labour ; even as in his 
purser's books for the Dragon it is manifest I have taken two- 
thirds of the pains, as witnesseth my handwriting extant in the 
same. Thus of due doth belong a portion of poundage unto me, 
which I submit to your Worships' pleasures, who did ship me for 
his mate and not his man. 

Since our arrival here, being the 26th day of November last, 
I have weighed out of the Osiander and put aboard the James for 
the account of your Worships' Tenth Voyage the number of 
100 bahars of pepper, each bahar containing 400 lbs. net, being 
weighed by bars of lead marked, and was so much delivered 
aboard, by her being over deep, and some chests of silk to be put 
in her which Captain Christian hath solely bought, I not being 
worthy to know aught, although appointed by General Best as 
his merchant and with strict admonishment that he take my help 
and advice in any of your business, as also use me better than 
formerly he had done ; but pride was always predominant in his 
bosom, that even the merchants here of ancient experience were 
not wise enough to counsel him for the buying his silks, which, 
his self-conceit carrying him, he bought at a dearer rate than 
ordinary ; so did Captain Jourdain tell him of it at the table two 
or three times, alleging unto him that General Best left order that 
no English merchant of what voyage soever should meddle in any 
bargaining without their advice ; but his manner is to seem to do 
more than indeed he can effectually perform, or how should he 
look for further employment in the nature of a captain from your 
Worships, which he may not let slip opportunity to maintain, be 
it to your Worships' manifest damage rather. For it may please 
Y 1268. u 


you to understand the Globe arrived here the 3rd present, and 
the 9th past was a council held here ashore, touching a supply of 
men that both the James and she stood in to carry them f<>r 
England ; where it was thought fittest and so determined that 
the Osiander's lading to be put into the Globe and men to be 
distributed as aforesaid ; only Edward Christian's captainship 
being like to be frustrate, he peremptorily started up uttering in 
open court that unless he might go home captain of the Globe he 
would not consent or yield to the same, preferring his most 
abominable pride before your profits, who have raised him, as 
myself, from the cart to the court. All which Mr. Floris seeing, 
answered in flexible manner : You shall have the commission of 
Captain Hippon rather than I will stand out in it to the damage 
of the worshipful Company; having more wit in his finger, as the 
saying is, than he hath in his head, for I never saw his works 
aught worthy of praise but his words great ; having threatened 
me (when I have denied him the sale of his goods before your 
own) that it were better for me to please him anyway than to 
contend with him, he being in place of command and to be at 
home before me, where his tale will be heard before mine and can 
do me mischief or good at his pleasure ; all spoken before 
Mr. Salmon, master now of the Globe, even in the great cabin 
aboard the Osiander at his departure for Bantam to sheathe, which 
I daresay Mr. Salmon will not avouch, by his having opened a 
chest of money at Suratt out of the Osiander's hold, taking 100/. 
out to employ for his own, Mr. Oliver's and Ralph Crofte, 
purser's, private benefits, which the Captain knowing of he feareth 
will discover to your Worships, if he should not persevere to 
please him by saying anything. But I refer myself to your Wor- 
ships' able understandings, whom I beseech to give me the privi- 
lege of a thief, not to condemn me before trial, and then I shall 
fear none ill, having always endeavoured my best, without respect 
of my private profit ; but that little which I have gained hath 
been of my wits gathered out of the customers, whereof Captain 
Christian hath shared even by force, and by this only means I 
have maintained myself in clothing befitting my place in your 
Worships' so great designs, which my whole wages of 30s. per 
month, were it paid me all, would but barely do. But as I prove 


I doubt not the least of reward, to which I refer me most 
willingly, minding always to prosecute your business with all 
ardency, when and wheresoever I shall be put unto it. Yet I 
fear me that Captain Christian's private false devices here of me 
may work me mischief, being so disdainful as I have always found 
him, but for no other cause but the motioning my best opinion in 
your Worships' business. For it may please you, having at 
Cotatinga (Kataping?) sold all your baftas and only left some 
defect goods, which three or four merchants would have bought 
(a little underhand) and cleared away together ; the which I 
acquainted him withal and to accept of it, that we might clear 
thence and seek the rest of our lading at Priaman or Tecoo, 
saying further that, admit 20 or 30 dollars be lost at the most, 
what is it to despatch in a day, by which certain charge of the 
ship is eschewed, and the more time at Pryaman and Tecoo the 
better hopes of good bargains, which I had cause to fear, having 
had greater experience of them than Captain Christian ; but he 
would not accept thereof, his will being his greater reason alleged 
to me ; and afterwards I could not attain so great a bargain, that 
I must tell him my mind of force before I could get him to yield 
to make despatch, viz. I answered him plainly : " Captain, you 
have good store of goods of your own, which you value for more 
than will be had at present, and your hopes of better sales for 
them causeth you to reject my counsel ; I seeing day at a little 
hole, for I proceeded in my honest heart's intention : If you should 
sell the Company's goods away then indeed, Captain, you have 
no colour to stay about your own private market ; " whereat he 
grew into a rage, threatening to charm my tongue by blows, 
although all my words were not only mixed with fit terms as to a 
commander but tending to your undoubted profits. But how- 
soever my words, he continued there at least six weeks about his 
said private business, having only by chance afterward bought 
about some 24 bahars of pepper, that at that present he had no 
hope of by ground of any reason, only the Andrapora (Indrapura) 
men, hearing of our being at Cotatinga in' their way to Tecoe, did 
by contrary winds put into Padonge (Padang), some four leagues 
to the southward of us, and so came to deal with us. For these 
and other my true sayings unto him in your Worships' behalf, he 

u 2 


doth most maliciously envy mc and for aught I perceive hath 
prevailed here. But my conscience is as a thousand witnesses 
that I cannot doubt of God's justice, who knoweth the secrets of 
all hearts, and that in those countries I can do more in a day 
than he can in three, having (as he knows) sufficient language and 
more love amongst all the people, if he will acknowledge it ; but 
by that it may somewhat impair his credit, he will hardly do. 

Since my being here I have been very sick of a flux, in which 
time I have writ out part of my journal, I mean so much as con- 
cerns your business and herewith do send it. What is therein 
contained is as true as, I thank God, I live in health I 
newly of that disease by good means under God from this b< 
Mr. Wootton. 

I have delivered unto Captain Christian the account of the 
Dragon's Tenth Voyage, which is formally declared, as is fit \"tir 
business should be, but through weakness of my body at its 
writing it is but raggedly written, yet legible, and such as you 
may perceive I can give a tit account; ami therefore the Captain 
cannot pretend of my insufficiency in that behalf, although not 
excellent by my but slender practice in the same. What is wanting 

in mc I will strive to amend. 



George Chauncey to the East India Company, by the James. 
Bantam, the 15th of January, 1614. 

IGHT Worshipful Sir, my service remembered etc. 
May it please your Worships to understand that my 
last unto your Worships was of the 14th of January 
1612 per the Hector, since which I have perused one 
of your Worships' letters by the Concord, by which letter I 
perceive your Worships received mine ; wherein I gave your 
Worships to understand of the Globe's proceeding and the 


James for the coast of Coremondell. And now that your Wor- 
ships may be advertised what hath passed since, may it please 
you to understand that we arrived with the James the 6th of 
June 1613, in the road of Petepoley (Petapoli), whereas having 
a cowl for trade we landed what goods and moneys was thought 
fitting for that place, whereas myself being appointed chief with 
Mr. Brockedon for that employment. So leaving Mr. Brockedon 
there, I went in the ship for Massulapatam. So about the 
20th ditto we arrived in the road of Massulapatam, whereas 
Mr. Gourney being there settled, and I having served the way 
of that trade so far as my knowledge did give me leave, I 
returned again to Petepoley, whereas we made sale of our goods 
and made our employments again, in such commodities as by 
our instructions we had of Mr. Peter Floris and Mr. Lucas 
Antheunis. So that Mr. Gourney having made his employment in 
Masulapatam and embarked all his goods, the ship coming to 
Petepoley, in the meantime about the fine of December arrived 
the Globe in the road of Massulapatam with Captain Essington, 
Peter Floris and Adam Denton. So it being held fit for the 
good of both voyages, that Adam Denton should proceed with 
the James by reason of his experience in those parts where the 
James were to go, and myself to stay with Mr. Floris for the 
service of the Globe, which accordingly we have done. So the 
James set sail for Bantam from Petepoley the 8th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1613, and myself arrived some 5 days after in Masulapa- 
tam, whereas I found Mr. Floris, but the ship was gone for the 
river of Narsuparpeta to be trimmed and also Captain Essington 
remained there to see it performed, till the 17th of May he ended 
this life; upon whose death Mr. Floris went thither to see all 
matters whatsoever set in order ; and by reason of his great 
business in Masulapatam he could not spare my absence, so he 
established Mr. Skinner to see all matters whatsoever performed. 
But he not being so careful as he might have been that 
Mr. Floris was constrained to send me thither and to discharge 
Mr. Skinner, which I did and arrived in Narsuparpeta the 19th of 
July, and having taken account of Mr. Skinner of all land matters 
I remained there till the 3rd of October our ship, being careened, 
thanks [be to] God, came safe over the bar of Narsuparpeta and, 


having taken all her provision in, she was by force of winds and 
foul weather broke from her cable and lost her anchor; so that 
she was forced to Masulapatam road, where she arrived safe, 
thanks be to God, the 23rd ditto. But I, having discharged all 
business both for ship and shore, arrived in Masulapatam four 
days before the ship. So at our coming thither rinding Mr. Floris 
almost ready, only the Governor and two or three more to 
be indebted about 8 or 9,000 rials, and that their time of pay- 
ment being seven months past and still driving us off from day 
to day ; so in the end, seeing little hope of payment or none at 
all to be expected, we agreed to take the Governor's son prisoner, 
which the 24th of November we performed out of the king's 
custom house and carried him aboard our ship prisoner in spite 
of 1,000 of his people, to the Company's benefit, the honour of 
our king and country and to the great content of all the Moors. 
This Governor is indebted to the Dutch 7,000 rials and hath 
been this seven years but they will never get a cash from him. 
This Governor is a Brahman and a very great tyrant. So 
Mr. Floris going aboard with the Governor's son, left me ashore 
to receive our debts, which I did in six days and laded them 
aboard in indigo, cinnamon and cotton yarn. For all matters 
which passed in this conflict I refer your Worships to the mouths 
of Mr. Floris and the rest when it shall please God to send them 
to your Worships in safety, for it is too tedious to set down. 
So we making as good [speed ?] as possibly we could we set sail 
from Massulapatam the 8th day of December and in 26 days we 
arrived safe in Bantam road, whereas we found roaders the 
James, the Osiander, the Concord and Speedwell, where upon 
our coming there was held a court, where it was generally agreed 
upon that the James and Globe should proceed home, and by 
reason of want of men of both ships so it was agreed that the 
Concord should stay here in the road till a new supply, and her 
men to supply the other two ships Globe and James, and the 
Osiander to go to the Molouckes, and Captain Christian to be 
captain of the Globe and Mr. Salmon to be master, and 
Mr. Skinner to go master in the Osiander for the Molouckes 
with Mr. Ball chief merchant, and for myself to go a passenger 
in the same ship for Macassar there to remain chief and to do 


your Worships the best service I am able to the uttermost of my 
power, if it please God to send me my health ; for at this present 
I being very sick and weak am not able to write your Worships 
at large, but what I have let pass I refer your Worships to 
Mr. Floris and Captain Marlowe who I doubt not but will certify 
your Worships at large. The Globe will [be ready ?] to set sail 
in 15 days and the Osiander, but because I would not altogether 
be thought negligent I have thought fit to certify your Worships 
somewhat of our proceedings, though not so large as I ought ; 
but I beseech your Worships to hold me excused being at present 
very ill. So with my prayers to God for your Worships' happy 
proceedings in all your actions, I rest 

Your Worships' servant to command, 

George Chauncey. 


Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke at Baroche. 
Laus Deo. In Surat, the 19th January, 1614. 

R. OXWICKE, I heartily commend me unto you with 
desire of your health etc. My last unto you was of 
the 17th present per Bamond, since which have 
received yours of the 12th, 15th and 17th present ; 
and with yours of the 12th a bill of exchange of 2,258 mamoodies, 
which at sight thereof I paid. Your other bill of 660 mamoodies 
was yesternight presented late unto me ; this morning, God 
willing, when the party cometh it shall be paid. 

I perceive of eight carts come from Amadavar you have 
passed over the river ; I wonder we have no certain advice from 
Mr. Aldworthe thereof. Long since he writ me there should 
be 808 maunds thereof, which I conceive cannot come in eight 
carts ; so it may be there are more carts of this complement yet 
behind. It seems it is to go directly to Swally ; God grant there 
be no stoppage in the way. Hitherto I hear not more of it. 


Also we understand that as this night you purpose to send away 
such goods as you had in readiness, whereof I pray take such 
order that we may hear when it cometh to Veriaw (Variao), 
whereby we may procure the customers to go thither to despatch 
it for Swafly, and with it I pray send testimonial of the cus- 
tomers there and brokers of the quantity and what it costeth, for 
the more easier despatch thereof. 

The chop you write I sent of the Nabob's scrveth only for 
despatch of the goods, but for the custom you arc fain to pay, 
which I think is not to be avoided; for so wc arc forced to pay 
for the cloths that went from hence. 

The antelopes you write you will send shall be carefully looked 

We have news for certain that the Viceroy with 9 ships and 
some 40 frigates was four days past at Barsall (Bulsar?) some 
27 course from the bar of Surat, where hourly wc expect to hear 
of his approach. Some 40 frigates other are already come, who 
sent a man up to entreat of peace with the Nabob ; to whom 
yesterday the Shabunder went, but as yet not returned. I doubt 
it is some trick of the Portingals to feed them with hopes and 
then suddenly to come upon them. 

Mr. Aldworth hoped to despatch all and come away by the 
20th of this present and to be fitted with sufficient, with what 
you provide at Baroch, to lade home the Hector. I have since 
the 8th writ you many letters, viz. of the 7th with 14th, 15th and 
17th present, all which I hope ere this are come unto your hands. 
Not having others at present, with commendations to Mr. Fare- 
well, Mr. Ball, etc., I commit you to God's holy protection and 


Your loving friend, 

Tho. Elkington. 

Since the writing of the former, I have received letters from 
our General that seven of the Portingal ships yesterday were in 
sight but as far off at sea as they could perceive them. 



Thomas Keridge to the East India Company (sent by the Hope). 
Laus Deo. In Agemere, the 20th January, 1614. 

|ONOURABLE and Right Worshipful, 

My humble duty remembered etc. The 20th of 
September past I wrote your Worships of the past 
and sent it Mr. Aldworthe to have been conveyed per 
way of Muselepatan, when in the interim it pleased God to send 
Captain Downton and those ships under his command to Suratt 
in safety (blessed be God for so high a favour). One of them 
Mr. Aldworthe hath written me goeth directly for England, per 
whom I have advised him to send the said letters, whereunto I 
refer me. 

At the coming of these your ships Mr. Aldworthe advised 
me of Mr. Wm. Edwards appointed chief for your Worships' 
negotiations in these parts, and that below it was concluded he 
should be resident at the court, which for many reasons is requi- 
site, not only for giving satisfaction to the king, and right to us 
for many abuses which else will be offered, but also for the dis- 
persing of our commodities and people in these parts etc. He 
wrote me also of a present brought for the king, and that 
Mr. Edwards purposed not to show the same to Mocrob Chan 
nor any other until it came unto the king's view, which knowing 
it would be difficult for him to perform, I procured the king's 
letter unto him for that purpose wherein he commanded Mocrob 
Chan to suffer the presents pass unopened. And therewith I wrote 
unto the General etc. of such things as, in my opinion, had been 
requisite to have been done before the lieger's coming thence ; 
but in their answer to me perceive Mr. Edwards was departed 
before the receipt thereof and his present perused, which at the 
coming of other ships may be prevented, for the king will be 
best pleased to have the first sight himself. And now I am in 
daily expectation of the lieger's coming. God send him in safety. 
I hope he is well furnished with toys for the king and nobility, 
will (which ?) above all things will here prevail and cause our 
business to go current, whereof I nothing doubt so long as they 


bring sufficient force to resist their enemies, who by all possible 
means endeavour to root us hence, for which cause they pretend 
their present wars with this people, who think it reason that in 
regard the Portingals have done them so many injuries for our 
cause, we also should do something to assist them; and I think 
it will be required of the lieger at his coming hither, for some of 
them have propounded the same unto me and I wish that all 
your ships had authority so to do. Then would not our enemies 
be so forward in seeking to prejudice us, but have much to do to 
preserve their own, whereas the want thereof doth embolden 
them to any mischief. The Viceroy of Goa in a letter lately 
written to this king wrote very basely of our nation, terming us 
thieves, disturbers of states and a people not to be permitted in 
a commonwealth, and that if the king received us they would 
never have peace with him, but do him all possible prejudice, 
threatening to effect some great exploit upon these your ships, 
and after to take all the seaports. A copy of this letter I desired 
to have sent your Worships but could not procure it, being it 
was only interpreted unto the king and not translated. Another 
letter formerly written from the Viceroy to a Jesuit now in Suratt 
was intercepted, the copy whereof I procured and have sent the 
translation herewith, that your Worships may the better perceive 
the present business betwixt this people and the Portingals. 
Since much mischief hath been done this people on the sea coast, 
the relation whereof I refer to your people in Suratt, who have 
more certain notice. 

At the coming of these ships Mr. Aldworthe wrote me they 
purposed to send up hither 1,000/. to be invested in round 
indigo of Agra and that in four days I should expect the same, 
wishing me to advise Nicholas Withington for his care and haste 
therein, who being in Agra I sent the copy of the said letter unto 
him, and he in expectation of the promised moneys bought some 
500/. worth of indigo upon credit, to be paid in ten days after, 
and dispeeding the same with a parcel formerly in readiness, all 
was seized on by the Governor of Agra, who about that time had 
received a sharp letter from the king, blaming his neglect for 
letting the goods of certain Portingals unattached and wrote him 
he should look well that no Frangueis' goods were transported 


from thence, upon which letter to show his diligence he hindered 
the departure of ours, including us within the word Frangueis ; 
whereof having intelligence, I procured from the king his man- 
date unto the Governor for the releasing of it, and that futurely 
he should not meddle with any goods appertaining unto the Eng- 
lish ; and accordingly at sight thereof the goods were redelivered, 
and that taken upon credit Nicholas Withington again restored 
to their owners, for neither moneys nor bills of exchange came to 
make payment, which caused him to doubt all things went not 
well with our people at Suratt. And hearing divers uncertain 
reports of our ships he wrote me he thought fit not to send the 
other indigo until farther advice from thence, we having received 
but one letter since the ship's arrival. In my answer I blamed 
his oversight and wished him to send the goods presently away, 
and few days after received letter from Mr. Aldworthe to the 
same effect ; upon the receipt whereof he sent it, being 33 fardles 
of indigo, which three days since came hither, and the next day 
I sent it hence, but much doubt it will not come in time to go 
home upon the first ship, which, as they write, shall depart by 
the 20th of February, so impossible for these goods to be there 
by that time. Mr. Canning's things also which were left at Agra 
are sent therewith. 

Concerning Midnall's goods, in my last I certified your Wor- 
ships how far I had proceeded. Since have been in suit with the 
Frenchman and recovered from him more unto the former, in 
goods and moneys almost to the value of 100/. ; but he with the 
Jesuits' help and the testimony of other Christians here, who 
were eye witnesses to the conclusion betwixt Newman and Mid- 
nail in Espahawne (Ispahan) and I in defence laid so upon the 
Frenchman and Jesuits' cozenage in this business, that the king 
thought neither of us had sufficient right thereunto ; so disposed 
of it to his own use and willed the moneys to be delivered into 
his treasury and the goods unto his household officers to be spent. 
Notwithstanding, by the help of letters from Suratt and extra- 
ordinary presents (with a private gift) and means used, I have 
recovered it, and before the coming of your ships the king granted 
the restoring thereof unto me, wherein I have had incredible 
pains, first in getting the king's grant firmed by the nobility 


and after his second confirmation thereof (as a matter merely of 
gift), and since in seeking out what is become of the goods, which 
is delivered to so many men that it is beyond credit intricate, 
chargeable and tedious to recover (which I hope will by your 
Worships be considered), not so much for the sum, which is 
small, as the credit to our nation. I have received some 3,400 
rupees in ready money and am now labouring for moneys for the 
goods, which received I have a farther claim to the Frenchman 
and have stopped 100/. of his wages in the king's hands for 
certain moneys he oweth Midnall and goods missing which he 
denieth etc. 

I have not received any notice from below what quantities of 
commodities are brought upon these ships ; so cannot directly 
advise of what were needful per the next. In my last I wrote 
what quantities of cloth were fitting, which of our commodities 
is the chiefest in request here (I mean for quantity), viz. 400 
broadcloths, whereof the one half may be stammels and Venice 
reds ; the rest popinjays, yellows and grass greens ; and of all 
colours that are light, smaller quantities ; no sad blues nor sad 
colours at any hand. And if amongst the said parcel you send 
some 40 or 50 cloths of higher than ordinary price, for the court, 
I think they would give content and sell pro rato for as much 
profit as the others ; they may be of price from 15 to 20I. per 
cloth, sorted for colours as the rest ; great care ought to be had 
both in cloth and colour, for in the Dragon there came much 
slight cloth at high rates, which disgraceth the commodity, for 
they are not ignorant in the goodness as is supposed. Coarse 
cloths you may not send, for within 40 miles of this place it is to 
be had cheaper than in England. Devon kerseys also about 100 
or 150 pieces will vent, for having disposed of those we brought 
they now desire of them, sorted for colours as the cloths. And 
for that this people much desire novelties and toys, in my opinion 
it were not amiss if you caused three or four hundred pounds 
yearly to be employed in Vennyce for that purpose, viz. looking- 
glasses of all fashions set and unset, Venetian drinking glasses 
and dishes of all sorts, pictures painted, printed, in wood, in 
stone, in wax, and such-like toys, of all sorts some small quantity ; 
and if you procured a small crystal chest to set jewels in of 


five, six, or seven hundred dollars in price, I think it would be 
esteemed, for the king hath seen some such. Five hundred or a 
thousand sword blades crooked, of this country fashion, may be 
vented at 4, 5 and 6 dollars the piece, provided they be of such 
metal that with bending they neither break nor rest crooked ; 
otherwise they will not be esteemed. And for the king some toys 
of new invention ; for so in his firmans to his port governors he 
writes for things which none hath seen. 

In my last I wrote unto your Worships for the disposing of 
my wages for the time past. Now, considering my stay here is 
likely to be long, I am a further suitor unto your Worships that 
you will be pleased to increase my allowance and to appoint my 
place in your service. I hope the small experience which (for 
your service) I have obtained may make me fit to deserve it ; 
however my best endeavours shall not be missing. And for that 
it pleaseth you to extend your favours to such as serve an East 
Indian voyage in preferring their place and means in a second 
employment, and considering I have served like time, I am em- 
boldened to presume on your favours also, which shall give me 
encouragement to hazard myself in any business that may 
redound to the benefit of your Worships. And thus, wishing 
prosperous events to this and all other your worthy designs, in 
my best devotion I recommend your Worships to the Almighty's 
most gracious protection, and rest 

Your Worships' humblest servant, 

Tho. Keridge. 

Postscript. — All sorts of jewels are here in good request and 
ballasses if brought from England will sell to good profit. They 
must be fair and of the lightest that are to be gotten, of 30, 
40 or 50 carats but none under 20, for the smaller sorts they 
esteem not. 

Tho. Ker. 



George Chauncey to the East India Company. 
Sent per the Globe. 
Bantam, the 21st January, 1614. 
IGHT Worshipful Sir, my service remembered etc. My 
last unto your Worships was of the 15th ditto per the 
James, since which time nothing of importance hath 
happened ; but whereas it was thought fittest for the 
Osiander to proceed to the Molocoes, but now the Osiander's 
pepper being laden aboard the Globe, they do find her not at 
present sufficient, by reason the monsoon for the Molocoes being 
almost spent ; therefore for the quicker despatch it is thought 
fittest to proceed with Concord for Macaser and the Molocoes, 
who at present is laden and all provisioned, with God's help to 
set sail to-morrow, whom I beseech God prosper for His mercy's 
sake. Here followeth the copy of my last of the 15th ditto sent 
by the James. 

[The rest of the letter is a recapitulation of his previous letter of 
15th January (0. C. 233) ' . 

Your Worships* servant to command, 

George Chauncey. 
I could find in my heart to go home to come a captain out 
because I would do, as they do, domineer over merchants, which is 
a great grief to the liegers in the country, but I hope your Wor- 
ships [ ] will see to such matters. 


Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke in Baroche. 

Laus Deo. In Surrat, the 21st January, 1614. 

jOVING Friend, your health etc. My last to you was 

of the 19th present per your peon of return ; wherein 

I wrote you of the Viceroy's coming to the bar, where 

he rid quietly till yesterday and then sent three ships 

to Swally with 35 or 36 frigates, whereupon one of our smallest 

ships went out and fought with them and in the end forced the 


frigates to fly and took the three ships, which after an hour's 
possession our General set on fire. I have not any writing hereof 
but confirmed by many messengers to the Nabob, and make no 
doubt of the truth thereof. God grant us the like success with 
the rest, and make us thankful for this. If your goods were not 
in the way I could wish you till you hear further to keep them 
there ; and so I pray do for what goods shall come from Amadavar, 
though it may be somewhat chargeable. Our tin I have sold at 
39 mamoodies per maund, and am in price for the lead ; as any 
occasion shall offer I will write you. This bearer I send for 
Amadavar with the news, which I pray delay not ; and so with 
commendations to all with you, I commit you to God and rest 

Yours always to command, 

Tho. Elkington. 


Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke in Baroche. 
Laus Deo. In Surrat, the 23rd January, 1614. 

|OVING Friend, your health desired, etc. My last 
[unto you ?] was of the 21st, wherein I wrote you the 
success [our ?] General had with the Portingals on 
Friday in the afternoon, which since is confirmed by 
some of our own people that are come hither about some busi- 
ness. The Hope being the first that began the fight, being at 
once laid aboard per the three Portingal ships and as many 
Portingal frigates as could lie about her, having entered their 
men into her and twice got their forecastle (?) but they very 
lustily shipped (?) them off again till such time as the other ships 
came and rescued her, else they would have put her in great 
danger. The Portingals came running aboard with great resolu- 
tion, not so much as shooting a shot, but their courages were 
soon quailed. There were in their three ships many cavaliers, the 
most part whereof were most miserably burned and drowned ; so 
is the [report ?] they lost in all between four and five hundred 


men. Of our people were slain in the Hope two and hurt some 
15 or 16, and her mainmast top and head a little burnt ; two 
killed in the Hector, whereof the coxswain one, killed [ 
of a piece which he had not well sponged. God make [us ?] 
thankful for so good a beginning. 

Yours of the 21st present I have received, with notes of 
[ ] custom-house, which I hope will somewhat stead us in 

the ?] clearing of our goods. I perceive what goods you have 
[sent ?] , which this night I expect will be in Veriaw, where 
order shall be taken for them ; but pray you not to [send ?] any 
more till you hear further, as also to stay [ ] such goods as 

shall either come from Amadavar or Cambaya, till we see whether 
our General, whilst he remaincth on these terms with the Portin- 
gals, would take in any goods or not. If not, I think they would 
be in more safety with you than us. 

I have of late received divers of your letters, which I have not 
now time to look the particular dates, but think they are all you 
have sent ; and have paid four of your bills of exchange, the last 
being of 800 mamoodies. As any more cometh they shall like- 
wise be paid. There is to come from Cambaya 50 churls indigo 
with some other things, all charges whereof, they write me, are 
paid. Notwithstanding [I received?] a letter from a banyan who 
writes that the goods are arrived at Jambuser but wanteth money 
and charges. If they should not be come to Baroch at receipt 
hereof, I pray send some one thither to take order about them. 
If you should much want baskets for the packing of your indigo, 
if you write they shall be sent you. Thus, with commendations 
to Mr. Farewell and Mr. Ball, I commit you to God and rest, 

Your loving friend, 

Thomas Elkington. 

There were in the fight sunk some six or seven frigates. 



Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke in Baroche. 

In Surrat, the 24th January, 1614. 

OVING Friend, I heartily commend me unto you, etc. 
Yesterday by your peon I wrote you a few lines, to 
which I do refer me ; after which, I received yours of 
the 22nd, thereby perceiving of the stay of such goods 
as you formerly sent at Eaclefere (Ankleswar ?), to which you 
had added 48 churles indigo more, all to come together, which 
this night I hope will be in Veriaw. God send it in safety. 

The 2 covads of cloth you write for, to whomsoever you give 
order for the delivery thereof it shall be done, of such colours as 
I have here, only a remnant of Venice red and a remnant of 
popinjay ; the rest all sent for Agemere. 

Yesterday, as also in a former, I wrote you not to send any 
goods, as also to stay whatsoever cometh from any other part ; 
but since I have advice from our General to bring down goods 
and he doubteth not of taking them in by God's help, the Portin- 
gals since the last fight remaining quiet and now is thought can 
do nothing till the next spring, against which time our General 
hopeth to be fitted for them and to have cured the Hope's main- 
mast, which if it had not been for that mischance he would this 
spring have put them to it to have made an end one way or 
other. Therefore now what goods you have ready or what other 
cometh from any other parts, I pray send away with as much 
speed as you can that we may do what may be done before the 
next spring. 

Some 30 or 35 of the Portingal frigates yesternight came near 
to Surrat, but are again returned and now this morning I hear 
that a Padre with a soldier is come from the Viceroy to the 
Nabob. It seems they are harking about some peace ; what the 
event will be time must learn. 

As I wrote you yesterday, if within a day you hear not of the 

goods from Cambaya, that you would send order to Jambusyr 

about them. Thus, with commendations to Mr. Farewell and 

Mr. Ball, whose debtor I pray tell him the Nabob still remaineth 

Y 1268. x 


and that as yet we cannot come to make account with ; amidst 

other matters I cannot motion his. And so for present I commit 

you to God and rest 

Your loving friend, 

Tho. Elkington. 


Remembrance for Mr. George Ball, chief merchant of the 
Concord for this present voyage to Amboyna, with the help 
and assistance of Mr. George Chauncey unto Maccasser, and 
after with the help of Mr. George Cokayne, who is to pro- 
ceed in lieu of Mr. Chauncey to second you in all business 
belonging to the worshipful Company in this your voyage, 
which God bless and prosper. 

R. GEORGE BALL, It is ordained that you should 
be chief factor for the worshipful Company in this 
voyage with the help of Mr. George Chauncey until 
you come to Maccassar, which is your first port that 
you are bound unto, there to take in as much rice as is [there ?] 
provided for you, to which purpose the pinnace is sent before, 
because you are not there to make stay longer than until the 15th 
of February, because of the monsoon, which by that time will be 
near ended. 

2. And when it shall please God to send you thither in safety, 
to take account of Mr. Cokayne and take as much rice into your 
ship as you may within the time before limited, as also as much 
money as is remaining in the hands of Mr. Cokayne, which I 
esteem to be above 5,000 rials of the Sixth and Seventh Voyages, 
according to his letters ; and having finished this business, you 
are to leave in Maccassar Mr. George Chauncey for chief mer- 
chant with some others which you shall think fitting, and receive 
Mr. Cokayne into your ship to second you in all your business, 
because he is acquainted in those parts where you are bound. 


3. And having ended your business in Macassar with as 
much speed as may be, having always a care to the monsoon, 
you are to direct your course for Lugho, which is within the 
straits of Amboyna upon the island of Seran (Ceram), being some 
three leagues from Hitto and a chief town of cloves being upon 
the island of Amboyna ; and at your coming to Lugho you need 
not make any doubt of your going aland, for the people doth 
much affect our nation. You may carry some small present with 
you to give to the Governor, who is a Ternatan and maintained 
by the Hollanders with order from the king of Ternater, who in 
outward show will seem to favour much the Hollanders but yet 
will do you all the good he can. But this is not the chief man of 
the country, for there is another whose name is Orankaya Tecoos 
and is a natural born of the country, whom I think will come |to 
speak with you, as soon as he doth understand that you are English. 
This man, after you have had conference with him, you may 
commend me unto him and give him some small present as you 
shall think good : he will advise you of the estate of the country, 
and what store of cloves there are to be had at Lugho, Cambell, 
Laseda, Hitto and other neighbour towns thereabout. In all 
these places, except at Lasede, the Hollanders have factories, but 
the people in no subjection to them, although the Hollanders will 
inform you the contrary, but you may not believe their fair words 
nor threatenings but keep your own business close to yourselves, 
and work the best you may to get as many cloves as possibly are 
to be had, either by night or day ; and if you have occasion, you 
may send the pinnace to and fro to fetch cloves from other places, 
but have especial care of Banda ; for if the westerly monsoon 
should be ended and the easterly begin to blow it will be hard to 
get thither. Therefore upon good advice therein you may leave 
Mr. Cokayne at one of those three places with the pinnace to pro- 
vide cloves against your coming back from Banda and you to 
proceed with the ship thither and confer with the country people 
concerning the estate of their business ; and if you perceive them 
to be willing of trade and that there be any good to be done, you 
may leave there Mr. Sophony Cozucke and Richard Hunte with 
one English more, and some black that is willing to serve them. 
And if you meet with Mr. Welden at Maccassar, I pray use him 

x 2 


with all kindness and entreat him to proceed in that voyage for 
Banda to help you to settle there a factory, because he is very 
well acquainted with the people, and if he please to stay there he 
may be second to Sophony Cozucke. Use all fair means with 
him, for I think you shall find him to be an honest man and one 
whom Sir Thomas Smith doth affect : he may do the worshipful 
Company great service in all places where there is any trade, 
because of his language and knowledge of the countries near there 
adjoining, and if he hath no mind to stay at Banda, he may stay 
in any other place where you shall think fitting to place any 
factory ; and if he be not willing to stay in any of these 
places then entreat him to come to Bantam, where he may go for 
England or the Coast or to some other factory which may content 
him better. What goods you shall leave at Banda, I do not 
ordain anything, only what you shall think to be fitting according 
as you find the country at your coming there, as also for all other 
places ; for these matters I refer to your discretion with the 
advice of Mr. Cokayne and Mr. Welden, who can give you best 
directions therein. 

4. For the prices of commodities I doubt not but you will do 
your best. If you afford them better cheap than the Hollanders, 
it will cause the country people to bring their cloves unto you ; as 
also for the prices of cloves you must give them something more 
than the Hollanders, which will cause them to bring you all they 
have. I paid 70 rials per bahar, the bahar being 6281bs. suttle ; 
but I understand that their bahar is something more. Mr. Welden 
can show you the certainty thereof. 

5. At Maccassar, before you depart, I pray understand if they 
have any goods left which is good for those places where you are 
bound, and will not sell in Maccasser ; you may take it into the 
ship and leave there other commodities which is vendible, ac- 
cording to the information you shall have from Mr. Cokayne. 

6. If it so fall out that you may have for your commodities 
and money more cloves, mace and other commodities than your 
ship and pinnace can carry, then if you see occasion you may 
freight a junk to bring it to Bantam or Maccasser. But if it 
happen that you cannot have cloves enough to lade your ship, 
make enquiry where they are to be had at any place near 


thereabout and proceed with your endeavours to get your lading, 
provided always that you endanger not yourselves among the 
Spaniards or Portingals. As for the Hollanders I know they will 
do you no harm, only threaten you and the country people. 

7. After you have despatched your business and attained 
to your lading, in your way homewards I think it not amiss to 
touch at Tymor to see what good may be done there, as also at 
Gratia (Gressik), for which purpose you may take a pilot at 
Maccassar, and finding those people to be desirous of trade with 
us and you seeing any good to be done by sale of cloth or other, 
you may confer with them and promise them faithfully that as 
soon as you come to Bantam there shall be sent some ships and 
goods fitting for the country, of which I pray inform yourself at 
large what is most vendible, as also what the country doth yield. 

8. And for that I am not certain that shipping will come soon 
enough to send for Socadanya (Sukadana) this year and our 
people there waiting for reply, upon good consideration among 
yourselves you may send the pinnace from Tymor or Gratia for 
Socadanya with some commodities, money or gold that you shall 
have left, and Mr. Cokayne may go in her to take account of 
Nathaniel Courthope, and to remain there chief or come for 
Bantam in the pinnace, which I leave in his choice ; and bring or 
send all the diamonds which are there bought and leave there 
those commodities and others which shall be thought per you 
fitting to send thither ; and if the pinnace should be laden with 
cloves, the ship not able to contain them, then I hold it not good 
that she should go thither laden but come directly for Bantam in 
company with the ship, and you to write per some junk for 
Socadana how the estate of the business standeth, and the reason 
why they have no supply, assuring them that the next monsoon 
they shall not fail. 

9. You are to spend no longer time in the prosecuting this 
business than till the fine of August at farthest, so that you may 
be back again at Bantam by the 15th of September ; because 
otherwise you may be taken short with the westerly monsoon, 
which sometimes is 20 days or a month sooner than other. And 
forasmuch as this voyage and others hath been chargeable to the 
worshipful Company, I pray have especial care that no private 


trade be used and especially for cloves. If you have not a great 
care thereof, the company will be the first merchants, as by 
experience I have found, which will be a great hindrance to your 
proceedings and much damage to the worshipful Company. 

10. Also concerning the provisions of the ship's store, I mean 
for victual, I would entreat you to look that it be not lavishly 
spent, and that account be taken every week by you and the 
master, thereby to know to a day what is left in the ship. You 
are to give the master knowledge to what places you are bound ; 
he to direct his course accordingly. But for the victuals that 
none be spent extraordinary without your order ; not doubting 
but that you and the master will agree so together about these 
matters and all other which doth concern the good of the,, 
worshipful Company with such discretion as that there shall be 
no cause of dislike or emulation betwixt you ; which if it should 
be otherwise (as God forbid) there may be protestations (?) and in 
the end grow to a confusion. 

ii. Now in case of mortality, for the matter of succession : if 
it should please God to take you Mr. Ball, then George Cokayne 
is to succeed you, and so the rest according to their places ; and 
if Mr. Skinner shall decease then the merchants with chief officers 
of the ship shall by a general consent choose one of his mates that 
shall be thought most sufficient for the place, and the next after 
him to succeed accordingly. 

12. The Captain of Hitto had of me at my being there above 
200 rials in presents, he promising to furnish me with ioo bahars 
of cloves ; but in the end I could not get one pound of him, 
excusing himself until the next year. I pray remember him 
of his promise ; it may be he will help you to some store this 

I would have Mr. Cokayne to hold his place in Macassar 
until his departure from thence, and then deliver it up to Mr. 
Chauncey, and in the time of your staying there I pray let 
Mr. Cokayne give the best information he can unto him. 

I have written a letter to a Portingal merchant resident in 
Macassar, who Mr. Cokayne hath commended unto me in his 
letters. He is in great favour with the king and may do much 
with him ; if you find him to be an honest man I pray hold a 


correspondence with him. He desired a pass from me, which I 
pray give him in my name. Thus, not having else at present, 
referring the rest to your good discretion, I end and rest 

Your loving friend, 

Jno. Jourdain. 

I pray forget not to advise Mr. Cocks to Jappan from the 
Moullucas by convoy of the Hollanders of all business, provided 
always that you find some trusty friend. Vale. 

If you see Mr. Skinner to take upon him to command any- 
thing out of the hold without making you acquainted therewith, 
advertise him thereof by persuasions ; and if he doth it the second 
time in contempt, then take all into your charge and suffer him 
not to have to do with anything belonging to the ship's victuals, 
but dispose you of all things according to discretion, etc. 

Bantam the 24th of January Anno 1614. 

per me Jno. Jourdain. 


Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke, in Baroch. 
Laus Deo. In Surrat, the 31st January, 1614. 

R. OXWICKE, I heartily commend me unto you with 
desire of your health etc. My last to you was of the 
26th present, since which I have received divers of 
yours and paid all such bills of exchange as you have 
charged me withal, a particular note of which you shall receive 
herewith, as also what cloth and sword blades hath been sent ; 
also I have received all such goods as you sent from Baroch and 
what came from Cambaya, the which, God be thanked, is aboard 
in safety ; and this night departeth from Veryaw the 260 churls 
of indigo last come from Amadavar for Swally. God send it like- 
wise in safety. 

This morning I received yours of the 27th present with [a piece 
of?] blue bafta for muster of 30 corge to be delivered here by 


Solomon Mamoud, with whom I have been, but I find them to 
rise nothing so good one with another as the muster ; but having 
many I have left one to open all his packs and lay by 30 corge 
of the best ; and to-morrow, if I find them as good as they should 
be, I will take them and pay him his money. 

Our Nabob herewith his council hath been concluding a peace 
with the Portingal, but it taketh not effect ; so those sent about 
it again returned, which will be nothing hurtful for us. By this 
bearer you shall receive two covads Venice red. Thus with com- 
mendations to Mr. Farewell, Mr. Ball, etc., I commit you to God's 
holy protection and rest, 

Your loving friend, 

Tho. Elkington. 

242 (1) 

This is a duplicate of 226. 

242 (2) 

John Jourdain to the East India Company. Sent per the Globe. 
Bantam, the 10th February, 1614. 

jIGHT Worshipful, my duty remembered with my hearty 
prayers for the prosperous success of all your enter- 
prises. May it please you to understand that by the 
James I have at large advised your Worships of all 
matters which had passed to that time, my letters bearing date 
from the 2nd January unto the 15th ditto ; the ship being laden 
ever since the 15th of December, but the tediousness of the cap- 
tain and the wrangling betwixt him and his master was cause of 
their long stay, and in the end when they determined to depart 
the wind would not permit them to get out the straits of Pelam- 
ban but were forced back as far as Pulla Penian, where they 
stayed until the 30th January, at which time they passed the 
point and got without the straits. God send them well. The 


day before their departure I understood of great dissension be- 
twixt the captain and master, but being a matter so common 
among them it is the less to be regarded. They are well pro- 
vided both of men and all other provisions ; God bless them and 
send them well home. In this letter I will not be over tedious, 
because I have at large advertised of all things by the James, the 
copy of which I send herewith ; only I will touch all matters 
which have passed since my last. As first, whereas I have written 
in the postcript of my last that the Globe was to have out of the 
James so much pepper as was taken into her from aboard the 
Osiander, it is now otherwise determined, to wit, that the 3,673 
sacks formerly laden aboard the James for the account of the 
Joint Stock shall remain for the same account, for that this ship 
the Globe is found bigger by 3,000 sacks of pepper than she was 
thought to be ; therefore there is laden in her 5,000 sacks of 
Bantam pepper, whereof goeth 4,000 sacks for the account of the 
Globe and 1,000 sacks for the account of the Joint Stock ; the 
Globe's voyage not having money to lade her according to their 
expectation, therefore it was held necessary by a court of mer- 
chants that we should take so much commodity as would satisfy 
the 4,000 sacks at such rates as it is here worth ready money, and 
to give them the pepper accordingly as it is now worth, the which 
I have performed according as it was agreed. The commodities 
with their several prices, as also the price of pepper delivered 
them, may appear in the journal that I send herewith, the copy 
being formerly sent by Captain Marlowe unto the 13th of Janu- 
ary ; and what hath passed since of merchandising is now added 
thereunto, to the which I refer me, etc. Now concerning the 
estimate of the goods belonging to the Sixth Voyage, as also of 
some rests which are not rated and some desperate debts of 
sundry Voyages ; as for the Sixth Voyage, I leave the commo- 
dities according to the inventory formerly sent home per the 
Dragon and Clove, for if I should esteem it as it is worth ready 
money if I should be forced for want of money to sell it, I should 
not get half the money it cost ; but in time it maybe sold at good 
profit. Therefore, considering the danger of fire and thieves, 
rotting and consuming with worms, which cannot be prevented, I 
hold it indifferent to let it rest at the same rates it cost for I 


cannot sell any for money at any rate except I should trust those 
which will never pay. The reason is that Guzarate goods is not 
here vendible. Therefore it may please your Worships to take 
some course for shipping to transport it for Sumattra and other 
places where it will vend. In Sumattra there will sell for 10 or 
I2v rials per year for pepper and gold, and such commodities as 
are here lying will vent no otherwhere ; and by the gold there 
will be made above 50 per cent, profit in Amboina and the Mal- 
lucas, and cloves will be gotten for gold at that rate sooner than 
for any other commodity or rials. 

Also it was ordained by a council that the Osiander, being the 
better ship, should proceed for the Maullucas, and the Concord, 
being the weaker ship, should be laid up until we could procure 
men to sail her ; but having since considered the great labour and 
long time that would be spent in unlading and relading of the 
Osiander, the goods being already aboard the Concord, it was 
therefore agreed by a court of merchants and masters that because 
the end of this monsoon was at hand and that 20 days would not 
be sufficient to make ready the Osiander, by which time the 
monsoon would be very near ended and the voyage thereby might 
be overthrown (knowing per experience that some years the mon- 
soon is sooner ended by 20 or 30 days than other) : these reasons 
being alleged and considered, it was concluded that the Concord 
should proceed with as much speed as conveniently might be, 
and the Osiander to remain in Bantam Road until we could get 
mariners to sail her, and to take an inventory of all things left in 
her, leaving four English and four blacks to keep her. The copy 
of the inventory taken is sent herewith. 

As for the pinnace which we made in Bantam called the 
Speedwell, (she) departed for Macassar the 12th of January to 
provide rice against the coming of the Concord, for that the ship 
is not to stay above five or six days only to take in the rice for 
fear of the monsoon ; to which end Sophony Cozucke was sent 
in the pinnace directed to George Cokayne to provide a quantity 
against their coming. 

The 27th of January the Concord departed for Macassar, 
where went cape merchant George Ball, accompanied with George 
Chauncey, who is to remain at Macassar, and George Cokayne is 


to go with Mr. Ball for Amboyna, because he was there in the 
Darling and is acquainted with the country. The cargazon of 
goods laden aboard the Concord amounts unto 24.V000 rials 
and upward, as per the invoice in the journal may appear; 
besides what money he is to receive of George Cokayne at Ma- 
cassar. Sophony Cosucke is to stay at Banda and Mr. Weldyn, 
if he may be persuaded thereunto, with Richard Hunt assistant, 
a young man which came in the Expedition. I doubt not, with 
the help of God, of their good success, although the Hollanders 
doth not spare to give out that they look for them in those parts, 
but their threatenings cannot prevent the trading with the 
country people, and especially for love of the gold, which they 
greatly esteem, etc. 

The 20th of January here arrived a Dutch ship called the 
Seilan from Japan, by whom I received letters from Mr. Cocks 
whereby I understand of the death of Mr. Peacock at Chochi- 
china, being slain by the country people, and the goods and junk 
that he went in was never heard of, having in her an adventure 
of 700/. or thereabout ; and for that the monsoon was past the 
last year that they could not get Siam, according to General Saris' 
order, therefore they have sent a junk this year wherein goeth 
Mr. Adams and Richard Wickham, where I hope they shall meet 
with the Darling. I pray God send them better success at Siam 
than they had at Cochachina. And as for the state of the 
country of Jappon and the countries adjacent, I leave it to the 
information of Mr. Cocks, who by his letters, which goeth here- 
withal, doth at large advise of all things. I received a letter from 
Richard Wickham entreating me to remember him in my letters 
to your Worships concerning his salary, which is but 2,ol. a year 
standing, his time being long since expired and his wages nothing 
amended, and Jappon being a place of great expense for apparel, 
not doubting but your Worships will be mindful of him and con- 
sider of his deserts etc. 

Here is arrived from the 4th to the 10th of this month five 
China junks, which have brought store of Lankeene silk and other 
sorts, porcelain and divers other sorts of China commodities, they 
hoping to have had as good a market as the last year, but I think 
they will come ^hort, for that the Hollanders are not much in 


cash at present, and for our stock of money it is not great, as your 
Worships may perceive ; therefore I am not minded to disburse 
much money until I see other ships to come with a fresh supply]; 
which the Hollanders as yet doth the like, expecting their new 
fleet out of Holland, as we do the like out of England. And I 
dare not disburse any money in silks because of providing pepper 
against the coming of the ships this next year, which if they 
should now come would be too late to go for England this year. 

As for the cloves which Captain Marlowe refused to take into 
his ship, bought by Mr. Petty, I know not upon what terms he 
hath now received them into her, which he stoutly denied at my 
entreaty, but they were taken in at the last cast as the ship set 
sail ; which I suppose was done because I should not advise 
thereof. But laden they are aboard the James by Walter Bennet, 
the master's mate of the Concord, who now goeth in the James, 
and was overseer to Mr. Petty. The cloves were 15 peculs and 
cost 36 rials per pecul. And since the departure of the James I 
am informed that Captain Marlowe hath in sundry commodities 
in tonnage 10 tons or more, viz., benjamin, pepper, indigo, por- 
celain, silks of China, all amounting to 2,000/. sterling; and by 
divers it is reported that he hath said that he will now make 
amends for the last voyage that he made to the East India, being 
then not well dealt withal etc. 

There is laden aboard the Globe for the account of the Joint 
Stock 25 chests of China silks, which is the remainder of what 
the James could not carry, containing in them as per the invoice 
packing bill may appear ; more, 337 diamonds great and small, 
containing carats ngf and cost, as per the journal, 1,002 rials 
of 8. These silks and other it was thought necessary that it 
should be laden in this ship, in regard that we are now out of 
hope of any other to go for England this year, the time of the 
monsoon being so far spent. Therefore Mr. Peter Floris, willing 
to do the best in the worshipful Company's behalf, was content 
to leave behind him his own goods, I mean some goods of the 
Seventh Voyage, being of less value, than that these silks should 
be left in the country until another year. What commodities he 
hath left for the account of the Seventh Voyage is, viz. 82 fardles 
of Selan (Ceylon) cinnamon and 10 of yarn ; which is to be sent 


home in the next ships belonging to the Joint Stock. And for 
the freight of these goods, both for the James and Globe is wholly 
referred unto your Worships at home, for had it not been for the 
stock here remaining of the Sixth Voyage, these two ships would 
hardly have gotten lading, and especially the James, who for her 
lading brought only 3,000 rials, which they borrowed of the said 
stock at Pottany (Patani) of Robert Larkin, cape merchant of the 
Darling. But for the Globe she had lading in her before ; but 
for the rest that was wanting they could not have had it without 
money. What is done in their behalfs I doubt not but that it 
will be to your Worships' content ; seeing it was done for the best 
according to our understandings for the furtherance of all Voyages, 
and the goods here left by these ships in time will yield profit ; 
which if it should have been sold for necessity to the people of 
the country, the low prices would have been an overthrow to our 
future hopes ; for the prices of commodities once abated will ever 
hardly be raised again. And if there be no hope of gain by our 
commodities, to what purpose is it to bring goods from Surate 
and Moselapotan ? Mr. Floris is a good merchant and one that 
is indifferent for all Voyages, not leaning to the one side or other ; 
although he have more interest in the Seventh Voyage than in 
the rest, yet he do more respect a general good than his own 
private voyage. 

And whereas in my former letter per the James I wrote con- 
cerning the ill carriage of Richard Cobb, of his drunkenness and 
slanderous tongue towards all men, being a great blasphemer of 
the name of God, one given only to satisfy his own humour, not 
obedient to any command, fit for no business, rather a hindrance 
to those which doth their endeavours, and such a one as can 
conceal no secret, although it be to the great hindrance of the 
worshipful Company : therefore it is thought necessary that he 
should repair for England in the Globe and the rather because he 
may justify before your Worships what he hath accused the 
factors of here in Bantam, I finding them all far honester than 
himself. First, he accused them to have robbed your Worships' 
warehouses here in Bantam ; then accusing the Chinese and 
Javas to have done it ; whereupon there was a court called to 
examine the cause. He produced his witnesses, they stiffly 


denying that they told him no such matter, offering to take their 
oaths thereupon, justifying it to be a matter to be made of his 
own head ; whereupon he was censured to be a slanderer and a 
raiser of tales to bring controversy in the house, and that he had 
wronged the factors in the highest degree of their credit. Secondly, 
he hath accused them to have saved 1,400 rials in the custom of 
the pepper laden in the James and Globe ; which matter was 
examined, and he produced his witnesses, and they denied they 
knew not what saved in custom but something they thought 
might be. He standing stiffly in the matter, saying that he had 
seen it in writing, which I required him to show me or tell me 
whose the writing was ; which he denied to do saying, that if I 
would know the truth I should examine Kemas the Shabunder ; 
which if I should have acquainted him therewith and he made it 
known to the Pengran there might be an avenia raised on us. 
And having examined the factors who had the charge of the 
pepper and charged them to speak the truth, they confessed to 
have saved about 660 rials, as they had formerly told me, whereof 
they were to give the one half to the officers of the custom-house 
and the rest they delivered to be set to the account of the right 
worshipful Company, and to this they offered to be sworn. Not- 
withstanding Richard Cobb doth stand stiffly in it, saying that he 
will justify it at home before your Worships ; and having con- 
sidered that he is an ill member amongst us, and that he doth 
not deserve wages, it was thought necessary to send him home in 
this ship, for it were better to give him double wages to stay at 
home than to remain in Bantam etc. 

Having ended my letters and going to seal them we had news 
of three English ships, wherein is General David Middleton, who 
arrived here the 13th of this month with the Samaritan, Thomas 
and Thomasine, where after the coming aland of the General he 
called a court about the disposing of the ships. So it was con- 
cluded that the Samaritan should with all convenient speed be 
despatched for England according to your Worships' order, and 
the Thomas should proceed for Sumattra, not only for the sale of 
cloth but also for to bring Priaman pepper and gold from thence ; 
the Thomasine to go for Amboina and Banda to second the 
Concord, and homeward to touch at Timour and Gracia upon Java. 


She is to carry a cargazon of i2vooo rials of commodities 
and money, and will be ready within this two days, God willing. 

The Osiander, which was laid up for want of men, is ordained 
to go for Jappan, wherein goeth principal Captain Hawkins. 
She is to touch at Pottany outwards bound, there to take in any 
commodities that shall be there, fitting for the country of Jappon. 
And for the Samaritan it will be a month before she be ready, by 
reason that the pepper which I had provided was laden in the 
James and Globe ; and now the China junks being here maketh 
the pepper dear and is worth at present 15J and 16 rials per 
10 sacks. But there is pepper owing enough to lade this ship, 
but by reason of the dearness of it our debtors cannot get in 
their pepper. So I fear I shall be forced to buy it for ready money 
at 16 rials per 10 sacks, the time of the year being far past and 
little pepper to be had. Thus not having else at present, I humbly 
take my leave, desiring the Lord of His mercy to bless and 
prosper all your proceedings to His glory and comfort of all. 

Your Worships' servant in all duty, 

Jno. Jourdain. 


John Yates to his master, William Greenwell, Deputy Governor 

of the East India Company. Sent per the Globe. 

Laus Deo. In Bantom, the 17th of February, 1614. 

ORSHIPFUL Sir, In all duty remember myself unto 
and my mistress, with hope of your health and with 
my loving remembrance to all your family. Please 
your Worship to understand that departing from Ply- 
mouth the 29th of May we arrived at the Cape the 3rd of October 
where we found a great Fleming of 600 tons, which met with us 
upon the coast being about the river de Cestus (Sestos, in Liberia). 
From the Cape departing the 19th of October we fell with the 
coast Javea the 29th of December; but trusting too much to 
their south easterly monsoons we fell to the eastward of the straits 
of Sunday (Sunda) some 50 or 60 leagues, for afterwards we had 


a strong northwest wind which kept us off about the coast about 
a month's space; and twice we came to an anchor and took in 
fresh water and wood, but no relief besides. The 14th of Feb- 
ruary we arrived at Bantom where we found the Globe ready 
bound for England and the Osiander laid up for want of men, 
where we heard the ill news of the mortality of Sir Henry Mid- 
dleton, John and Ferdinand Cotton, with many more, of which 
the bearer hereof can certify you more at large. Touching the 
accidents of the voyage to Bantom, according to my duty these 
are to let you understand that Mr. Wilson, contrary to the articles, 
hath taken in at Deal his brother-in-law, Robert Savage, who 
I understand was refused by the right worshipful Company. By 
reason of Samuel Mosley deceased, I am at this time appointed 
by our General to be purser of the Thomas. There hath been 
once or twice great dissension between Captain Hawkins and 
Mr. Rowe, which proceeds from the pride and ambition of Mr. 
Rowe, and by his countercommanding. Wherefore our General 
doth purpose a separation of them ; and how myself with other 
pursers shall be disposed of by reason of this mortality I know 
not yet or whether I shall come home in the Samaritan. Also 
I request your Worship to give notice to the right worshipful 
Company that all our pork hitherto opened (which is 7 or 8 hhds.) 
as also aboard the Samaritan is very stinking and bad, which is 
by reason of the slack attendance of the coopers or else by reason 
of the ignorance of those that are put in trust about that business. 
From England to Bantom out of the Thomas died 3 men ; in the 
Admiral 2 men and one, whose name was Smith, fell overboard ; 
in the Thomasine one man at Plymouth. I have no more to 
amplify unto you at this present, only desirous next unto heaven 
I may live to see (as hitherto I thank God I have had my health) 
to show effects of my affection how much I am bound unto you 
in all dutiful service. In the meantime I pray God for the good 
success of the voyage and prosperity of each particular of the 
right honourable and right worshipful Company in all their 

In haste I cease, 

Your servant to command, 

John Yates. 



Samuel Boyle to the East India Company. Sent per the Globe. 

Laus Deo. In Bantam, the 18th of February, 1614. 

IGHT Worshipful, After my humble and most respected 
duty being tendered etc. These are at present to 
acquaint your Worships that my last was of the 13th 
ultimo per the James, who weighed and set sail from 
Bantam Road the 21st of January last, whose voyage God of 
His goodness preserve and grant to be prosperous to His glory 
and the advancement of the worshipful Company etc. 

In mine of the 13th I advised according to the time, to which 
I refer your Worships, only in brief pointing at the chief parts 
thereof. First, concerning the James, who arrived here from 
Pottania the 8th November last, taking [in] her whole lading 
here at Bantam, the contents whereof I refer to advice per the 
James, the copy whereof with a brief of what lading the Globe 
received in at Bantam I send herewith etc. 

And touching the Osiander, who arrived the 26th November 
last with her lading of Pryaman pepper, and since the Globe 
arrived here from Mesolapotam the 3rd of the last ; upon whose 
coming, in respect of the weakness and want of supply both of 
the James and Globe, a court was called and therein ordained 
that they should be relieved whatsoever was necessary for the 
prosecuting of their voyages for England with more security, they 
being both of them ships of great charge and importance ; and 
for their better supply it was concluded that the Concord being 
then laden and bound for the Molluccoes should remain here in 
the road until further supply out of England and the Osiander to 
proceed to the Molluccoes, she being held a ship of better force 
and defence than the Concord. But since upon better informa- 
tion considering that it would be overlong before the Osiander 
could discharge her pepper and lade her cargazon for the voyage, 
the monsoon for that place being near spent : in regard of the 
premises it was per a general court thought fitting, that the 
Concord being ready should without further protraction proceed 
for the Molluccoes and to that purpose the pinnace (called the 
Y 1268. Y 


Speedwell) was despatched and sent away before, who set sail out of 
the road the 17th of the last and was to stop at Maccasser there 
to stay the coming of the Concord, and from thence to sail 
together for the Molluccoes. The Concord departed from hence 
the 27th of January last, wherein John Skinner, formerly master 
of the Globe, goeth master, and George Ball chief factor for the 
voyage, desiring the Lord to give a blessing to their labours that 
it may be for the good of the worshipful Company, and assuredly 
there is great hopes both for the establishing of a factory and 
also for the procuring of good store of cloves ; and the rather in 
respect we have the love of the country people, who generally 
stand well affected towards Englishmen, which hath been verified 
per divers credible persons well acquainted in those parts ; and on 
the contrary they hate the Hollanders, with whom they have open 
wars. So that in the interim of varyings and difference between 
the Hollanders and the Bandanezes we may better effect our 
business in the Moloccoes, also avoid the dispute with the Hol- 
landers, who strongly oppose our designs in what they may. 
Notwithstanding I doubt not, per God's assistance, of the esta- 
blishing of a factory at Amboyna and also at Banda, the Concord 
being furnished with a sufficient cargo well requested and ven- 
dible in those places. Further since the coming of General Mid- 
dleton, captain of the Samaritan, Thomas and Thomasine, who 
arrived here in Bantam the 15th present, whereupon a court was 
called for the disposing and employment of the two smaller ships, 
according to the worshipful Company's determination to that 
purpose, it is appointed per order of court as followeth, viz. : 
First, that the Thomasine shall proceed with all convenient speed 
for the Molluccoes, for to supply and assist the Concord and 
Speedwell, and in regard the monsoon for the Molluccoes is near 
spent it is determined to send her away with the first, lest the 
monsoon should take her short and per that means cross her 
voyage ; secondly, for the Thomas, she is appointed for the coast 
of Sumatra, either at Pryaman, Teckoo, Perseman (Pasaman) or 
Cota Tinga (Kota Tengah, near Baros), or to any of them where 
they shall find best trade, having direction to make diligent search 
and enquiry what commodities the country affordeth besides 
pepper and some quantity of gold, for it is credibly spoken that 


if search were made up higher in the country that there might 
be good store of gold procured, per reason the country people 
have not insight or knowledge of the value thereof, of whom the 
merchants dwelling in Pryaman, Teckoo, Perseman, and Cota 
Tinga buy it and sell it to us at dear rates, notwithstanding it 
would do well if there might be any store gotten, in regard the 
country venteth good store of Cambaya and Coromandel cloth, 
which lieth here per the walls and will not sell at any rate either 
for quantity or reasonable price, and therefore it is very requisite 
to visit those and other places for the sale of cloth, which will 
not sell here to any purpose. 

Moreover the Osiander, which lay here in the road at the com- 
ing of this fleet (I mean General Middleton's), is appointed to 
proceed for Japan to visit the factory there left by General Saris, 
though there be small hope to reap any benefit in those parts, 
only there is some likelihood for the procuring and settling of a 
factory in China, not far from the English factory in Japan, which 
if effected there would great profit arise and grow thereby etc. 

And touching the Samaritan, she is to be laden from hence 
with all speed convenient for her return for England according to 
General Middleton's speech, who mindeth to go for England him- 
self in her etc. Moreover as concerning the Darling, who went 
from Bantam the 10th March last for Succadana and from thence 
to despatch away with all speed convenient for Pottania, there 
to buy Lankin silk of the Chineses, having stock from thence for 
the effecting (?) thereof, but through their own slackness they 
were disappointed by the Hollanders. And thus not having 
further at present, only that here not any of the Surratt fleet is 
yet arrived, whom we expect daily in regard General Middleton 
made account to have found Captain Downton with part of his 
fleet here at his coming to Bantam. Thus craving pardon with 
your Worships' favourable censures for my presumption hitherto, 
I conclude with my prayers to Almighty God for your Worships' 
healths and happy increase. I end and rest 

Your Worships' humble and faithful servant, 

Samuel Boyle. 

Y 2 



Captain David Middleton to the East India Company. 

Sent per the Globe. 

Laus Deo. Bantam, the 20th of February, 1614. 

FIGHT Worshipful, my duty remembered etc. By my 
last from Plymouth you had intelligence of all our 
proceedings, what speedy despatch and no neglect of 
time out of that port was omitted. Sithence which 
time to trouble your Worships more than ordinary for navigation 
I hold it frivolous, the same being referred to a journal of 
travels to be perused at our return, but only thus : we arrived 
at the Cape the 3rd of October, where we had refreshing both of 
flesh and fish to content, from whence we departed the 20th of 
the same and arrived at the port of Bantam the 14th of February, 
where I found the Globe bound for England, being a rich ship, 
which God preserve. Of my willingness to relieve their wants I 
refer to the report of the captain and of Mr. Floris to relate. At my 
first coming to anchor being thwart of Poolla Penchan, an island 
so called, we were met with a prow which was sent of purpose to 
know what nation we were of, who coming aboard of us I 
demanded of them news of my brother and of his proceedings, 
of whom I understood (as you have long before heard) of his 
death and burning of his ship, who hath been so long expected 
home. Coming ashore at Bantam and there conferring with the 
captain and others, I understood by them (which to my grief I 
write) of the use and abuse of business by those whom your 
Worships have employed in your service, without conscience 
making of anything, taking all for fish that came to net, of which 
Captain Christian and Mr. Floris can well inform you of. Con- 
cerning business that merely concerns your Worships, there is a 
man now chief in Bantam, by name Mr. John Jourdain, who was 
employed by my brother Sir Henry Middleton before his death, 
whose presence would have saved a great scandal (if he had been 
here at Sir Henry's death) that will redound to the Company. 
The great care that General Best had in sending this bearer 


Captain Christian of purpose to have a respective care of all 
things that might concern your Worships' good, meaning those 
goods which were upon the account of that voyage of my 
brother's, you have understood as well by himself as also by 
Captain Newport, who hath understood of all things. I have 
now lost two brothers in your Worships' service ; the elder a man 
of good reputation of all men that knew him, the other a man of 
such respective care for the establishing of future good that may 
redound to your Worships if it be well managed, that I need not 
to urge unto you, for whose death I presume you participate in 
grief with me in some measure, though to myself it is almost un- 
supportable. Concerning the disposing of these ships that came 
along with me, according to your Worships' order we took 
counsel for their speedy employment, where it was concluded that 
the Thomasine, who is now ready to depart for Amboyna, the 
Thomas for Sumatra for gold and pepper, and the Samaritan to 
take her lading of pepper here to return for England. Out of this 
my fleet I have furnished the Osiander, a ship forlorn, with the 
principal men of my fleet together with provision of furniture and 
victuals to make a voyage to Japan to second Captain Saris and 
to overlook the factories in Siam, Potany and Japan. There is 
no news of Captain Downton's fleet, but no doubt they are em- 
ployed to your Worships' profit, or else they would have had 
some news of them in this place. The accounts of the James' 
voyage being intricate are now drawn to a head and goods of 
some of the Joint Stock sent home as well by the James as the 
Globe, they having both taken home the accounts of the house. 
Your business is well carried here now, which if it were not I 
would strive with my best endeavours to see your Worships' 
affairs well managed to your most profit. Your factories, God 
willing, shall be viewed every year, what charge soever it doth 
cost. And thus referring whatsoever is omitted to the report of 
Captain Christian and Mr. Floris, who is able to inform you of all 
things past. Here are certain parcels of goods taken out of the 
trade marked with different marks. As yet I have not viewed 
them over. I expected to have found a great stock here but it is 
all invested into cloth, which must be sent abroad of necessity, for 
it will not vent here. If I had found a sufficient stock here to 


have employed my ship I would not have left the Indies till I had 
laden my ship richly. So here is no employment but to overview 
the factories aforenamed, to peruse their accounts, and I have 
made choice of a very sufficient man for that business. Here 
hath been a great mortality among the factors ashore at Bantam. 
And the factories abroad have need to be seconded ; so I have 
sent all my factors and others that are sufficient men for business 
and of good carriage to be left where shall be most need, as is 
requisite for your Worships' good. And I hold it fitting that 
every year there be a small ship sent to overrun the factories and 
to take the accounts of the factors ; and I will leave order to 
that effect and to leave no place unsought for where we may vent 
our cloth and other commodities that we can have sufficient but 
have no means to sell them. There is so much money disbursed 
that there is little remaining in the factory here and the Samari- 
tan's lading must be bought with ready money. There is good 
iron brought hither from Corramandell by Mr. Floris and good 
cheap, as Mr. Floris (God sending him well home) will give you to 
understand at full. I make account at Captain Downton his 
arrival here will send some of his fleet to second my shipping, and 
it is expected you send more shipping out of England this year. 
We have not as yet present means to send for Succadania, but by 
the first opportunity I will leave order the factory shall be relieved 
there. And because of my sudden return home do omit to en- 
large, leaving you to the report of Captain Christian and Mr. 
Floris. So for the present do rest, with my prayers for the good 
success in all your actions, which God grant. Amen. 

Your Worships in all service, 

David Middleton. 



John Millward to the East India Company. 
Banton, 20th February, 1614. 

IGHT Worshipful, According to my duty I left a letter 
at the Cape Bona Spranza to give notice of such 
occurrences as happened between that and England, 
the importance whereof is so small as not worth the 
repetition, affording no other matter but that we arrived at the 
Cape the 3rd of October, 1614, in safety, having passed the time 
with much content and lost only three of our men in the whole 
fleet. The 20th day we departed from the Cape and held our 
course between 36 and 30 degrees of latitude for 1,200 leagues 
purposely to fetch the S.E. winds which blow trade between 
28 and 12 degrees. Upon the 28th of December we had sight of 
Java, but little to our comfort for contrary to all expectation we 
fell on the south side of the island having nothing to friend but a 
N.W. monsoon and a violent current setting to the east, by 
means whereof we lost sometime directly astern 20 leagues a day. 
In this desolate and unfrequented sea we beat up and down 
with extremity both of calms and storms with [other ?] inconve- 
niencies. We anchored twice, the last at a bay now called by our 
General's name, where we found a Dutchman bound for Bantan, 
whom we formerly met at the river De Sestos on the coast of 
Guinea and at the Cape, and now fallen into the like error as we 
were. If danger may admonish let ours warn your Worships' 
ships to fall into their latitude before their reckoning be out, 
which being neglected in our fleet was the true cause of so gross 
an error. But God, who is most strong when men's hopes are 
weakest, by means of variable winds sent us with safety unto our 
desired port of Bantan the 14th of February, having lost sithence 
our coming from England only five men in the whole fleet, 
whereof one fell overboard out of the Admiral. At Bantan we 
found the Globe, who departed hence for England the 20th of 
February, 1614, and the Osiander unfitted of men and victuals, 
which ship our general by advice intendeth to furnish suddenly 
for Japan, of whom Nicholas Hawkins goeth cape merchant, 
and Ralph Coppindall and Arthur Predys his assistants. The 


Thomas is appointed for the coast of Sumatra, myself cape 
merchant and Mr. Nichols assistant. The Thomasine for the 
Mulocos, whereof Mr. Bailie, their merchant ashore, is cape 
merchant and Edward Blitheman his assistant ; which voyages 
I pray God prosper. Touching the misfortune of the Trade and 
Sir Henry Middleton, the mortality of the men and other calami- 
ties I presume by this time are so famous in England as I shall 
not need to trouble your Worships with the repetitions thereof. 
Captain Downton's fleet is not yet come, neither hear we any- 
thing of them. The Dutch ship which we parted with about a 
month ago on the south side of Java is not yet come in, neither is 
there any of the Dutch in the road. The Samaritan, whom the 
cape merchant hath promised to lade, I hope will be despatched 
within this month, at which I will give your Worships more par- 
ticular notice of such things as have happened. In the meantime 
I forbear to trouble you any further ; always praying for your 
Worships' health and prosperity and for the happy and good 
success of this and all other your Worships' ships. 

Your Worships' servant to command, 

John Millward. 


Edward Blitheman to Sir Thomas Smith. 

Sent per the Globe. 

Bantam, the 20th February, 1614. 

IGHT Worshipful, My humble duty remembered unto 
your good Worship and the rest of the right worship- 
ful Company etc. To begin now a circumstance, 
right Worshipful, of all our proceedings were some- 
thing tedious. Yet without beginnings there can be no head 
drawn ; therefore, with reference to my last from Plymouth in 
May, 1614, right Worshipful, I now begin that whereas I had 
given then notice to your Worship at that time, now I purpose to 


relate by God's assistance unto your Worships our since pro- 
ceeding fortunes, which are as followeth, viz. : from the 30th 
of May, which was our departure from Plymouth Sound, we were 
with God's assistance and favourable winds the 26th of July 
under the equinoctial line and from thence with the like fair and 
prosperous weather we arrived, to God's glory and our own 
comfort, in Soldanie road the 3rd of October last, where we 
found a Dutch ship of Anckuizon (Enkhuizen), which ship parting 
from us at the river Cestros and was arrived in the road 10 days 
before us, which had formerly been in our company at the river 
Sestros upon the coast of Ginnea, a place which lies in 5 degrees 
to the northwards of the line and not much unfit for trade in 
these your Worships' proceedings, in regard it lies but very little 
out of the ordinary course. The commodity that it affords is 
chiefly elephants' teeth and grain, both which commodities were 
then to be had in great abundance and for small trifles, viz., 
knives, coarse felts of all colours, looking-glasses, scissors, iron 
etc. ; and had not the time of the year been so precious, our 
general had determined by trucking away of your Worships' petty 
commodities to have made a trial, being partly moved thereunto 
by the persuasion of an Indian which spoke very good English 
and had formerly been two years in England with Mr. Davis at 
the stocks and is known by the name of John Davis, being as we 
perceived the king's son of that place. Our ship stopped here 
one day^while our General went ashore, where he had sight of 
store of teeth, and by report of that Indian he might have 
procured a great quantity. He had very kind entertainment 
of the king of that place with great proffers and promises of 
trade if he would stay there with his ships. There is very good 
refreshing for men that shall stop there, for they may water 
there in a great river which is called the river Sestros, known to 
all those that use this coast ; but the charge of a fleet being great, 
with all other things considered, our General thought it not good 
to stay, because the charge of the fleet would have eaten away all 
the profit. So having a little flaw of foul weather we weighed the 
next morning and plied away our course as near as we could lie 
for the doubling of the shoals of Brasill ; and the 10th of August 
we passed by those shoals. And at our being at the Cape, which 


was as I formerly mentioned in October last, we found by the 
inscription on the stones the arrival of the both outward [and] 
homeward ships, viz. Captain Best in the Dragon the 20th of 
February, Captain Newport in the Expedition the 31st of March, 
homeward bound, and Richard Pettie in the Concord the gth of 
May outward, and Captain Downton with his four ships the 20th 
of June outward. And in the time of our being there the Dutch- 
man made known unto us a packet of letters which their company 
had found on the top of a hill. So our General sent myself and 
Mr. Millward for the fetching of them, being a place at least 
distant two miles from our tents. So finding them we perceived 
them to be the letters of the factors of Captain Downton's fleet. 
Our General, therefore, desirous to see what hope there might be 
for getting of fresh victuals, in regard we had got none in three 
days after our coming hither, he made bold to open the packet, 
which was directed to your Worship, and so perused two of the 
factors' letters which he thought might best enlighten him to his 
desires, and afterwards sealed them up again in a letter of his 
own directed to your Worship and buried them by the stone 
where he placed his name ; but in them he found little comfort, 
for Coree the Indian, who had received so many favours from 
your Worship, having no sooner got his brass armour from them 
which your Worship bestowed on him but presently got him 
away amongst his barbarous crew and never came near them all 
their time of being there, and did not only absent himself but also 
restrained the rest, as it appeared, from coming down, for they 
got not any cattle after [his] going up. We had like to have 
fared a great deal the worse for him, had it not pleased God to 
have sent us down another tribe of them, which, as it should 
seem, were unacquainted with him, for at his being with us we 
could have no cattle at any terms without brass kettles, which 
must be very bright, esteeming nothing of the copper which your 
Worship sent with us, and would not for divers pieces of it sell us 
a sheep, whereas the last voyage to my own knowledge we might 
for that quantity have had two or three oxen. He was no sooner 
gone from us but the next day came down a strange company 
which brought with them 500 head of cattle and sold of them to 
us at very reasonable rates and would very fain have taken 


commodities for them all, but that we knew not what to do with 
them. So it had been good in my opinion either he had been 
hanged in England or drowned homeward. The 20th of October 
we set sail from thence towards Bantam, having stayed there 
17 days with our men in very good health, having lost but three 
men in all the fleet, besides one in the harbour of Plymouth. So 
we stood away for Bantam with fair winds and prosperous 
weather and were in election of as good a passage as ever men 
hath had this way, had we not kept it too much to the south- 
wards, fearing the S.E. winds, which we were never troubled 
withal, but in lieu of them N.W. and W.N.W. in greater abund- 
ance than we expected, insomuch that we were put to the south- 
ward of our port and had more ado to beat it up to the northward 
by reason of the current and monsoon, which were violently bent 
against us. So we stood in for the shore and had sight of land 
in 8 degrees and 50 minutes, and found it to be the south side of 
Java, a place which is full of good harbours and bays all the 
coast alongst. In the first bay where we anchored (which was 
the 18th of January) we found no people at all but did perceive 
a fire afar off as a sign of people there, which bay is 60 leagues 
off from the straits of Sunda ; but our General, loath to detract 
time, having got a little water with some wood, the next day at 
night we set sail. The coast lieth nearest E. by S. and W. by N. 
So we stood thinking to get to the southwards, but by reason of 
the current we made such an easterly way as the General thought 
it fit to stand in for the shore again ; and within two days we 
came to an anchor in another bay some 16 leagues to the east- 
wards of our former bay, where we anchored ; and here we found 
the Dutchman at an anchor who departed from the Cape towards 
Bantam 10 days before us, and he had been here 6 days, in which 
time he had been ashore and traded with the people here for fresh 
victuals, there being no other commodities else here to be had 
and that exceeding scarce too. Whether it were for fear of such 
a fleet of ships or what else I know not, but the people were all in 
arms and had sent away their provisions up into the country ; so 
that we got little or nothing, notwithstanding the General pre- 
senting the king with a piece and other small trifles, for which 
he had in return a small goat, a hen and a few lemons. The 


General, perceiving such small comfort to be hoped from them, 
took in some water and so came to sail, having stayed there two 
days in company with the Dutchman. So it pleased God to 
lend us a slent of a southerly wind. We laid it alongst as near 
as we could, insomuch that we got very near 20 leagues in 24 
hours to the westwards. The wind veering more westerly and 
something gusty withal, we stood off in sea, and in standing off 
we lost the company of the Dutchman and the Thomas. So 
coming into 10 degrees the wind came southerly again. So we 
plied it in as near as we could, and the nth day of February [we 
had] sight of the Salt Isles, and still standing in we had sight of 
the Thomas the same day again and the 13th day got to an anchor 
in Bantam road to God's glory and our own comforts ; where we 
found the Globe and the Osiander, the one ready to depart for 
England, and the other laid up for want of men to employ her. 
So our General going ashore with the factors of his fleet, was 
presently a council assembled for the employment of the Osiander 
and the rest of his fleet, having but only goods in Bantam for to 
despatch away the Samaritan for England and the rest of the 
fleet presently to be disposed of. So the Thomasine she was 
presently appointed for the Molluccas, or if not able to [get] 
thither to stop at Succadania and coast it alongst the coast of 
Java, to beat out a trade for getting of her lading ; and there 
were appointed to go in her for factors Mr. Bailey and myself, 
her own master, Ralph Wilson, still to continue in her. For the 
Osiander she to be fitted with 30 men and to go for Jap- 
poun, wherein goes Captain Hawkins [with Ralph] Coppindall 
and Arthur Predys for factors, and John Hunt master, with two 
other sufficient mates. For the Thomas, she was appointed for 
Sumatra to beat out a trade for getting of her lading there, and 
to all which our pretences I pray God send a happy success. 
Our speedy departure in the Thomasine hinders the enlargement 
of these my letters at this time, and therefore I beseech your 
Worship to excuse my brevity at this time. I hope by my next 
to certify your Worship of our happy success at Amboina, the 
which the Lord of His mercy grant. Here cannot be as yet any 
news expected of the Concord, her departure for that place being 
so late. I pray God send both her and us a joyful meeting both 


to God's glory, your Worship's benefit, and our comforts one of 
another. Thus with my hourly prayers for your Worship's happy 
success in all your affairs, committing them and your Worship to 
God's good protection, I humbly take my leave and do rest 
Your Worship's most bounden in all duty, 

Ed. Blitheman. 


Richard Rowe, master of the Thomas, to the East India 
Company. Bantam, February 21st, 1614. 

pNOURABLE and Right Worshipful Sir and Sirs, my 
duty remembered, desiring your healths, etc. May it 
please you to understand I left letter at Soldania, 
which I know not whether it come to your hands or 
no. The contents were our departure from Plymouth, being the 
30th of May, our falling with the Isles of Canada the 15th of 
June, our coming into the calms, variable winds and rain the 
25th day of the same month of June, which began in the parallel 
of 12 north and in the meridian of 4 variation east. The 
10th of July had sight of the coast of Gambia or Guinea in lati- 
tude 5 30' and about half a degree longitude east from that of 
the Lizard. Here we anchored off river Sesto, where our General 
was ashore, but made not long stay. Here the Dutch ship left 
us which we met with some three days before, being bound for 
Bantam. The 26th at night we crossed the equinox in the meri- 
dian of 5 variation east, and longitude from Sestos west about 
io°. The 15th of August we were farthest westward in latitude 
17 40' and longitude from Sesto about 18 30' west and in the 
meridian of 12 30' variation east 83 leagues of Cape Debasas on 
the main within the shoals of Brassell (Brazil). Here was taken 
the first general opinion for our being off the shoals, particulars 
whereof I omit, having formerly written. The 20th of September 
I was in latitude 33 46' south and 4 20' variation east, where 
was the second giving-in of general opinions, and having formerly 


written thereof I cease further. The ist of Oct f 11 with 

the land in latitude 33 10' and the 3rd of ditto anchored in 
Saldania, where we found the Dutchman formerly met withal at 
Sesto. Here we found al a the 1 turn of Captain Best and 

Captain Newport, with the outward arrival of Captain DowntOU 
and Mr. Petty, as also letters left by some of Captain Downton'a 
Beet. Here we stayed till the 20th of October and then departed, 
having had good store of refreshing. The Fleming departed ten 
days before us. 

To pass over particulars, avoiding tediousness, time permitting 
not leisure, the 20th of December was the third council, where I 
found 18 45' latitude and near 8° 00' variation west, [ngania 
bearing N.E. by N. \ northerly 310 leagues off, as I concluded. 
The 28th we had sight of the land 00 the south side of Java, 
about 8° 00' latitude, which cost us much trouble and ex- 
pense of time, whereas we might within two days have obtained 
our desired port of Bantam had we fallen open of the straits. 

Then we put off with the wind at X.W. and W.N.W. in the lati- 
tude 1 3 10', then stood in again near? the shore; but having 

felt the force of a strong E.S.E. current we could not obtain our 
desire. The iSth of January we anchored in a bay on the south 
side and filled amongst us 8 or 10 tons of water, and put off again 
the 20th of ditto, and the 23rd, having consulted for the future 
navigation, finding an apparent loss of 12 or 14 leaglK - in 24 
hours, we stood in to the shore, where we found the Dutchman at 
anchor that we erst met withal at Sesto and the Cape. Her- 
onry stayed till the 26th and filled amongst our three ships some 
30 tons of water. This road, as also the former, stands between 
latitude 7 45' and 8° 00'. Putting off this road our fleet lost us, 
and the wind coming as formerly at N.W. and W.N.W., we put 
off into io° 40', where we found the wind at S.E., and coming into 
latitude io°20' and variation 3 30' I discovered an island bearing 
west some 3 or 4 leagues off. This island is in length 4 or 5 leagues 
and lies from the straits of Sunda between the S.S.E. and S.E. 
by S. The 12th day of February we came through the straits 
of Sunda, and the 13th day we anchored in Bantam Road, where 
we found the Globe laden for England and the Osiander laid up 
for want of men, and Mr. John Jourdain captain of the house. 


Here also we heard that most lamentable news of the Trades 
Increase with the great mortality of so many men of several 
[ranks] and fashions with divers strange and [ ] accidents. 

The 16th we were ashore with our General, where by a general 
council it was determined for the disposing of the ships to sail, 
the Samaritan for England, the Thomas for Sumatra, the Tho- 
masine for Banda and Amboyna, the Osiander for Jappan. We 
have yet no news of Captain Downton's fleet. The Concord is 
gone for the Molluccos and the Darling for the coast of Syam. 
Our General pretends or at least bears us in hand that he will 
return for England by the first ship, but I cannot yet be persuaded 
thereof, neither do I think it fitting. Thus for this time ceasing 
further to trouble you, humbly taking leave, with my duty remem- 
bered I end, and rest now and ever at your Honour's command 
in all service, I am, 

Ric. Rowe. 


Richard Westby to the East India Company. 
Bantam, 21st February, 1614. 

IGHT Worshipful, my humble duty remembered etc. 
May it please you to understand that upon the 8th of 
January, 1614, the Globe arrived in the road of Ban- 
tam, come from the coast of Coramandell, having 
some part of her lading in her, which is not much ; and hath taken 
in here at Bantam 5,000 sacks of Java pepper milled, and 25 chests 
of China silks, containing as per invoice and bills of lading will 
appear, viz., 4,000 sacks for the account of the Seventh Voyage, 
being bought of the Joint Stock at the same rate as pepper was 
worth the same day it was agreed upon by a council of merchants. 
The account of the Seventh Voyage not having ready money for 
payment, it was also agreed upon by a council of merchants that 
they should deliver the value of so much money in clothing of 
Coramandell at the rate it was worth the aforesaid present time, 
as by the letters general and the copy of the journal sent to your 


Worships the prices, quantity ami quality will at large appear. 
The other 1,000 sacks of Java pepper milled, and 25 dusts of 
China silks is laden for the account of the Joint Stork, the Globe 
having left ,82 bales of cinnamon as also 10 bales of cotton yarn 
ashore, in regard they took in the aforesaid 25 chests for the 
Joint Stock; having agreed the next ship that shall return for 
England to send the cinnamon ami yarn for the account of the 
Seventh Voyage, referring the agreement of 1 1 1 « - freight both of 
the one and other to the wise disposing of the worshipful Com- 
pany at home. There is also a parcel of diamonds, containing in 
number 337 and in weight Iioj carats, delivered to the captain 
and cape merchant of the Globe, as by the invoice will ap] 
being bought at Sacadaney for the account of the Joint Stock, 
but before the worshipful Company was united) for the account of 
the Sixth Voyage. The uth ditto at night the Speedwell, a 
small pinnace of the burthen of 30 tons, built lure in Bantam 
of the hull of a Java junk, set sail from hence bring bound for 
Macckaser, there to stay 1 \ days to take in rice for the Moloucoes, 
and for the coming of the Concord ; and if the Concord come not 
within 14 days after, then to set sail and proceed for the islands 
of Amboyna, having for her master [ Alexander and for 

merchant Sophony Cozucke. The 27th ditto the Concord set sail 
for the Molucoes, being to touch at Macckaser there to take in 
any such commodity as is not there vendible, and will vent at 
[the] islands of Amboyna, as at Hitto, Cambella and Lugo, which 
is the chiefest places for cloves upon all the island of Amboyna, 
having for merchant of her George Ball, and for master of her 
John Skinner ; not doubting per the help of God but they will 
settle a factory at one of those places for which they are bound, 
having such in commission from John Jourdain, cape merchant 
for the Joint Stock, the people of the country having long 
desired it by their outward show ; therefore I hope it will be 
effected, which will be to your Worship's great benefit for future 
trade, as well for the getting of cloves as also the vending of 
a great deal of coarse cloth, both Suratt and Coramandell, 
which the poor people buy which are not able to go to the 
price of better. The aforesaid Concord hath also order that 
at her return she touch at Temore and Gresse, Temore yielding 


sandalwood, a good commodity when the China junks are 
here, or to send to the coast of Coramandell, the trade being 
worth the following in regard there is hope the place will vend 
much coarse cloth, both of Suratt and Coramandell, as also the 
cheapness of the sandalwood there and good price it beareth here 
in Bantam, being sold to the China junks, as also it being carried 
to the coast of Coramandell, it being worth here at Bantam 
20 rials the pecul and at the Coast 80 pagodas the candy, which 
is 500 pounds English. Gresee by report yieldeth some cloves 
brought from other places by Java junks, as also will vend some 
quantity of cloth of Coramandell, as Tape Chindes petoles, Tape 
girdles and coarse Tapes and such like, being Cherra Java. The 
14th of this month Captain David Middleton arrived in the road 
of Bantam with three ships, viz. the Samaritan, the Thomas and 
the Thomasine, hoping to have his lading ready for two of his 
ships, viz. the Samaritan and the Thomas, but hath not found 
sufficient to lade one as yet, the James and the Globe having 
carried away all before but some 1,000 sacks of pepper, which is 
ready, and more will be got ready by the latter end of March, 
which will be the soonest she can be laden, which I fear will be 
too late for a ship to return without great danger. We have more 
than enough of our own to lade a ship if we could get in our 
debts, but in regard we cannot, must be forced to buy, though at 
a high rate, which will be 15 or 16 rials the ten sacks. Had there 
been any store of money in the house or that the ships had 
brought any quantity, there might have been bought a good 
quantity of Lankin silk this year, for it is reported that the five 
China junks have brought upwards of 300 peculs, besides great 
store of other commodities, which will be very cheap in regard 
neither the Hollanders nor the English have any store of money 
to buy as they have formerly done. The 16th ditto Captain David 
Middleton called a court to hear the opinion of the merchants 
what were best to be done in regard there is no possibility to lade 
the two ships and to send them away according to your Worships' 
desire, as appeareth in your letters general. It is therefore con- 
cluded in the court by all generally present at the said court 
that the Thomas shall go for the coast of Sumattra, there to seek 
her lading with a cargason of Surratt cloth, as baftas, white 
Y 1268. 2 


baftas, Nill Selas, Candeques, Orickanes, and such-like commo- 
dities as vendible upon the coast, there 1m in^ a place newly dis- 
covered per Captain Christian, now captain of the Globe, called 
Cotatinga; a place which venteth much cloth of these sorts above 
said, as also yieldeth much pepper and fine gold of divers sorts, 
the one good for England, the other good for the Molucoes and 
for the factory of Sacadaney, as also other places not yet certainly 
known. The people of these places desire of it rather than rials. 
The Osiander to go for Jappan, but first to touch at the factories 
of Puttaney and Syam to visit and relieve them. The Thomasine 
to go for the Molucoes to second the Concord if she be able to 
fetch the place whereto she is bound, it being much feared the 
time of the year is too far spent ; but if she cannot, then to go to 
Temore and Gresse, as also to seek trade upon the coast of Java 
upon the back side. And the Samaritan to return for England, 
wherein the General doth intend per the grace of God to continue, 
being all the speed made that may be for her sooner despatch. 
The Thomasine is now ready to set sail, wherein goeth merchant 
John Bailye. The Osiander will be the next, wherein there goeth 
chief commander Nicholas Hawkins. And the Thomas last, 
wherein goeth Mr. Millward chief merchant, and William Nicolls 
his assistant. We look for the ships from Surratt very shortly, 
having but small store of men at present to supply so many 
factories as already are and to establish more where there is hope 
of good to be done ; but God sending us life and health and a 
blessing to our labours, we hope so to endeavour ourselves to find 
out as many places as may vend great quantity both of Surratt 
and Meslapattam cloth for the maintenance of these trades, with- 
out the which they will not be worth anything in this place, of 
itself venting but small store and at bad rates. Not doubting, 
by the help of God, whereas now I writ partly of hopes, that at 
the return of these ships from their pretended voyages I shall be 
able to write of assurances. Thanks be to God our Englishmen 
stand better in health here in Bantam than formerly they have 
done. Whether it be our changing of houses, having a better air 
at our new house than formerly we had at our old house, or 
what else it is, I know not ; but the blessing of God I am sure it 
is. Thus not having further to trouble your Worships at present 


but to entreat you to have this conceit of me, that soever I know 
either for your profit or prejudice I will by the first advise you 
of it, that the one may be followed for advantage the other be 
prevented for to shun inconvenience, I humbly take [my] leave, 
praying to God daily, as my duty is, to bless and prosper as well 
yourselves as your affairs both in England and here in [ ] 

that they may redound to the glory of God, the great benefit of 
[the] right worshipful Company, and the credit of us your Wor- 
ships' servants and factors here in the Indies. 

Your Worships' servant to command to the 
utmost of his power and might, 

Richard Westby. 


John Jourdain to George Ball, cape merchant of the Concord. 
Bantam, the 23rd February, 1614. 

|OVING Friend Mr. Ball, my commendations remem- 
bered to yourself with the rest of your company etc- 
This may be to certify you that the 13th of this present 
here arrived General David Middleton with three ships, 
viz. the Samaritan, the Thomas, and this ship the Thomasine. 
The effect of the worshipful Company's letters is as the former 
sent by the Concord, and therefore I will not be tedious therein, 
only touch the chief points which concerneth the business, not 
doubting but before this come to your hands you will be in good 
forwardness about your lading. And therefore this ship is sent 
to second you, either to stay about Amboina or else for Banda, as 
per the commission given by the General may more largely 
appear etc. 

The Thomas is to go for Sumattra about a month hence 
and the Osiander for Jappon. The Samaritan for England, if 
pepper may be found for money, for at present by reason of five 
China junks, which are here in Bantam the pepper is worth 
16 rials per ten sacks, and not to be had for money, and the 
three ships now newly come have brought little. And the 

Z 2 


Hollanders are altogether without money until the coming of their 
ships which they expect daily, and we the like from Suratte, 
wherein comcth Captain Downton for General. Kewee doth con- 
tinue his villainy according to his ordinary use, for I shall be 
forced to give a great price for pepper for his default, and yet in 
doubt whether I shall be able to get the lading of the Samaritan 
or not etc. 

At the meeting of this ship the Thomasine, I pray call a 
council concerning the worshipful Company's business, what is 
best to be done either for Banda or any other place where the vent 
of cloth may be had. For if occasion serve that there be hope of 
any other place, as per your intelligence you may understand, 
or any hopes for a future good, either for the sale of goods or 
commodities, by a general council you may direct this ship, pro- 
vided always that you have an especial care that they go not 
under any of the Hollanders' castles, because the ship is of small 
force, much less under the Spaniards' command, except you have 
certain advice or great hope of future good. 

And if all hopes should fail of the lading of the two ships, 
it is ordained that they, or one of the ships, at their return home- 
ward repair for Timor, Gracia and Japara for to view the country 
and what is there to be done, according to my last directions by 
you ; and if there be any good to be done, to settle factories in 
either place ; if not, to send one of the ships for Sacadana with 
the remainder, and there as shall be thought fitting to leave goods 
accordingly, as by my former order by yourself may be seen, as 
also the like order is given Mr. Bailye by the General, to the which 
I refer me. I pray commend me to Mr. Cokayne and Mr. Sophony 
with the rest of your merchants, not forgetting the master. 

This ship hath about I2v rials in cargazon in money, gold 
and Choramandell cloth, as per the same cargazon may appear, 
but for Suratt goods they have none, because I think there is 
enough to furnish all places in your ship. Thus not having else 
at present, only praying the Almighty to bless and prosper your 
proceedings and send you well to Bantam, whose company I much 
want in this time of troublesome business. 

Your loving friend always, 

John Jourdain. 



Our friend Mr. Peter Floris departed the 21st of this present 
with Captain Christian, well furnished out of these ships to their 
contents ; but our friend Mr. Cobb remaineth. I made a protest 
against them for not carrying him but all would not serve, but 
remaineth here like himself far worse than in former time. 


(In continuation of that given in Vol. I). 

Affanan (Arabic afyuri) : opium 
Anil (Arabic al-nit) : indigo 
Aurancaya — see Orancaya 
Avanto (Ital. avanzo) '. gain, enhance- 
Avenia (Ital. avania) : a fine, exaction 

BANKSALL : a warehouse ; hence ap- 
plied to a custom-house 
Beage (Hind, beg) : a title of honour 

Catfro (Arabic kafir) : an unbeliever ; 
from being applied by the Arabs and 
Portuguese to pagan negroes, the 
word came to mean a slave, and is 
so used in the present volume 

Candarin or Condrin: in the Japan- 
ese currency, the tenth part of a mass, 
and consequently the hundredth part 
of a tael (5 s. ) 

Cavidall or Caphila (Arabic kafi- 
lah) : a caravan 

Chaya : used on p. 127 as a generic 
term for red dye 

Comprador (Port.) : a house-steward 

Copang : apparently the sixty-fourth 
part of a tael 

Coyan : a measure for rice. One coyan 
weighed nearly two tons (p. 77) 

Erzed : a hybrid word formed from 

the Hind, arzi, a petition 
Erzedach (Hind, arz-dasht) : a written 

petition or memorial 

Fitchew : a polecat 
Frangubts (Persian farangi): Euro- 
FusTO (Port, fusta) : a pinnace 

Geme (Arabic zani) : a nautical measure 
used by Arab navigators, equivalent 
to twelve nautical miles (see Yule & 
Burnell's Hobson -Jobson, Supple- 
ment, sub "jam"). The statement 
on p. 177 that a geme equals thirty 
leagues appears to be incorrect 

Gen : a Japanese brass coin, in value 
about the tenth of a penny 

Hast : a measure equivalent to about 
half a yard (Purchas, I., 391) 

Kerimon (Japanese koromo) : a robe 

Langanatt (Japanese naginata): a 

Laskar (Persian lashkar) : a camp 
Lutrano (Port. Lutherano) : a Pro- 
testant (Lutheran) 

Matt : a Japanese measure equivalent 
to about two English yards (p. 3) ; 
hence it is sometimes called a fathom 

Morofaco : a spirit or wine 

Murderer: a small piece of ordnance 

Orancaya (Malay Orangkaya) : a chief 
or person of distinction 

Pagoda : a gold coin of Southern 

India, worth at this time about $s. 8d. 

(see pp. 61 and 123) 
Partido (Port, pariicia)'. a parcel 
Patale (Kanarese and Malayalam 

patltida) : a silk cloth 
Pengran (Malayan pattgiran): a title 

of certain feudal princes in Java, &c 



Pezo (Port, peso) : a coin. On p. 68 it 
is used of the rial of eight (peso 

Pisa : a weight representing a varying 
fraction of the seer— stated to be one- 
eighteenth on pp. 250 and 253, and 
one thirtieth on page 181 

PoN Leema (Malayan panglima): a 
governor or commander 

Pootoes : Pueho, costus root 

Pregona (Hind, pargana): a district 

Quita Soll (Port, quiia-sol) or Som- 
brero (Port sumbreiro) : an um- 

Ram dam (Arabic ramazan): the Mu- 
hammadan month of abstinence 


a cloth with a long, coarse 

Sh ashes : turbans 

Shroff (Hind, saraf): a money- 

SOKBAYB (Malayan sambah-an): a 

Stillero : probably the Italian stillo, 
the beam of a steelyard 

Tattamy (Japanese tatami): another 
name for a "matt " (q.v.) 

Vataw (Gujarati vatau) : discount 
Visitador General: Inspector-Gen- 

: a weight equivalent to the eighth 
of a maund (Madras) 

Wa'.ydash (Japanese wakizashi): a 
short sword 


Abbas, Shah of Persia. See Persia, 

King of 
Abbott, Morris, 169, 237 
Abulasan, or Abullosan, 137, called 

Coge (Khoja), his importance, 178, 


Achin, Acheen or Atchin, and the 
Aichinders, 127, business in, and 
King's letter, 147, King objects to 
English factory at Priaman, 165 

Accounts, want of system in, 83, 


Adams, William, 3, 5 , foreign offers to, 
6. Saris's opinion of, 7, too fond of the 
Dutch, 6, 25, letter from Cocks to 
him and Wickham, 9-10 ; 12, Cocks's 
opinion of, 13 ; 18, 19, and the Eng- 
lish flag, 21, 22, reported dead, 21, 
23, 27, and warned, 26, 27 ; letters 
from referred to, 30 ; 46, 47, 4S, 50, 
letter from Cocks, 51-52 ; 53, 62, 67, 
69, 74, letter to Cccks, 75-76 ; 113, 
114, 12S, 140, 196, made Captain of 
the ' Sea Adventure,' for Siam, 199, 
203, Cocks's further opinion of, 200, 
206, desires to seek North-West 
passage, 200, commission for Siam 
age, 204, matters connected with 
this voyage, 215, 234, 315, his help 
to the Dutch in Japan, 221 ; 222, 223, 
227, 228 

Adgimeare, Agmier, etc See Ajmir. 

Adrian, 22, 69 

Aganoro, 141 

'Agent,' the. See Aldworth 

Agra, trade at, and wares, 45, 97, ioo, 
101 ; 103, 105, indigo of, 106, 13S, 
15S, 194, 29S, Sherley at, 107, Lady 
Sherley leaves, 209, need of a resident 
at, 108, 131, 132, 133, 136, 137, 13S, 
140, 141, 142, 236. 23s, 243, 247, 
251, factors for, 134, 176, 214, Ed- 
wards appointed to the post, 150, 
155, 169, 172, 176, iSS, 193, 213, 
214, 244, 247, 24S, 251 ; 170, 177, 
192, 242, 257, 262, 263, 266, 267 

Ague, 52, 54, 139 

Ahmedabad, 97, 105, factors appointed 
for, 134, 151, 15S, 169, the late 
governor, iSo, trade of, 1S1 ; 1S7, 
[88, a good market, 196; 19S, 203, 
213, 214, good climate and pleasant 
people, 215 ; 22S, 229, 231, 232, 233, 
size, 238 ; 239, 243, 247, 249, 250, 
251, 252, 253, 254, 259, 269. 
2>3, 2S6, 295, 303, 304, 311 

Ajmir, 9S, 99, 102, 103, 105, no, 
Sherley at, 141, 145, court at, 143, 
151. 156, 17S, 183, 1S5, 191, 192, 
195, 226, 245, 263, 266, 267, 297, 

Akbar, his widow and her ship, 2 1 3 
Albartus or Albert us, his trading, 23, 

25, 29 



Aldeas, 96 

Aldworth, or Aldworthe, Thomas, of 
Bristol, cape merchant at Surat ; 
letter from Essington and Floris to 
(missing), 19, letter in reply referred 
to, 42, answer to this referred to, 43, 
letter from Floris, 59-61, joint letter 
to E. I. C, 96-101 ; 98; letter to 
Keridge referred to, 99 ; 100, letter 
to Floris, 101-102, letters to Keridge 
referred to, 103, 105, 107 ; referred 
to as 'the Agent,' 103, 105, no; 
106; Canning's abuse of, ill ; 130, 
his report on Canning's behaviour, 
131, 132, on the need for a resident 
at Agra, 133, 136, 137, appointed 
agent for Surat, 134, 138, 193; 135, 
letter to Keridge, 137-139, letter 
from Withington, 140, and the Swally 
councils, 150, and the Mogul's pre- 
sents, 151 ; 152, and Steel, 153, 154, 
268, and Persian trade proposed, 208, 
241, 252, 262 ; an error of judgment, 
154, letter from Keridge to him and 
Biddulph, 156-159, his firmness, 157, 
letter from Floris and Chauncey, 
164-166, Downton's favourable 
opinion of, his business energy, 169, 
170 ; 178, 179, 181, 183, joint letter 
to E. I. C, 193-194, differs from 
Best, 194, 195, signs council's re- 
port on the proposed Persian trade, 
209; 213, inAhmedabad, 214, letter 
to Oxwicke, 21S-219 ; 225, 233, 236, 
and Mukarrab Khan, 240 ; 243, 244, 
letter to E. I. C. , 247-249, joint 
letter to Oxwicke and others, 249- 
250; 251, 253, 257, 258, 259, 
signs Steel's commission, 268 ; letter 
to Oxwicke and others, 2S2, 2S6-287, 
295 ; letters to Keridge referred to, 
297, 298, 299 

Aleppo, cloth of, 98 ; 103, 105, 154, 
214, 237, 242, 248, 262 

Alexander, , master's mate of the 

* Speedwell,' 285, made master of the 
'Concord,' 336 

Almain, an, 100 

Almain knives, 143 

Amacau. See Macao 

Amadar, Amadavaz, etc See Ahme- 

Amami Oosima, island, 233, 234 

Ambassador, English, to India. Set 
Roe, Sir Thomas 

Ambassador, English, to Turkey. See 
Glover, Sir Thomas 

Ambassador, Indian, to Persia, 107 

Ambassador, Persian. See Sherley, Sir 

Amboyna, goods for, 45 ; 78, Dutch 
disliked at, 144 ; 145, cloves of, 270, 
and trade, 272, 273, 306, straits of 
and island, 307, trade, 314, 315, 318, 
proposed factory at, 322, 325, 332, 

335. 336, 339 
Amsterdam, modelled animals from, 

Anchorage charges at Patani, 39, at 

Pulicat, 84 
Andamans, the, 115 
Andrapora. See Indrapura 
Andrea, 27, 46 

Andreas or Zendoque Dono, 12, 13 
Ankleswar (Eaclefere), 305 
Anne of Denmark, Queen of James I. 

of England, 138 
Antheunis, Lucas, a Dutchman in the 

E. I. C.'s employ (Seventh Voyage), 

his letters to Cocks referred to, 68 ; 

69, 113, 114, 115, 125, 206, his 

advice to be relied on, 206, 208 ; 


Arabia, 146, language of, required in 
the Persian Gulf, 171, its coast, 177 

Arabs trading in the Red Sea, 275 

Arakan, ship of, 61 

Arima, 47 

Armenians, in India, 106 

Armous. See Ormus 

Arras cloth, 173, and substitutes, 174 

Arthington, Thomas, purser, 184, ab- 
stract of his letter to E. I. C, 194 

Articles for (ships) keeping company, 

Asaph or Aseph Chan, brother-in-law 
to the Mogul, 137, 142, 156, 157, his 
advice, 178, 179 

Aspinall, Edmund, left at Surat, 24 

Assurance Office, the, in London, 265 



Atkinson, William, clerk to the Mus- 
covy Company, 265 

Attmachan, 61 

Augustine, 142 

Aurancaya. See Orancaya 

Ava king of Pegu, the, 82 

Avenia, an, 318 

Azevedo, Don Jeronimo de. See Vice- 
roy of Goa 

Bachan, Dutch fort at, 1 

Badmedg, Philip, his voyages, 34 

Bagnagar. See Bisnagar 

Bahrein (Bareyne and Barreen), 99, its 
pearl fishery, 146 

Baker, Captain, 265 

Baker, Richard, abstract of his letter 
to E. I. C, 183-184 

Balasses, 301 

Ball, Baily, factor, 130, at Surat, etc., 
134; 220, 226, 231, joint letter to 
him and others from Edwards, 244- 
250, andMukarrab Khan, 257, 258 ; 
281, 282, 283, 284, 286, 287, 296, 

304, 30S. 312 

Ball, George, (of the Eighth Voyage), 
at Bantam, 38, 119, joint letter to 
E. I. C, 144-145, opinion as to 
Cobb, 1 60-1 61, a bad correspondent, 
204, chief factor in the ' Concord ' 
for Macassar, 270, signs letter to 
E.I.C., 279, signs report on Cobb, 
285; 294, memorandum for Macassar 
voyage addressed to, by Jourdam, 
306-311; 310, 314, to go to Am- 
boyna, 315 ; 322, 336, letter from 
Jourdain, 339-341 

Balsora, 146 

Bamond, 232, 295 

Banda and the Bandanese (see also Pulo 
Ai), prefer English to Dutch, 33,35, 
36, 54, Dutch and English trade with, 
77, 78, wars with the Dutch, 80, 270, 
272, 273 ; 322, sailing times for, 
307, proposed factory at, 308, 315, 
318, 322, 335, 339, 340 

Bandar Abbas, port in Persia, (called 
Damone), 146 

Bangkok, (called Bancope) , English at, 

well received, 112, 113 
Banka, Straits of (called also Palamban 

or Pelamban), 112, 122, 312 
Banksall or Custom-house, 84 
Bantam, a great entrepot for trade, 1, 
7, 14, risk of fire in, 15 ; unhealthi- 
ness of, 16, 31, 201, 265, 326, 328, 
338 ; 33. 34. 35. 37. 39, 40, 41, 42, 
43, 44, 45. 46, 49, 54, 55, Pay of, 
56 ; 57, dissensions among factors, 
60 ; 64, 66, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 86, 
87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 99, 102, 112, 115, 
116, 118, 119, ship for, 120; 121, 
122, 124, Marlowe's conduct at, 124, 
125, 126 ; 127, 128, 144, 147, coun- 
cil held at, on Cobb's behaviour, 1 59- 
163; 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, Dutch 
ship at, and her news, 165 ; 166, 
factors at, bad correspondents, 166 ; 
172, 182, 188, 190, 193, 196, 202, 
203, 206, 217, 221, 247, 249, 254, 
268, 269, 270, pepper of, 271 ; 272, 
273, private trade at, 274, 275, 
factory buildings at, 276, 338 ; com- 
modities for, 278 ; 280, report of the 
court held at, on Cobb, 284, 2S5, 
287, referred to, 294 ; 290, 292, 293, 
302, 308, sailing time for, 309 ; 
311, 312, 313, 314, 317, 318, 319, 
320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 327, 331, 
332, 333. 334. 335. 336, 337, 338, 
•Bantam,' the, a ship, 112 
Banyans, position of, in India, 261 
Barbary, Coast of, the fleet in danger 

on, 183, 185, 192 ; goods for, 259 
Barker, Thomas, a factor for Surat, 134 
Baroche or Barroch. See Broach 
Baroda, factors for, 134; 213, gumlac 
of, 214; 215, 228, 231, 232, goods 
of, 238, 259 
Baros, 322 
Barret's choice of unfit men for the 

fleet, 184 
Barsall. See Bulsar 
Barwick, Thomas, master of the ' Pep- 
percorn,' transferred to the 'Lion* 
for quarrelsomeness, 184, 191, 192, 



Bassein besieged by the Mogul, 150, 

Bastian, 27 

Batan. See Bostanah 

Batten, , master's mate, a useless 

man, 190 

Battye, Richard, a factor for Ahmeda- 
bad, 134, 214 

Baylie, John, in charge at Bantam, 122, 
277, signs letter to E. I. C, 279, 
and report of court at Bantam, 285, 
cape merchant of the 'Thomasinc,' 
328, 332, 338, 340 

Beage, the, of Broach, 282 

Bednall. See Midnall 

Bell, Robert, his consignment and its 
marks, 245 

Bengala, or Bengal, cloth of, 59, 117, 
vermilion of, 181 

Bengal, Gulf of, 116 

Bennet, Richard, 90 

Bennett (or Benet), Walter, in charge 
of the 'Concord,' 269, master's mate 
of the 'James', 285, 316 

Berghen (or Burchen), Warner Van, 
Captain and Rector of all the Dutch 
factories on the Coast, called Captain 
Drinkwater, 43, 83 

Berhanpur, 60, 61, 102, 142, 259 

Berkeley, George, 190 

Best, Captain Thomas, of the Tenth 
Voyage, ship 'Dragon,' 15, 41, 42, 
his diplomacy, 50 ; 77, moneys spent 
for, 101, 102 ; 103, no, refuses to 
take home Johnson, 121, accusations 
against, 137 ; defeats the Portuguese, 
155, 168 ; differs with Marlowe, 171 ; 
his compact with Indian governors 
set aside, 180, 181, 182, differs with 
Aldworth, 194, 249, at Saldania, 212 ; 
226, gone home, 255, letters from, 
referred to, 286 ; 287, his orders, 289 j 

324» 330, 334 
Biana, cottons of, 132, indigo of, 238 
Biddulph, William, factor of the Tenth 
Voyage, joint letter to E. I. C, 96-101 ; 
130, appointed factor for Surat, etc., 
134, in consultation on resident for 
Agra, 136, 137, letter from Keridge 
to him and Aldworth, 156-159, ab- 

stract of letter to E. I. C, 187, joint 
letter to E.I.C., 193-194 ; 208, 213, 
memorandum respecting goods, from 
Oxwickc, 224; 226, 251, at Swally, 

Bijapur, 43 

Bintang, (called Bintam), 122 
BUnagar, 60, 61 
Blitheman, Edward, assistant merchant 

of the ' Thomasine ' (Third Joint 

Stock Voyage), letter to Sir Thomas 

Smith, 328-333 
Boeroe, 33, 78 
Boeton, 33,35, 36, 54, 78 
Bojador, Cape, 183 
Bon Esperanza and variants. See Good 

I lope, Cape of 
Bonner, Thomas, made master of the 

• Expedition ' (Twelfth Voyage), 185, 

191, 192, 194 
Borneo, products of, 94, coast chart of, 

95 ; 127, trade with, 278 
Borreo or Burrowe. See Boeroe 
Bostanah (called Batan), port, 146 
Boyle, Samuel, his opinion on Cobb's 

conduct, 163 ; is left at Bantam, 277, 

signs letter to E.I. C, 279, and report 

of the court at Bantam, 285, letter 

to E. I.C., 321-323 
Brahman, a, Governor of Masulipatam, 

84, 294 
BramporL See Berhanpur 
Brazil, 329, 333 
Brazilwood, 5 
Bream, a huge catch of, 184 

Breams, , 56 

Brett, Thomas, his voyages, 34, and 

accounts, 121, 122 
Brighurst, Henry, of the 'Hector* 

(first recorded Joint Stock Voyage), 

his scandalous talk, 245 
Brinzee, Nahuda, his (missing) report 

on Sind, 172 
Bristol, 169, 209, 242 
Broach, goods of, 59, 100, 203, 213, 

238, 259 ; 102, a factor for, 134, 

burnt by the Portuguese, 155, 264; 

218, 219, 224, 225, 229, 231, 232, 

233, 241, 249, 253, 260, 2S1, 283, 

286, 295, 296, 303, 304, 305, 311 



Brockedon, Robert, 63 

Brockedon, Thomas, once purser of 
the 'James,' a factor of the Ninth 
Voyage, now of the 'Darling' (Sixth 
Voyage), joint letter to Jourdain and 
Cobb, 44-45, another, 49, letter to 
E. I. C. , 63-65 ; 82, 83 ; at Petapoli 
84, goes to Siarn, 123, signs list of 
writings sent to E. I. C. by Nicholls, 
147, again at Petapoli, 293 

Brodera or Brothera. See Baroda 

Brower, , a Dutch Captain, his 

trading, 19, 22, 29, 48, 52, 53, 69 

Brower, Cornelius, the glazier, brother 
of the above, 19, 22, slain, 69 

Browne, John, a factor for Agra, 134, 
214, 241 

Bulgoryn, Andrea, 139 

Bulsar [called Barsall), 296 

Bunder Larree. See Lahori Bandar 

Burnea. See Borneo 

Burrell, [William], blamed for the bad 
condition of the ' Dragon,' 190 

Butt, Esay, factor for Broach, 134, 226, 
231, 283 

Butt, General de, 121 

Buttowne. See Boeton 

Byana. See Biana 

Cacadana. See Sukadana 

Caffro, a runaway, and others, 227, 

Cambaya, Governor of. See Mukarrab 

Cambaya, cloth and goods of, 2, 5, II, 

22, 183, I97, 20O, 203, 207, 213, 

214, 221, 231, 238, 241, 259, 304, 

3°5> 3ii» 323 ; io 4» banyans of, 155 

Cambello, English preferred at, 45, an 
open port, 273, 307, 336 

Cambodia (Camboj a), 39, 67, S2, point 
of, 114 ; 124, 205 

Camden, Edmund, of the Eighth Voy- 
age, letter from E.I.C., referred to, 

Campayo, Francisco, a Spaniard, his 
conduct, 34, 35, sent away, 46; 55 

Canary Isles, 255, 333 

Can-Canna, the, 263 

Candarin. See Coins 

Candy. See Weights 

Canning, Paul, of the Tenth Voyage, 
resident at Agra, letter quoted, 97, 
136, 244, his death, 100, 103, 131, 
150, 214, 236, 251 ; his accounts, 
101, 103, and want of success, 103, 
reasons of, 103, 133, 138, his slanders 
on Keridge, 1 10, and bad conduct to 
Aldworth, m ; 123; enquiry into 
his doings at Agra, 130, 131, and 
expenses, 132, referred to, 150, his 
effects, 156, 1S1, part sent home, 194, 
299, and Mukarrab Khan, 1 79 ; 257 

Cape Esperance. See Good Hope, 
Cape of 

Capliila or Cavidall, a caravan, 105, 

Captains of E.I.C., their large autho- 
rity, its drawbacks, 7, 65, especially 
ashore, 82, 83, 118, 124, 126; 174- 
176, 184, arrogance of, 192, 2S9, 302, 
310, 311, 313 

Cardler, , of the Assurance Com- 
pany, 265 

Carter, Robert, his will sent home, 147 

Carwarden, Walter, of the Eighth Voy- 
age, his skill in precious metals, 5 ; 
8, 9, 18, 19, lost in Cochin China, 68, 

69, 74, 75, 76, 197, 198 

Cash. See Coins 

Catty. See Weights 

Cent per Cent, the desired profit, 3, 26 

Ceram [called Ceran and Seran), an 
open port, 273, cloves of, 307 

Cerques or Cirques. See Sarkhej 

Cestros, De Sestos, Sestros, river. See 

Ceylon, goods of, 316 

Charles I. becomes Prince of Wales, 

Charles Emanuel the Great See Savoy, 
Duke of 

Chaule, or Chaull, besieged by the 
Mogul, 150, 16S, 239, 257 

Chauncey, George, of the Ninth Voy- 
age, joint letter to Jourdain, from 
Masulipatam, 41-43, his monthly re- 
port, 41, at Petapoli, S4, at Bantam, 
112, 117, joint letter to Aldworth, 



164-166, signs report of court held 
at Bantam, 2S5, letters t.. I 1 
292-295, 302, and the voyage of the 
'Concord,* 306, 310, at Macassar, 


Chess ('playing') tables, 2.16 

China, commodities of, (** Nanking), 
5, 16, 32, 41, 67, 77, 80, 86, 111, 
paper, 129, 130; 201, 202, 205. 
27 r >. 315. 3«&. 335. 336, Dutch 
dealings with, 15, 199, 277, early 
efforts to secure trade by EL L C, 
199, 202, proposed factory, 323 ; 
201, 209, 221, 334 

China, Emperor of, 199, Japanese at- 
tempt 00 nil life, 212, intention to 
banish Christians, 202, who arrive 
from Japan, 221 

Chinese' in Bantam, II& 27S, 31: 
3'9. 337. 339. *t Got, 43. ■« J«**- 

tra, 120, at Macassar, 32, 35, at 

Nangasaki, 70, at l'atani, 5, 8l, 

112, 277, elsewhere, 235 
Chinese h •: ■ 235 

Chinese junks, Si, robbed by the Dutch, 

Chinesa Captain, the, and his new wife, 

1 . 20 
Chirkes. Stt Sarkhej 
Chongro, his junk, 19, 21, 68 
Chop or Firman of Mukarrab Khan, 

Chorome, Sultan. Sit Khurram 

Christendom, 199, 266 

Christian, Captain Edward, of the 
•Osiander' (Tenth Voyage), Si, 118, 
119, at Bantam, 124; 125, signs re- 
port of court at Bantam, 2S5, 294; 
2S7, takes NichohV day-book. 
2S9 ; his alleged misdeeds, 290, 291, 
292 ; 324, 325, 326, discovers trade 
at Cota Tinga, 33S, goes home with- 
out Cobb, 34 1 

Christianity, proscribed in Japan, 19, 

21, 22, 20I, 221 ; 256 
Christians (sa Jesuits, Japan and 

China) in India, 299, in Macassar, 

33. 55» in Persia, general letter to, 

Christmas, 102 

Churls, 156, 103, 238, 260, 263, 305 
Citra Andaman (notably Little Anda- 
man), 1 15 
I , John, 57 

. hip of the Eighth V< 
1 1. 65, 91, 1 •■. 1 o, -'-m, 855, 


Cobb, Richard, of the 'James' (Tenth 
■ge), left in bantam ; joint 
from (Journey and others to him 
and Jourdain, 44 }^; Bl, <)>>, Il8, 
opinion of other fad rning 

his ill-l>ehaviour, 159- 163, ret 

-71- 2 75> h 'li n5 report on 
the ships, 2S5, Jourdain's views in 
letter to E. I. C, 3 1 7, 31S ; he re- 
mains at Hantam, 311 
Cochi, in Eirando, 216, 217, 222, 223, 

230, 233 
Cochin China, trade with Japan, 17, 

tion to, 6S, 74, Adams' account of 
it. 75. 76 ; other references to, 197, 
204, 205, 315 
Cochin China, the king of, 68, 197 

Cockroach' . •: done by, 57, 


' . Richard, of the Eighth Voyage, 

captain or cape merchant in Japan, 
memorandum left with, by Saris, 4-9, 
letter to Adams and Wickham, 9-IO, 
letter to Adams alone, 51-52, to 
Denton, 202-20;, to E. I. <;., 196- 
202, letters to Wickham, 10-13, l 7~ 
18, 18-19, 21-22, 22-23, 26-27, 4°~ 
47. 53~54» 67-69, 70-71, memoran- 
dum concerning the 'Sea Adventure,' 
204-20S, further letters, 215-216, 
216, 217, 222, 223, 223-224, 227, 
227-22S, 230 ; letter to the Mer- 
chant Adventurers of England, 220- 
222 ; letter from Eaton, 139 140,143; 
letter from Wickham on the voyage 
of the 'Sea Adventure,' 233-235; 
letters from, referred to, 25, 26, 30, 
31, 48, quoted on the fire at the fac- 
tory, 51, his illness, 52, 54, letter 
from Eaton referred, 62, letter to 
Eaton referred to, 63, and the fowl- 
ing pieces, 71, letter to Wickham 



referred to, 73 ; 74, 75, 76, 9A 3". 
letters from, referred to, 315 
Coins : Candarin or Condrin, 76, equi- 
valent in English money, 198 ; 337 ; 
Cash, 294; Copang, 123, 129; Dol- 
lars (see also rials), 105, 288, 289, 
301 ; Ducats, 12S; English sixpences 
and shillings, 167, 212, 255; Flemish 
shillings, 164; Gens (Japanese coins), 
76; Larins, 146; Mace or Mass, 3, 6, 
7, 10, 20, English equivalent, 198 ; 
etc. Madins, 58. Mamoodies, 158, 
193, 218, 219, passim; Pagodas, 
equivalent in English money, 59, in 
rials, 61, 85, 86; passim; Pice, or 
Pisas, or Picas, 152, 232, 250; Rial 
of Eight (see also dollars), 6, 7, 14, 
equivalent in taels, 44 ; 54, 58, 68, 
152, passim; Rials, false, 197 ; 
Rials, gold, 37 ; Rupees, 107, 142, 
152, 181, 193, equivalent in rials of 
eight, 214 ; old and new, 214, equiva- 
lent in pice, 249 ; etc. Taels or 
Taies, 9, 11, 20, 22, equivalent in 
rials, 44 ; 123, 202, equivalent in 
English money, 203 ; passim 
Coja Jehan. See Khoja Jehan 
Coja Nazam. See Khoja Nazan 
Cokayne, George, letter to Jourdain 
[ from Macassar, 31-35 ; to him and 
others from the same place, 45-46 ; 
36, 37. 38, 54, 55» 77, goes to Ma- 
cassar, 78, 79, and stays there, 272, 
314, 315 ; referred to in the remem- 
brance for Ball, 306, 307, 308, 309, 
310, 315 ; 340 
Commission given to Steel and Crou- 
ther for Persian trade on behalf of 
E. I. C, 266-268 
Comoro, 167 

« Concord,' ship of E. I. C, 144, 148, 
268, 270, 271, 272, 277, 279, 284, 
285, 292, 294, 302, 314, 315, 316, 
318, 321, 322, 330, 332, 335, 336, 

338, 339 

Condemned men (transported crimi- 
nals), set ashore at the Cape, 191, 
192, 194 

Cooper, Ralph, left at Patani, 115 

Copang. See Coins 

Coppindall, Ralph, assistant merchant 
of the ' Osiander ' (Tenth Voyage), 

327, 332 

Coral, 100 

Coree (Coria or Cory), his defection, 
148, 167, habits, 184; 255, 330 

Corge. See Weights and Measures 

Coromandel, the Coast of (often called 
'the Coast'), goods and trade etc., 
16, 31, 32, 34, 49, 64, 65, 78, 86, 
94, 115, Il6, Il8, II9, 121, 122, 
123, 124, 127, 131, trade hampered 
by Dutch underselling, 269 ; 273, 
274, 278, 293, 308, 323, iron of, 
326 ; 335, 336, 337, 340 

Coss, measure of length, 153, equiva- 
lent in leagues, 177 

Cota Tinga. See Kota Tengah 

Cotton, Ferdinand, deceased, 320 

Cotton, John, deceased, 320 

Courses. See Coss 

Courses sailed, see letters from Blithe- 
man, Boyle, Millward, and Rowe 

Courthope, Nathaniel, once purser of 
the ' Trades Increase ' (Sixth Voy- 
age) and of the ' James ' (Ninth 
Voyage), joint letter to Cozucke, 
28-29, at Sukadana, 38, 79, 94, 309, 
letter to Jourdain, 57-58 

Covad. See Weights and Measures 

Cowl for Masulipatam, cost of, 17, 
for Petapoli, 293 ; of the King of 
Pulicat, 83 

Coyan. See Weights and Measures 

Cozucke, Sophony, a Russian in E. I. C. 's 
service, instructions for mission to 
Landak, 28-29 ; 34, 37, sent to Lan- 
dak, 57, 58, 66, 92, his qualifications, 
272 ; proposal to establish him at 
Banda, 307, 308, confirmed, 314, and 
carried out, 315, 336, 340 

Cradle, William, master of the • Expe- 
dition,' transferred to the 'Dragon,' 
184, 186, 191, 192, 194, his honesty 
in question, 190 
Crawly, John, master's mate (of the 

Eighth Voyage), drowned, 3 
Crispe, Nicholas, 249 
Crofte, Ralph, purser of the ' Osiander ' 
(Tenth Voyage), 290 



Cross on the English flag objected to 
in Japan, 21, 52 

Crowther, or Crouther, John, ap- 
pointed a factor for Agra, 134, de- 
tailed for Persia, 153, 209, 213, 237, 
letter to E.I.C., 239-242 ; 248, 252, 
his joint commission with Steel for 
Persia, 266-268 

Cumberland, 130 

Currents and shoals, 1 12, 1 1 6, 122, 

327, 33L 333. 334 

Curtis, mate of the 'Lion,' transferred 
to the 'Peppercorn,' 192, 194 

Customs (see Anchorage, Banksall, 
and Sombaye,) at Bantam, 14, at 
Jacatra, 276, at Masulipatam, 84, 
86, 87, 89, 294, at Patani, 44, 79, 
112, 123, 129, in Persia, only on ex- 
ports, 147, at Surat, 219, 224, 225, 
250, 258, notes on, 304, Cobb's con- 
tention concerning, 318 

Dabul, 149, 168, 191, 212, 256, 278 
Dache (customs in Persia), 147 
Daie, John, his bad conduct, 55 
Daman besieged by the Mogul, 96, 150, 
168, offered as a bribe to the Dutch, 
171 ; 186, 213, 239, 240, 257, 258 
Damian, 223, 227, 228 
Damone. See Bandar Abbas 
Danda Rajpur (called Gingeere Rash- 

poorie), 149 
Darby, John, 32, 46, 56 
« Darling,' ship of E. I. C. (Sixth Voy- 
age), 14, 16, 28, 37, 38, 44, 55, 56, 
60, 65, 79, 82, 87, 91, 94, 95, 103, 

Il8, 121, 122, 123, I24, 145, 166, 
201, 204, 271, 272, 313, 315, 33I, 

David, Cassarian, 38, 58, 79, 278 
Davis, John, master of the ' James ' 
(Ninth Voyage), 89, report on San- 
gora, 94, complaints as to First 
Voyage, 125, his drinking habits, 280, 
signs report on ships at Bantam, 285 
Davis, John, a native of Guinea, 329 
Dead men's money and effects (see 
Canning and Midnall), 15, 37, 39, 
90, 103, 105, 181, 184, 185, 192, 194 
Deal, 320 

Debasas, Cape, 333 

Deccan, and the Deccanis, enemies of 
the Portuguese, 97, besiege Chaul and 
other places, 168, 257, King of, in 
alliance with the Mogul, 213, 239 

De Cestus. See Sestos river 

Delisha road, 167, 212, 251 

Denmark and Sweden united, 165 

Dennis, master's mate of the ' Darling,' 
65, 126 

Dennys, Samuel, deceased, 34 

Denton, Adam, of the Sixth and Ninth 
Voyages, joint letter to Jourdaiu, 
44-45, another to the same, 49, sent 
to Siam, 44, at Patani, 82, invoice of 
goods left with, 88, letter to E. I. C, 
112-130; 123, letter from Cocks, 
202-204, forwarding instructions, 
206, joins the 'James,' 293 

Denton, Thomas, of Warne Hall, 
Cumberland, 130 

Dergoes, a Dutch ship, 41, 42, 43 

Devonshire kerseys, used in India for 
garments, 180; 300 

Diamonds, Indian, 37, 40, 61, 66, 123, 
278, 309 ; from Landak, 92, 93, 94 ; 
other places, 316, 336 

Dickanes. See Deccan 

Dieackes or Dyockes. See Dyaks 

Diseases : ague, 52, 54, 139 ; fever, 
240, 289 ; flux, 89, 103, 240, 252, 
292 ; flux, bloody, 156, 265 ; God's 
visitation of sickness, 78 ; and see 
167, 288 

Diu, 168 

Dodsworth, Edward, of the Eighth 
Voyage, purser of the ' Hector,' signs 
consultations regarding appointment 
of a resident at Agra, 133, 137, and 
of his own and others' appointments 
as factors, 134, of list of goods for 
England, 135; 139, 158, 176, ab- 
stract of letter to E. I. C, 188-189 ; 
191, signs memorandum on Persiau 
trade, 209, appointed factor for 
Ahmedabad, 214 ; 225, 239, 247, 
joint letter to Oxwicke and others, 
240-250, letter to E. I. C, 250-253 ; 
253, 259, signs commission to Steel 
and Crouther, 268 



Dogs for India, 152, 173, 174 

Dollars. See Coins 

Dono, a Japanese honorific. Cf. Oyen 

Dover roads, 167 

Downs, the, 255 

Downton, Captain Nicholas, formerly 
of the Sixth Voyage, now of the first 
recorded Joint Stock Voyage, in- 
structions to ships for keeping com- 
pany at sea, 23-25, signs consulta- 
tions at Surat, 132, 133, 134, 135 ; 
his fame and repute, 139 ; 148, 149, 
156, 158, letters to E. I. C, 167-177, 
postscript to, 177, memorandum of 
things desired for the Mogul, 173- 
174, letter to Sir T. Smith, 174-177 ; 
letter from Keridge, 178-182, ab- 
stract of, 192, alluded to, 195 ; letter 
to Steel, 182, commendation of 
Young, 183, abstract of letter reprov- 
ing Edwards, 185 ; signs consultation 
on Persian trade, 20S-209 ; letter to 
Sherley on this subject, 209-211 ; 
at Surat, 213 ; 226, 229, 239, 240, 
242, at Swally, 247, 248, 296 ; 250, 
257, 258, 262, at Surat, 297, defeats 
the Portuguese off Swally, 302, 303, 
304, letters of, referred to, 305 ; 323, 
325, 326, 328, his letters left at the 
Cape of Good Hope, 330, 334 ; 335, 


Doy Island. See Pulo Doei 

' Dragon ' ship of E. I. C. (Third and 
Tenth Voyages), 147, 148, 184, 185, 
190, 192, 194, 196, 255, 277, 279, 
289, 292, 300 

Drinkwater. See Berghen, Warner Van 

Driver, Thomas, at Kiang-mai, 118 

Droit, George, a Portuguese, 18, 21, 
22, 23, 25, 29, 47,71, 72 

Ducats. See Coins 

Duncan passage, 116 

Dutch (see Adams, Antheunis, Berghen, 
Brower, Butt, Essington, Floris, 
Hautman, Sandford, Speck, Tuning, 
etc.), at Bachan, 1 ; at Banda, wars 
with natives, 36, 55, 77, 270, 315, 
322 ; in Bangkok, 113, at Bantam, 
enemies of English trade, 15, 16, 
Y 1268. 

49, their General arrives, 86; 118, 
120, 276, short of money, 337, 340 : 
at Cambello, Ilitto, Lugho, etc. , 273, 
3°7» 336, on the Coast of Coroman- 
del, 64 ; in Cochin China, 197-198, 
in India, at Masulipatam, 43, rent 
paid by, 86 ; 154, 294, at Narsapur, 
116, at Sukadana, 37, 66, are 
promised Daman as a bribe, 171, on 
the coast of India, 264, at Jacatra, 
39, 276, in Japan, 3, 4, 7, 10, 11, 
12, 22, 31, 50, 51, 62, 68, 71, 75, 
76, their building at Firando, 200, 
201, ships in, 223, 224, in Java, 49, 
at Lambasson, 56, 77, at Longoe, 
45, Lugho, etc., 272, 273, 307, 322, 
336, at Macassar, 33, 34, 35, 46, at 
Makjan, 2, at Manilla, 78, in the 
Moluccas, 1, 2, 68, 71, 76, 77, So ; 
at Patani, 71, 75, 76, 80, interest 
paid by, 87; 112, 113, 114, 123, 
128, buy up all goods, 271, at Peta- 
poli, 85, in the Philippines, 68, at 
Pulicat, 83, 84, at Sambas, 66, at 
Sangora, 39 ; 125, 126, 129, 144, 
145, Adams' undue friendship for, 
6, 25, ' castles ' to be avoided, 340, 
Chinese view of, 277, cloth packed 
in lead, 3, superior to English, 3, 7, 
delinquencies in Cochin China and 
results, 197, eager for Persian trade, 
99, enemies of the Portuguese, 97, 
proposals for a * modus vivendi ' 
with the English E. I. C. , 86, ob- 
jected to, 125, 144, factors in English 
employ (see Antheunis, Floris and 
Tuning) objected to, 69, flag, the, in 
Japan, 21, 22, letter, a, 158, mails to 
Japan, 311, the General of, his ships 
145, then news, 165, their immense 
trade, 145, and others massacred in 
Cochin China, 68, 74, 75, 76, 197, 
198, to be kept out of Persia, 261, 
robberies of Chinese junks, 199, 
ships (see 'Dergoes,' 'Greyhound,' 
' Old Zealand,' ' Red Lion with the 
Pile,' 'Rotterdam,' ' Seilan ' and 
'Zelandea'), 14, 60, 115, 116, 319, 
327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 3 3 3 , 
334, a yacht, 121, expected, 127, 223, 
A A 



224, 271, and Spaniards, their wars 
in the Moluccas, 166, superior sea- 
manship of, 64, use of brokers, 69, 
underselling, 144, 164, 198, 203, 
269, 271, these tactics to be adopted 
by the English, 308 ; their keenness, 

323 ; 309. 3'6 

Duzak Skidoyemon Dono, 47, 51, 53 
Dyaks, 57, their head-hunting, 92, 93 

East India Company, advice humbly 
proffered to, 261, 263, 265, and the 
appointment of a resident at Agra, 
(see Canning a nd Edwards), 131, 132, 
»33» 136, 137. 138, 139; business 
principles of, 5, 6, 7, 8, 69 ; and 
Campayo, 34, 35 ; captains' au- 
thority, merchants' view, 65, S2, 83, 
118, 124, 192, 289, 302, 310, 311, 
312, 313, captains' view, 7, 174-176, 
184 ; and the proposed arrangement 
with the Dutch East India Company, 
86, 125, 144, a good 'husband' 
wanted, 265, letter from Aldworth 
and Biddulph, 96-101, from Aid- 
worth to Floris, sent by Floris, 101- 
102, from Aldworth 247-249 ; from 
Blitheman (to Sir T. Smith), 328- 
333 ; from Brockedon (to Sir T. 
Smith), 63-65 ; copies of Canning's 
letters referred to, 1 36 ; letters from 
Chauncey, 292-295, 302 ; letter from 
Crouther, 239-242 ; letter from 
Cocks on the Cochin China disaster 
&c, 196-202 ; from Denton on the 
Siam expedition, 1 12-130 ; letters 
from Downton on the voyage of the 
'New Year's Gift' and Indian busi- 
ness, 167-174, on Indian business, 
174-177 ; from Edwards, on Indian 
business, 148-156, 245-246; from 
Farie, 77-80 ; statement by Floris 
per merchants of the 'James,' 17; 
letter from Gourney, 80-87, 88-91 ; 
from Herode, 91-95 ; letters from 
Jourdain, 14-16, 312-319 ; letter 
(partly in cipher) from Jourdain and 
Ball on the Dutch trade in the Indies, 
144-145 ; letter from Jourdain and 

others on the 'Concord,' 268-280; 
from Keridge, on Indian business, 
103-109, no-Ill, 297, 301 ; from 
David Middleton, 321-323 ; from 
Millward, 324-326 ; from Mitford, 
236-238 ; from Nicholls on affairs 
at Tecoo, 287-292 ; from Peacock, 
1-4 ; from Preston, 254-265 ; from 
Rowe, 333-335 ; from Sandcroftc on 
Indian affairs, 212-214, 214-215 ; 
from Westby, 335-339 ; from Yates 
(to the Deputy Governor), 319-320 ; 
collections from letters from Surat 
and Bantam per ' Hope,' 182-194 

East India Company's Ships and Junks 
(see ' Clove,' 'Concord,' 'Darling,' 
' Dragon ' (properly ' Red Dragon '), 
' Expedition,' ' Globe,' ' God's Gift,' 
'Hector,' ' Hope ' (properly 'Mer- 
chant's Hope'), 'James,' 'Lion,' 
'New Year's Gift,' 'Osiander' (or 
' Hoseander'), 'Patience,' 'Pepper- 
corn,' ' Rose,' ' Samaritan,' ' Sea 
Adventure,' 'Solomon,' 'Speed- 
well,' 'Thomas,' ' Thomasine, ' an J 
'Trades Increase'), 74, 125, 137, 270 

Eastern commodities for England, 1, 
2, 5. 41. 49, 5°. 59. "7. "9. 120, 
136, 156, 159, 172, 180, 188, 205, 
213, 231, 240, 247, 248, 249, 250, 
251, 253, 254, 259, 260, 263, 269, 
270, 271, 273, 274, 277, 282, 286, 
316, 319, 336 ; for other parts of the 
East, 5, 40, 67, 203, 231, 233, 238, 
256, 259, 273, 275, 276, 279, 281, 
283, 305, 306, 307, 308, 311, 312, 

3»3. 3'4, 315. 323. 337, 338, 340 
Eaton, William, of the Eighth Voyage, 
left in Japan with Cocks, 5, his 
wages, 8, sent to Osaka, 12, 21, 23, 
letters to Wickham, 20, 25-26, 29- 
30, 30-31, referred to, 26, 27, fur- 
ther letters, 48, 50-51, 62-63, 74 - 
75, letter to Cocks, 139-140, another, 
143, his advices referred to, 53 ; 67, 
68, 69, 75, 222 
Ebert or Ebrett, William, left at 
Patani, 115, 125, 201, a present to, 
203 ; 204, 205 
Edo, Edoo, or Edow. See Jeddo. 



Edwards, William, of the first recorded 
Joint Stock Voyage, signs consulta- 
tions at Surat, 132, 133, 134, 135, 
chosen for resident at Agra, 133, 
134, 136, 193, 214, 236, 240, 247, 
251, 297, as representing James I., 
137, Keridge's letter on the appoint- 
ment, 138-139 ; letter to E. I. C. on 
the voyage and appointment, 148- 
156, abstract thereof referred to, 187, 
another letter to E. I. C, 243-246 ; 
his 'civil conversation,' 157; 158, 
169, 172, goes to Agra, 176, 188, 
218, 241, 247, 262 ; 177, 182, 183, 
letter of reproof from Downton, 
185, letter of friendly advice 
from Keridge, 195-196 ; signs 
memorandum on Persian trade, 
209, and Steel's commission for the 
same, 268 ; sees the Viceroy, 213, 
is well received, 219 ; 220, 226, 
229 ; 248 ; joint letter to Oxwicke 
and others, 249-250 ; 254, 258, 266, 
Eighth Voyage (see Saris, General, 
ships 'Clove,' 'Hector,' and 
' Thomas,' etc.), its great cost, 7, the 
Siam venture, 204, 205, 235 
Elephants, clothing for, 97 ; 108, 141 
Elephant's teeth, or ivory, 58, 100, 
151, 181, 197, 199, 200, 218, 248, 
260, 263, 264, 329 
Elizabeth, daughter of James I., marries 

the Elector Palatine, 165 
Elkington, Humphrey, appointed fac- 
tor for Cambaya, 134, 214, 241 
Elkington, Thomas, signs consulta- 
tions at Surat, 132, 133, 134, 135, 
137 ; 156, letter to E. I. C. referred 
to, 192, signs consultation on Per- 
sian trade, 209, letters to Oxwicke, 
218, 219-220, 225-226, 232, to 
Oxwicke and Farewell, 228-229, 
253-254; 240, at Surat, 241, letter 
from Oxwicke, 283-284, further 
letters to Oxwicke, 295-296, 302- 

3°3» 303-304, 305-306, 3"-3l 2 
Elmore, Henry, appointed factor for 
Surat, Ahmedabad, etc., 134, left at 
Ahmedabad, 214 

Emsworth, Nicholas, appointed a fac- 
tor for Surat, &c, 134, his death, 
J 56, 213, 236, and illness, 240, 248, 
an edifying end, 264, 265, his 
character, 252 
England, 11, 41, 42, 43, 56, 60, 68, 
81, 104, 107, 108, 109, 120, 122, 
131, appreciation of Indian trade, 
I33» SQ ips for, 134, goods for, 135, 
136, 152, 154, 183, 194, 199, 200, 
211, 212, 214, 221, 237, 241, 244, 
245, 249, 250, 253, 255, 259, 266, 
267, 268, ships from, 270, 275, 278, 
282, vessels sent back to, 284, 285, 
290, 300, 301, 308, 316, 317, ships 
from, 318 ; 320, 321, 323, 324, 327, 
328, 329, 332, 334, 335, 338, 339 
English coach and coachman desired 
for the Mogul, 152 ; flag objected to 
in Japan, 21, 22, 52 ; honesty to be 
maintained, 286 ; in India, 97, 104, 
mortality amongst, 99, 107 ; lan- 
guage, 106 ; in Dutch employ, 83 ; 
in the Moluccas, 49 ; in Persia, 
letter to, 266 ; at Patani, 99, 114 ; 
preferred to Dutch, at Amboyna, 
270, Banda, 35, Longoe, etc., 45, 
Lugho, 272, 307, 315, 322 ; to 
Portuguese in India, 96, 246 ; at 
Priaman, in danger, 165 ; at Pulicat, 
85 ; ships, at Boeton, 36, wanted at 
Macassar, 77, forecastles of, 78; 16, 
152, 165, 166, 217; in Tecoo, 2S9 ; 
trade with China, opening sought, 
199 ; with the people of Lugho, etc., 


Equator, the, 122, 212, 329, 333 

Erzedach, 178 

Espahaune. See Ispahan. 

Essington, Thomas, Captain of the 
'Globe' (Seventh Voyage) after the 
death of Hippon, joint letter to Aid- 
worth (missing), 19, his death, 41, 
59, 102, 293, succeeds Hippon, 112, 
delays men's pay, 129 

Ethiopia, 221 

European news arrives at Surat, 165 

' Expedition, ' ship of E. I. C. (Twelfth 
Voyage), 14, 16, 106, 108, 118, 122, 
148, 185, 190, 192, 194, 279, 287, 315 
A A Z 



Faccatay or Focaty. See Fukuoka 
Factories, existing or proposed : Agra, 
182, Amboyna, 322, Banda, 307, 
308, 315, 322, Bantam, 15, 16, 275, 
276, 317, 326, 335, 338, China, 323, 
Gressik, 277, 340, Jacatra, 276, 
Japan (see Firando), 45, 46, 323, 
Japara, 277, 340, Landak, 28, 92, 
Macassar, 33, 34, 45. 4». 3 o6 » 3'4» 
322, Moluccas (see Banda, Lugho, 
Timor, etc), I, 12, Patani, 32, 112, 
123, 326, 338, Sambas, 66, 92, 123, 
Siam, 82, 113, 325, 338, Sukadana, 
66, 123, 278, Sungora, 125, Surat 
(see that heading), Tecoo, 287, 288, 
Timor, 27S, 340, elsewhere, 85, 
308, needs of, 82, 83, 277, 326, 
numerous and increasing, 238, small 
ships in connection with, 45, 81, 278, 
Factors (see also Private Trading 
and Wages), bad correspondents, 
12, 33, 68, 69, 166, 204, behaviour 
desirable in, see Cocks to Wick- 
ham, 10-13, 196, dissensions among, 
60, 90, inconveniences of their 
position, 82, 83, n 8, 124, 125, 
126, 275, 289, mortality amongst, at 
Bantam, 326, 328, 335, lessened, 
338, qualifications for, 6, 7, 86, 
and allowances for, 176, 196, 265, 
277, 326, slothfulness of some, 14, 


Farewell, Christopher, appointed a 
factor for Cambaya, 134, sent to 
Broach, 219, where he remains, 231, 
going away, 283, and returning, 284, 
296, 305, 321, letter (to him and 
others) from Aldworth, 2S6-287, 
similar letter from Edwards and 
others, 249-250, letters to him and 
Oxwicke from Elkington, 228-229, 
253-254, letter presumably from 
Mitford, 232-233 

Farie or Fary, Benjamin, merchant of 
the ' Darling ' (Sixth Voyage), 33, 38, 
46, letter to Jourdain, 54-56 ; 57, 
122, 123, endangered by Marlowe, 

Fette Mamood, 140 

Fettiplacc, Francis, appointed a factor 
for Agra, 134, 214, 241 

Fever, 240, 289 

Fidaia Same, son of Ticus Same, his 
revolt, 201, 202, 221, favourable re- 
ception of Eaton, 222 

Finch, William, agent for Gourncy, 91 

Firando, the English residence in Japan, 

3, 4, 9, IO, 12, l8, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26, 

27. 3°. 3' 1 46, 47. 48, 5°. 5'. com- 
petition at, 52, 53 ; 62, 67, 70, 71, 74, 
Dutch ships at, 75, 76, demand for 
gunpowder at, 139; 196, 200, 201, 
202, goods suited to, 203 ; 204, 207, 
215, 216, 217, 220, 222, 223, 227, 
228, 230, 233, 235, 323, 325 

Firman (sec also Cowl) restricting trade 
of Pulicat to the Dutch, 83 

Firmans of the Mogul, 104, 133, 138, 
157. 158, 178. 179. 182, 240, 299, 
300, 301 

First Voyage (1601). Set Lancaster, 
General, and Middleton, John 

First recorded Joint Stock Voyage 
(stt Downton, General, Dodsworth, 
ships 'Hector,' 'Merchant's Hope,' 
'New Year's Gift,' 'Solomon,' 
etc.), 125, 139, 193, 194, 272 

Flemings or I lollanders. See Dutch 

Flemish cloth superior to English, 

3. 7 

Fletcher, John, kinsman and agent of 
Farie, 79 

Flood, , chief man on board the 

' Concord,' dies, 268, 269 

Floris, Peter Williamson, cape mer- 
chant of the ' Globe ' (Seventh Voy- 
age), a Dutchman in E. I. C. 's employ, 
his statement regarding disburse- 
ments, 17, joint letter to Aldworth 
(missing), 19, another to the same, 
164-166, letter from him alone to the 
same, 59-61 ; letter from Aldworth, 
sent to E.I.C., 101, 102, joint letter 
to Jourdain, 40-43, other letters re- 
ferred to, 117, 145, 272, at Petapoli, 
80; 83, at Patani, 112, his patience, 
114, 115; Il6, 117, 121, 122, 125, 
129, his journeyings, 247 ; 279, and 
Christian, 290 ; 293, 294, 295, his fair 



dealing, 316, 317; 324, 325, 326, 

goes home, 341 
Flax, the. See Diseases. 
Folliott, Sir Henry, his kindness, 189 
Food, complaints of, 176, 187, 320 
Foreigners in E. I. C.'s employ (see 

Antheunis, Cozucke, Floris and 

Tuning), 189 
Foxcroft, George, 130 
Foyne Same, the old King of Firando, 

17, 20, 21, his illness, 52, and death, 

Frangueis' goods, transport of, for- 
bidden by Mogul, 298, 299 
Frankfort, stone or plaster figures of 

animals from, 174 
Frederick V., Elector Palatine. See 

Heidelberch, the Prince Elector of 
Free trade at Surat, 157, and elsewhere, 

French pictures on cloth, 174 
Frenchman, a, executor to Midnall, in 

Ajmir, 98, 105, 106, his elephant, 

141 ; 158, 299, 300 
Fuego or Fogo or Javea Island, 234, 


Fukuoka, 22, 47 

Fursland, Richard, his account, 147 

Fusto, 146, passim 

Gajera (Gagara), 228 

Gambia, coast of, 333 

Gambling, dangers of, 1 1, 56 

Garter, the order of the, given to Prince 
Maurice, 165 

Gelbege. Ses Killybegg 

Gembuzar. See Jambusar 

Geme (measure of distance), 177 

Gens (coins of Japan), 76 

Gentiles, or Indians, 84, 85, their sub- 
tlety, 86 

Gentlemen passengers objected to, 190 

George, a Caffro, 228 

' Gift,' the. See ' New Year's Gift ' 

Gingeere Rashpoorie. See Danda 
Raj pur 

Gipps, Robert, cape merchant of the 
1 Peppercorn,' his disputes with 
Harris, 184, 185, the reason of, 190, 

letter toE. I. C., 192, peace restored, 
•Globe,' ship of the E. I. C. (Seventh 
Voyage), 17, 19, 39, 41, 42, 43, 49, 
80, 83, 86, 114, 116, 117, 119, 120, 

121, 122, 123, I25, 128, I2g, I45, 

164, 193, 249, 272, 279, 280, 282, 
285, 290, 292, 293, 294, 295, 312, 
313, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 

322, 324, 325, 327, 328, 332, 334, 

335. 336, 337. 338 

Glover, Sir Thomas, Ambassador to 
Turkey, 261 

Goa, 155,213, 259, 264, the Viceroy of 
(Don Jeronimo de Azevedo), 43, 107, 
169, 296, his letter to Mukarrab Khan 
referred to, 186, 298, 305, is defeated 
by Downton, 302, 303 

• God's Gift,' the, a junk of E. I. C., 32, 

33. 46, 56 
Goga burnt by the Portuguese, 155, 

229, 261, 264 
Gogerats. See Guzerats 
Gold, 40, 92, 94, 273, 309, 314, 322, 

323. 325. 338, 340 

Good Hope, Cape of (see also Saldama), 
1, 146, sailing directions for, re- 
ferred to, 183, 190, 194, pillar set up 
at, 184; 185, supposed discovery of 
vermilion and quicksilver at, 191 ; 
212, 221, 285, 319, 324, 329, in- 
scription and letters at, 330, 334 ; 331 

Gore, John, 265 

Gore, Ralph, 265 

Gore, Robert, 265 

Gore, William, 265 

Gourney, Ann, sister of John, 91 

Gourney, John, cape merchant of the 
'James' (Ninth Voyage), 17, joint 
letter to Jourdain, 44"45> J omt re " 
membrance for Jourdain and Cobb, 
49, his favourite wares, 59, the 
trouble with Marlowe, 65, 118, 124, 
126, letter to E. I. C. on the hin- 
drances to trade, 81-S7 ; 121, goes 
to Siam, 123, 205, 206, his error, 
269 ; 272, 273, setded at Masuli- 
patam, 293 

Gourney, Thomas, brother and agent of 
the above, 91 



Gracia, or Gratia. See Gressik 

Great Mogul. See Mogul, the Great 

Great Nicobar Island, 115 

Greenwell, William, Deputy Governor 
of E. I. C, 172, letter from his ser- 
vant, John Yates, 319-320 

Greete or Greet, Hugh, at Sukadana, 
signs letter to Cozucke on expedition 
to Landak, 28-29 ; urges on the 
matter, 57 

Gressik, 34, factory desirable at, 277, 
309; 3i8, 336, 337, 338, 340 

» Greyhound,' the, a Dutch ship, 35 

Guinea coast, its natives, 285, 287, 
wares of and for, 329, 333 

Guzano, Pedro, Jesuit priest, spreads 
reports of Adams' death, 21, 23, 26, 

Guzerat, a, his bills, 44 

Guzerat, English trade with, 16, goods 
of, 31, 77, 78, 273, 275, are not 
vendible in Bantam, 314, king of, his 
city, 238, merchants of, at Bantam, 
87, enemies of the Portuguese, 97, 
of merchants in Surat, 186, pilots 
of, on the true position of J ask, 170, 

Gwalter, , 72 

Hadgeeozan, Hogenozan, or Hogie- 
nozan. See Khoja Nassam 

Hall, Paul, factor of the James, 90 

Hamden. See Holmedon 

Hans, Hans de, 45 

Ilarnando. See Ximenes 

Harris, Captain of the ' Peppercorn,' 
his quarrel with Barwick and Gipps, 
184, 185, its cause, 190, Gipps' ver- 
sion, 192, the dispute settled, 194 

Harwood, L., master of 'Darling' 
(Sixth Voyage), 122 

Haste. See Weights and Measures 

Hautman, Martin, a Dutch merchant, 

Hawkins, Giles, of the ' Concord,' 
dies, 268 

Hawkins, Captain Nicholas, cape mer- 
chant of the • Osiander ' (Tenth 
Voyage), on her voyage to Japan, 

dissentions between him and Rowe, 
319, his assistants, 327, 332, 338 

Hawkins, Captain William, of the 
'Hector' (Third Voyage), his al- 
leged servant, 61, and Mukarrab 
Khan, 104, his death, 109, his widow's 
marriage toTowerson, 210 

Hawks, John, of the ' Darling ' (Sixth 
Voyage), death of, 89 

' Hector,' E. I. C.'s ship, 23, 148, 151, 
156, 194, 212, 245, 248, 255, 286, 
292, 296, 304 

Heidelberch {i.e. Heidelberg), the 
Prince Elector married to Elizabeth, 
daughter of James I., 165 

Henry, Prince of Wales, his death, 165 

Ilerode, Thomas, master's mate of the 
'Darling,' letter to Sir Thomas 
Smith on the Landak expedition, 

Higgonsor Higons, William, dies, 184, 

Hippon, Captain Anthony, of the 
' Globe' (Seventh Voyage), dies, 112; 
285, 290 

Hisphaon. See Ispahan 

Hitto, Dutch factory at, 307, the ' Cap- 
tain 'of, 310; 336 

Hobgoblin, the, and John Japan, 230 

Holland, 165 

Hollanders. See Dutch. 

Holmedon, Edward, appointed factor 
for Ahmedabad, 1 34, abstract of his 
letter to E. I. C, asking for increased 
pay, 183 ; goes to Cambaya, 183, 
241, 249 

1 Hope,' ship of E. I. C. , 103, 148, 178, 
182, 184, 186, 188, 189, 193, 194, 
212, 255, 297, 303, 304, 305 

Hopkins, , attacks Larkin, 126 

Hunt, Edward, 100 

Hunt, John, master of the ' Osiander ' 
(Tenth Voyage), 332 

Hunte, Richard, factor for Banda, 307, 

Ikshiu, hot baths of, 52, 54 
India, 148, 188, cloth for, 107, 120, 287, 
bad sale of, results, 169, dwindling 



of Portuguese trade, 169, goods 

of, not vendible in Japan, 50, 62, 

trade with Persia, 105 
Indian Princes and the Portuguese, 169 
Indrapura, 291 

Indus, the, 155, a fair river, 171 
Industans, the (Hindoos), 275 
Invoices of goods left in Japan, 13, sent 

to Siam, 207 
Ireland, 182, 188, 189, 209, 210 
Ironmonger Lane (London), 130 
Ispahan, 105, 146, 153, 154, 237, 252, 

266, 267, 268, 299 
Italians in Agra, 143 
Ivory. See Elephant's Teeth. 
Iyeasu. See Japan, Emperor of 

Jacatra, 39, 81, 82, 118, 119, 120, 
121, 125, the King and the English 
factory at, 276 

Jackson, his account, 147 

Jadow, broker and interpreter, 138, 
and Sherley, 141, in prison for 
cheating, 142, and Midnall's goods, 

Jalver. See Jhalra Patan 

Jambusar, 228, 253, 281, 304, 305 

Jamby, 127 

James L, King of England, his letter 
needed for Vellore, 83, his letter to 
the Great Mogul, 103, 104, 108, and 
present, 138, 178, slighted, 179, his 
letter to the Queen of Patani, 1 1 3, 
and to the King of Siam, 113, letter 
to, from the King of Achin, 147, his 
commission, 149, 175, his letter 
well received in Quinham, 197, 
a letter desired for the Emperor 
of China, 199, Edwards sent to 
the Mogul as his representative, 137, 
with presents, 138 ; 131, 211, 294 

'James,' a ship of E. I. C, 17, 38, 39, 
40, 42, 44, 49, 67, 79, 80, 81, 82, 
83, 87, 88, 89, 91, 94, a man of, 
murdered, 95; 100, 112, 116, 117, 
118, 119, 120, 121, 124, 127, 128, 
129, 145, 160, 247, 264, 269, 270, 
271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 280, 284, 
285, 287, 289, 290, 292, 293, 294, 

302, 312, 313, 316, 318, 319, 321, 

325. 327 
Jamgama. See Kiangmai 
Jantana Point, 115 

Japan, banishment of missionaries 
from, 19, 20, 21, 27, 201, 221, do- 
mestic manners of, 10, II, 18, 20, 23, 
72, 73. 204, the Dutch in, 3, 52, 53, 
54, 68, 69, 70, 75, 76, 113, 127, 197, 
198, 200, 223, Cocks left cape mer- 
chant in, 4, Saris' s letter on trade in, 
4-9 ; 221, 222, 223, second expe- 
dition to, planned, 81, 319, 323, 327, 
332, 335. 338, 339. E. I.C.'s trade 
with, 50, 51, 52, 53, plate of, 
206, 208, price of China silk in, 
128, risks of fire in, 10, 15, 47, 51, 
200, Siamese wares for, 81, 119, 205, 
trade in, 70, 71, 143, 198, 199, 200, 
202, 203, 227, 231, 315, troubles ex- 
pected in, 26, 201, 202, 221 

Japan, Emperor of (Ogashama or 
Iyeasu), 3, his license to trade, 3, 6, 
7, his purchases and payments, 9, 
10, 12, 30, 47, 198, 199, prohibits 
tobacco, 20, effect on China of his 
admission of the English, 199, in- 
terest in the North-West passage, 
200, 221, banishes all Roman Catho- 
lics, 201, 202, 221, late emperor's 
attempt on Pekin frustrated, 202, 
loss of Korea, 202 

Japan, John, 47, 227, and the hob- 
goblin, 230 

Japanese almanac referred to, 222, bad 
credit of, 10, II, clothing, 198, 228, 
document, 216, goods for England, 
5, 199, 206, language, 200, 235, 
letter of Cocks to Adams and Wick- 
ham, 9-10, noblemen build a castle, 
53, sailors, 233, 234, slain in Cochin 
China, 68, at Patani, 113 

Japara, factory desired at, 277, 340 

Jasques, port in Persia, 98, 145, 146, 
153. 169, 170, 171, 177, 193, 210, 
211, 237, 24I, 242, 252, 267 

Java and the Javanese : and the Dutch, 
7, 15, 32S, wares for Bantam, 49, 
119, trade in and with, 84, 209, 278, 
(people) 279, 3!7, 332, 335, 336, 



338, harbours and bays, 331, 334, 
junks, 336, 337 

Javea {called also Fogo or Fucgo) 
Island, 234, 319 

Jehangir. See Mogul, the Great 

Jeddo (Edo or Yedo), 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 
17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26, 29, 30, 
46, 48, 51, 52, English goods at, 
53 5 62, 67, 74, 75, 76, 204 

Jengulie, 253 

Jesuits, banished with other Roman 
Catholics from Japan, 19, 20, 21, 
201, 202, 221 ; in India, 105, 106, 
their churches closed, 107, 141, act 
adversely to the English, 108, and 
hinder Canning's mission, 131, 
friendly with Sherley, 141, an 
Italian, left at Agra, 143, at Surat, 
imprisoned, 150, 298, relations with 
Mukarrab Khan, 1S6, 259, at Agra, 

Jewels (see Rubies) wanted for Indian 
trade, 301 

Jhalra Patan, 196 

John, Mr. Oxwicke's lad, 231 

John de Nova, 251 

Johnson, , draper of Watling 

Street, 265 

Johnson, France, dies, 185 

Johnson, John, of the Tenth Voyage, 
left at Patani, 44, 82, 88, a wise and 
ancient man, 115, in the 'Darling,' 
121, 122, 123 

Johore, or Jor, trade with Macassar, 

31, 127, gold, 40 
Joint Stock Voyages, accounts of, 193, 

instructions for required, 269 ; 271, 

273, 280, 313, 316, 317, 325, 335, 

Jonckseylon, 128 
Jones, , deceased at Bantam, 122, 


Joosen. See Yousen 

Jourdain, John, cape merchant in 
Bantam, letters to E. I. C. from 
Bantam, 14-16, 312-319; letters re- 
ceived by, from Cockayne, 31-38, 
45-46, from Welden, 35, 36, from 
Larkin, 37-38, 38-40, from Floris 
and Chauncey, 40-43, from Gourney 

and others, 44-45, another, 49, 
joint letter to E. I. C, partly in 
cipher, 144-145 ; another in ordi- 
nary script, 268-279, his ' remem- 
brance ' for George Ball, 306-311, 
letter to the same, 339-340 ; 34, 45, 
4 6 > 77. 79. 81, 87, 118, 119, differ- 
ence with Denton, 120; 121, 124, 
Marlowe's alleged plots with, 124 ; 
128, his opinion of Cobb, 159, 160, 
161 -162, 201, 203, 206, signs report 
on the ' James ' and ' Osiander, ' 285 ; 
3 2 4, 328, 336 

Katafing. Set Kota Tengah 

Keeling, General William, his rules as 
to dead men's goods, 184, 185, 192, 
at Saldania, 1S9, abstract of letter to 
E. I. C. commenting on the voyage, 
1 89-191, commended by Arthington, 

Keicho, 9 

Kelly, Francis, of the 'God's Gift,' 32, 
33. 46, 57. 78 

Kemas, the Shabunder of Bantam, 318 

Keridge, Thomas, of the Tenth Voyage, 
at Agra, 100, appointed factor, 134, 
not well received by the Mogul, 244, 
252, 257, at Ajmir, 99, and Canning's 
accounts, 194, 257, instructions to 
■\\ithington, 140, 141, and Jadow, 
142, letter to Aldworth and Biddulph, 
156-159, letter to Downton referred 
to, 192, letters to E. I. C. , 103-109, 
297-301, one quoted, 185, 191, letter 
to Edwards, 195-196, to Sir Thomas 
Smith, iio-iii, letter from Aid- 
worth, 137-139 

Kerimon (a Japanese garment), 198, 

Kewee (see Kewe in Vol. I.), 297, his 
villainy, 340 

Khoja (or Kwajah) Jehan, broker to 
the English, and Jadow's cheating, 

Khoja Nassam or Nazan (called Coja 
Nassan), 130, his covetousness, 138, 
sub-governor of Surat, 150; 239, 



Khurram, Sultan, son of the Great 

Mogul, 104 
Kiang-mai [called Jangama), 82, 113, 

Killybegg Harbour, Ireland, 188 
King, Captain Samuel, an Englishman 

in Dutch employ, S3 
King, Thomas, his bonded goods, 224 
King's commission (James I.), 149, 


Kintal. See Weights and Measures 

Kintlage, 190 

Korea, 17, 22, mode of travelling in, 

201, wares of, 201, how lost to the 

Japanese, 202 
Kota Tengah (Cota Tinga), 291, 322, 

323, discovered as a market, 328 
Koyngero. See Chongro 

Lahore, 105, i7i,indigoof, 194, 260; 

Lahori Bandar {called Laurebander 

and Bunder Laree), port of Sind, 

106, 172 
Lakmana, and the customs at Patani, 

Lambasson, Dutch factory at, 56, 77 
Lambin, Lankin or Lannkyn. See 

Lancaster, Sir James, 126 
Landak, factory desired at, 28, 92, 93, 

expedition to, 57, 92, 93 ; 65, river, 

soundings, 67, charted, 95, precious 

wares of, 92, 94, way of obtaining 

trade, 95 
Lane, Richard, factor in Tecoo, 288 
Langasacka, Langasake or Langasa- 

que. See Nangasaki 
Laugjan. See Luang Prabang 
Langley, Edward, deceased at Bantam, 

his effects, 14, 37, and irregularities, 


Larin. See Coins 

Larkin, Richard, Captain of the ' Dar- 
ling,' signs instructions to Cozucke 
on Landak expedition, 29, letter to 
Jourdain from Sukadana, 37-38, an- 
other to the same from Patani, 38- 

40, loan from, to the ' James,' 44, 
87, 124, 317, letter referred to, 46, 
at Sukadana, 55, 79, 121, and Cam- 
P a yo, 55> g° es to Patani, 55, 56, 77, 
122, 123, despatches expedition to 
Landak, 57, sends river-soundings, 
67, nearly killed by reason of Mar- 
lowe's ill discipline, 65, letter to Sir 
Thomas Smith on business, espe- 
cially at Sukadana, and Landak, 65- 
67 ; 82, goes to Siam, 123, 272, 278, 
Lassidy, wars of, 45, an open port, 272, 

cloves of, 307 
Laskar or Leskar (a camp), 142, 158 
Lead, its use in packing cloth, 3, 


Leat, Nicholas, and Midnall, 153, 169, 

Lemon juice supplied to the crews, 

Lequeo Grande. See Okinawasima 
Lequeo Islands. See Liu-Kiu Islands 
Liberia, 319 

Lieger, the, for Agra. See Edwards 
Lingana, 85 

Lingga (called Pulo Pon Lingua), 122 
'Lion,' the, E. I. C.'s ship, 191, 192, 

Little Andaman (called Citra Anda- 
man), 115 
Littlewood, Robert, purser, left at 

Patani, 115 
Liu-Kiu Islands (called Amami Oosima 

or Oxima, also Lequeo), 233, 234, 

the inhabitants of, 235 
Lizard, the, 333 
Lock, Thomas, merchant, 60 
London, 40, 174, 221, city and suburbs 

compared with Ahmedabad, 238 
Longoe, wares of, 45 
Lorenco, goods for, 29 
Low Countries, 164, 165 
Luang Prabang (called Langjan), S2, 

Lucas. See Antheunis 
Lucipara, 122 
Lugho, chief of, favourable to English, 

272, 273, English preferred at, to 

Dutch, 307 j 336 



Macao, 76, 128, 201, 202, 203, banished 
Jusuits at, 221 

Macassar, trade of and at, 31, 35, 39, 
45> 56, 77, 78, hindrances, 127, 
ships, 33, risks of fire, 34, factory, 
for, planned, 34, exchange at, 37, 
port dues, 39, Dutch at, 54 ; 55, 57, 
66, 79, 92, 94, 117, 121, great hopes 
of trade at, 270, 272, 294, 302, 
establishment of factory, 306, 307, 
308, 309, Portuguese merchant in, 

309 ; 310. 314. 322, 336 

Macassar, the King of, his ship, 32, 
gift of timber, 34, 45, 46, and Cam- 

Payo, 35 ; 55. 78 

Macaur. See Macao 

Madagascar (called St Lawrence), 148, 
167, 212, 250, 255 

Madins. See Coins 

Mainwaring, Captain, pardoned, 189 

Makjan Island, 1, trade offered to Eng- 
lish, 2 

Malacca, 78, 115, 127 

Malacca, Straits of, 14 

Malay junks at Boeton, 33, wares for 
Bantam, 49, language, 272, cloth, 88 

Malicktosuer, 61 

Mallocees. See Moluccas 

Mallory, Timothy, appointed factor for 
Surat, etc., 134 

Mamond, Solomon, 312 

Mamoodies. See Coins 

Mandarins, 113 

Manilla. See Philippines 

Manoembing hill (called Manopine), 

Maria, 18, 20 

Marieco, Dutch at, 2 

Marlowe, Captain Edmund, of the 
Ninth Voyage, ship 'James,' 39, 
40, 49, his good deeds, 95, his mis- 
conduct and its consequences, 64, 65, 
89, 90, 91, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119, 
123, 124, 125, 126, 129, 271, 274, 
275, 280, 312, 316 ; 279, 287, 295, 

Martin, 230 

Mass. See Coins 

Masulipatam, 14, cowl for, 17; 19, 40, 
goods for and trade of, 59, 84, 86, 

88, 90, 91, 99, 338 ; 61, Marlowe 
at, 64, 89, 116, 118, 317, the Brah- 
man Governor, 84, 89, his son made 
hostage, 294, customs and custom- 
house, 84, 86, 89 ; 96, 101, 103, 
no, 117, Dutch at, 154; 158, 166, 
'Globe' from, 279, 321, at, 292; 

293. 297 
Matsuura Hizen no Kami See Tome 

Matt. See Weights and Measures 
Mattran, factory desired at, 277 
Maund. See Weights and Measures 
Maurice, Stadtholder, of Holland, made 

a Knight of the Garter, 165 
Mauritius Island, wood from, 189 
Meer Shumelo, Shabunder of Masuli- 
patam, 17 
Melsham, purser of the ' Clove ' (Eighth 

Voyage), 14 
Merchandise marks, illustrated, 203, 

206, 286, referred to, 325 
Meredith, John (Eighth Voyage), killed, 


Merland, Bartholomew, 190 

Mesima (Mexma), 233 

Miaco or Miako, 9, 21, 26, 29, 30, 48, 
50, 73 

Middleburg in Holland, 220 

Middleton, Captain David, 318, 322, 
323, letter to E. I. C, 324-326; 
328, 331, 332, 333. 335. 337. 33$> 

Middleton, General Sir Henry, at 
Makjan, 2, his goods, 39, 67, and 
Sheppard's moneys, 41, at Pulo Ai, 
78 ; 90, and Mukarrab Khan, 104, 
his letters to the King of Socotra, 
148, velvet brought by, to India un- 
saleable, 174, the King's commission 
to, 175, sword-blades brought to 
India by, 195, his death, 201, 204, 
213. 320, 324. 325. 328 ; his doings 
in the Red Sea, 240, 260 

Middleton, Captain John, of the First 
Voyage, his death and character, 

Midnall, John, a dishonest trader, 60, 
dies at Ajmir, 98, 102, 153, or Agra, 
242, his affairs, 105, 106, and goods, 



137, 141, 156, 170, 1S1, 300, in the 
Mogul's hands, 193, 237, 299 ; 169 

Mill, Thomas, 147 

Millward, John, cape merchant of 
'Thomas,' letter to E. I. C, 327-328; 
330, 338 

Mitford, Thomas, signs consultations at 
Surat, 132, 133, 134, 135, 137, ap- 
pointed a factor for Agra, 134, 214, 
241, signs consultation on Persian 
trade, 209, memorandum probably 
from him for Farewell, 232-233, 
letter to E. I. C. on Indian and Per- 
sian business, 187, 236-238 ; 240, 
signs Steel's commission, 268 

Mocha, 1 16 

Mocrob Khan. See Mukarrab Khan 

Mogore. See Mogul 

Mogores (Moguls) in the Red Sea, 275 

Mogul, the Great, wars with the Portu- 
guese, 96, 107, 149, 150, 151, 155, 
desires peace, 157, 189 ; 168, 179, 
186, cause of the war, 213 ; 239, 
results, 246 ; banishes all the Portu- 
guese, 96, 107, and others, 150, and 
why, 213, his court, 98, 99, 104, 
131, 141, 151, 153, 243, extent of 
dominions, 99, 172, Sherley's visit, 
99, 106, 107, 108, 141, English 
resident at court of, 100, 108, 131, 
133, 136, 138, 151, 155, 157, 172, 
178, 180, 236, 243, cost of main- 
taining, 244, well received, 246 ; 
247, 251, 266, 261, letter from 
King James I. slighted, 103, 104, 
178, 179, his seal to articles, 103, 
withheld, 104, 105, presents for, 
103, 109, as from King James I., 

138, his taste in, 151, 152, 157, 195, 
196, and wishes as to, 173, 174, 178, 
presents frequently needed, 180, 183, 
193, opened and viewed against 
orders, 237, 238, 25S, 261 ; 240, Sir 
T. Smith's picture, 246 ; 297, 301, 
wars with the Rana, 104, firmans 
and letters of, 104, 133, 138, 157, 
158, 178, 179, 182, against Portu- 
guese, 179, 236, 239, 240, 258, 261, 
298, 299, 300, 301, his hunting, 105, 
109, and that of his women, 10S, 

contempt for merchants, 108, 131, 
133. r 3 6 > 243, 2 44. 251, 261, his 
great ancestor, 13S, his timorous- 
ness, 139, his mother, and the 
'Remew,' 213, his merchant, 259, 
letter from the Portuguese to, insult- 
ing English, 298, orders from, pro- 
hibiting removal of ' Frangueis ' 
goods, 298, 299 ; 142, 143, 149, 156, 

169, 180, 181, 185 

Moluccas, healthy, and inhabitants 
willing to trade, 16, ships of, 31, 32, 
33, 34, English trade with, 49, wars 
between Dutch and Spaniards in, 68, 
71, 78, 80, 166, wares for, 84, 120, 
128, trade hindered in, by Portu- 
guese, 127 ; 209, 221, 272, 284, 294, 
302, 311, trade in, 314; 321, 322, 
328, 335, 336, 338 

Money. See Coins 

Money, false, the cause of the Cochin 
China massacre, 197 

Monsoons and Winds, 4, 5, 14, 33, 35, 
36, 45, 46, 52, 53, 64, 77, 78, 79, 
81, 85, 92, 113, 116, 118, 122, 153, 

170, 177, 198, 201, 215, 217, 227, 
233. 234, 246, 256, 263, 294, 302, 
306, 309, 312, 314, 315, 319, 320, 
321, 322, 327, 329, 331, 332, 333, 

337, 338 

Moorish traders in India, S5 

Moors of Boeton, 36, of India, S6, 1 1 6, 
and the Portuguese, 97, 213, 247, 
251, 294, at Patani, 128, at Zango- 
maye, 113 ; 279 

More, William, of the ' Osiander ' 
(Tenth Voyage), his money, 101, 1 10 

Moreth, Gion Maria di, his poor estate, 
164, 165 

Moroffe, 285 

Mosley, Samuel, purser of the 'Thomas,' 
deceased, 320 

Mossopotam. See Masulipatam 

Mouris Island or Mauritius, 189 

Moyella Island, 167 

Moyetta Island, 167 

Mukarrab (Mocrob) Khan, sometimes 
called 'the Nabob,' 96, 103, hin- 
ders business, 104, 133, Sted inter- 
views, 135 ; 137, his covctousness, 



138, delays the English, 149, 150, 
151, 179, 237, 238, 240, 241, 251, 
insists on seeing present for Mogul, 
151, 178, 179, 297; 152, 153, 261, 
his letter on Midnall's goods, 156, 
181, the sole channel to reach the 
Mogul, 157, 178, 179, arch-enemy 
of English, 168, 171, 176, 178, 180, 
185, bribes the Dutch to fight the 
Portuguese, 171, list of things de- 
sired from England for the Mogul, 
173, 183, Downton's notes thereon, 
173-174, his relations with Down- 
ton, 185, 186, receives Edwards 
favourably, 213, called 'the Nabob,' 
225, 229, 254, 283, 296, 303, 305, 
312, and the Mogul's letters, 226, 
239, 240 ; 249, 258, civilities to 
Ball, 257, 25S, Preston's opinion of, 
25S, Jesuit intluence with, 259, re- 
fuses guard to English caravan, 260, 
despises merchants, 261, his diplo- 
macy, 264 

Mulliamer Benzaid, King of Socotra, 
friendly, 14S 

Munday, proposed for Persian venture, 

Muscovy. Sec Russia 

Muscovy Company, the, 265 

Muscovy hides, 152, 173 

Muskat, 177 

Musketo, Portuguese merchant, prof- 
fers friendship, 259 

Nabob, the. See Mukarrab Khan 

Nafa harbour, 234, 235 

Nangasaki, 13, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 27, 

51, 72, 74, 76, 196, 228, 230, 235 
Nanking, silk of, 32, 128, 271, 276, 

315, 323, 327, proposed port at which 

to open trade with China, 199 ; 235 
Narangee or Naranse, the broker, 218, 

250, 281, 282, 286 
Narsapur or Narsarpurpeta, 41, 43, 60, 

80, ship built at, 116; 293 
Nealson, William, of the Eighth 

Voyage, left in Japan, his duties, 5 ; 

1 8, 25, 47, letter to Wickham, 71- 

73 ; 75. 215. 216, 217, 228, 235 

Negrotat. See Tatta 

Nelson, William, servant to Sir Thomas 
Smith, 176, 244 

1 New Year's Gift,' E. L C.'s ship, 25, 
136, 172, 212, 255 

Newell, Richard (of the Sixth Voyage), 
sent to Landak, 29, 57 

Newman, Richard, in Persia, 9S, and 
Midnall, 105, 106, 299 

Newport, Captain Christopher, his 
good fame, 122, 171, plot of a Portu- 
guese sailor against, 190, his discon- 
tent, 190 ; 212, 225, 2S7, 325, 330,334 

Nicholas. Set Withington 

Nicholls, William, list of writings sent 
home by him from Tecoo, 147, he is 
left at Bantam, 277, opinion of Cobb's 
conduct, 285, letter presumably from, 
toE. I. C, 287-292, sent as assistant 
merchant in the ' Thomas ' to Suma- 
tra, 328, 338 

Nicobar Islands, 115 

Ningim or Ningin root, its value, 114, 
and scarcity, 191 

Ninth Voyage {see Marlowe, Captain, 
ship 'James,' Davis, master, Biocke- 
don, Cobb, Gourney, Sheppard), 
119, 120, merchants of, 123, 160, 
162, goods of, 269 

Nobisana's Island See Ikshiu 

North-west Passage, Adams' desire to 
seek, 200 ; 221 

Ocanano, John de, a Spaniard, in 
Japan, 216, 217, 222, 223, 227 

Oftley, Robert, 169 

Ogashama. See Japan, Emperor of 

Okinawa-sima Island {called Lequeo 
Grande), 234 

'Old Zealand,' Dutch ship, 34 

Oliver, , 290 

Orancaya Tecoos, the chief of Lugho, 
272, 307 

Orancaya Paduca Sirnaca, the, and the 
Sombaye, 129 

Orancayas, the, of Patani like the Eng- 
lish, 33, harbour dues, 44, of Pulo 
Ai seek English aid, 78, which fails 
to reach them, 79 



Ormus, 98, 145, tribute paid by, 146; 
153, 169, 170, 177, besieged by the 
Persians, 193 ; 237, 252, 262 

Osaka, 5, 12, 20, 21, 22, 25, prices 
current at, 48, 62; 50, 53, 74, 76, 
139, cold weather at, 140 ; 143, 222 

•Osiander,' E. I. C.'s ship (Tenth 
Voyage), 60, 81, 118, 119, 123, 145, 
165, 271, 278, 280, 284, 285, 2S7, 
288, 289, 290, 294, 295, 302, 313, 
314, 319, 320, 321, 323, 325, 327, 

332, 334, 335, 338, 339 
Oxima orOshima. See Amami Oosima 
Oxwicke, John, factor for Broach, 134, 
goes thither, 213, letters from Aid- 
worth, 218, joint letter from the 
same, 282, another, 286-287, letter 
from Biddulph, 225, letter from 
Edwards and others, 249-250, letters 
from Elkington, 218, 219-220, 225- 
226, 228-229, 232, 295-296, 302- 

3°3, 3 3-304, 30S-30 6 , 3 ri -3 I2 > 
letter from Preston, 231, letter to 
Biddulph, 224, letter to Elkington, 
283-284 ; 241, 259 
Oyen Dono or Owendona, Governor of 
the young King of Firando, iS, 20, 
25, 52, 53, 230 

Packing, Dutch method of, for cloth, 
3, English method bad, 187 

Padang, 291 

Paduca Sirnaca, an Orancaya, 129 

Pagodas. See Coins 

Painters of the Great Mogul, 246 

Palamban, 112, 122,312 

Palsgrave of the Rhine. See Heidel- 

Pam, Island of, 122, 127 

Paquin. See Pekin 

Parsons, John (of the Seventh Voyage), 
46, 58, 121, 122 

Pasaman, 322, 323 

Patani, 3, 5, 16, 28, ships of, 31, 38, 
39, 40, 41, 43, the Queen of, her 
exorbitance, 44, and loans, 80, 81, 
Dutch payments to, 87, 112, 123, 
hostages left with, 127 ; 45, 49, 55, 
56, 57, 63, 65, 67, 71, 75, 76, 77, 

the cloth trade bad, 79, 113, customs 
charges at, 79, 80, 81, 82, 91, 92, 
94, 95, Hippon dies at, 112, injur- 
ious effect of Marlowe's conduct, 
114, 117, 119, 120; 121, 123, 124, 
145, 160, 165, 201, 202, pepper, 
price ^and quality, 203 ; 204, 217, 
269, 270, 271, 273, 317, 319, 321, 

323, 325, 338 

' Patience,' a junk, 28 

Pattamar, 101, etc. 

Patell, his goods not up to sample, 

Paulie, William, of the 'Globe' 
(Seventh Voyage), 129 

Peacock, Tempest, letter to E. I. C., on 
voyage of the ' Thomas ' and trade in 
Japan, 1-4 ; left in Japan, 5, money 
difficulties, 6 ; 8, goes to Nangasaki, 
17, Wickham's guns, 18, 71 ; 19, is 
sent to Cochin China, 20, 21, 22, 27, 
and slain there, 68, 74, 75, 197, 198, 
204, 314 ; his book, 30, his message, 
51, letters from, referred to, 63, his 
conduct, 72, 73 
' Tearl,' the, Castleton's ship, 68 

Pearls of Bahrein, 146 

Pecul. See Weights and Measures 

Pedro Branco the little, a famous rock, 


Pegu, the Ava King of, 82 
Pekin, residence of the Chinese Em- 
peror, 202 
Pengran Protector of Bantam, the, 276, 


Penguin Island, 255 

'Peppercorn,' ship of E. I. C, 184, 
1S5, 190, 191, 192, 194, 204, 209 

Persia, 43, climate of, 98, 170, Eng- 
lish merchants in, 98, goods for, 9S, 
169, 170, 237, ports of, 98, 99, note 
on, 145-146, 170, 177, 210, 211, 
Sherley urges English to seek trade 
there, 99, his return there, 99, 106, 
107, 141 ; 103, 105, Indian ambas- 
sador sent to, 107, the tribute from 
Ormus, 146, free from customs in- 
ward, 147, raw silk of, 152; 169, 
213 ; prospects of trade and routes 
for, 153, 193, Downton's letters on, 

3 66 


169-170, 209-211, merchants de- 
tailed for, 171, 213 ; 182, consul- 
tation on sending an expedition to, 
208-209, trade with, 237, 241, 
248, 250, 252, 261, 262, go* 
and clothing, 237 ; 262, coimuis- 
mmii given to Sted and Crouther for 
trade in, 266-268 

, King of (Shah Abbas), f 
the English, 99, Ml port-, 146, 147, 
his toll to procure anny pay, 147, 
his court, 153; !'>■>, hi^ licence for 
trade needed, 170, and tOOgllt, I 7 1 , 
2IO, 211, 242, 262, 267, be : 

n Cull", 98, 177 
1 104, needful for 

■ra, 10S ; 171, 179, 
generally understood, 243 
I St« Petty 

.\ , 1 1 ; 

l'etapoli (called Peta; poHe, 

etc), 63, 80, 84 trading at, 

85. So ; 88. 1 1 7. 293 

Petty, Richard, once master of the 
1 Osiander ' (Tenth Voyage), later of 
the 'Concord,' in, 212, dies, 268, 
Uawajof storing dry commodities, 
270, 271, his cloves, 274, 316, in 
the 'Concord,' 330, 334 

rhel>c, John, in Japan, sent toShrongo, 
\i. a • dreamer,' 51, 53, at Jeddo, 
62, 63 ; 67, invoice of goods sent by 
hand of, 70 ; 74, 76, 139, 215, 216, 
217, 223, 'grown stately,' 227 

Philippines, Dutch and Spaniards in, 
68, 71 ; 76, buffaloes' horns from and 
price, 205, banished Jesuits in, 201, 

Tice. See Coins 

Pillar set up at the Cape of Good Hope 
by Sir Thomas Roe, 1 S4 

Tinan. See Pulo Penang 

Pisa. See Weights 

Pitt, Richard, appointed factor for 
Surat and Cambaya, 1 34, 214, 241 

Plymouth, 320, 324, 32S, harbour, 

329. 331 
Poland and Muscovy, war between, 

Pon Lecma, 287, 

Poolla Penchan. .See Pulo Pandjang 

Poolowaya (Palo Ai), a, 78 


Portugal (and of (Philip 

III.), 186, 189 

Portuguese (se. I 'Minis, 

etc.), tin hum 

ship-, btcloding ' Kcniew, * 229, take 
Surat shi;>, 1 ■(, 2:,- : i..ul, 

257 ; dog the EogUlb near Swally, 
257, paM Surat, ll8, 
at Surat, 90, their city of 1 >aman be- 
;ed, 96, threaten Surat and make 
enemies, 97, in Sind, 99, 106, 107, 
hinder English 

feat of, 1 10) 10S, le a ve S ai I 

war with the Moguls, r }S, t.ike their 

iish help againat) invited, 1 | 1, 
150, 16S, 186, 213, peace di iredbjr, 

150, 155, and tluir .156, 
. relations with Mukarrab Khan, 

151, 171, claim to exclusive trade, 
179, 1S6, Mukarrab their secret 
friend, 258, confers with a i 

2 S9 J 3°5- l, urn Goga, 155, rein- 
forcements expected, 169, 189, attack 
expected by I'owntr.n, 
fighters, |S 1 ;. 1 88, < hflrJafl trade 
at Sural, |SS, 1S9, burn towns and 
axe hat d, 21 t, war continued, 236, 
239, influence on trade, 241, 260, 
menace Surat. 

at Surat, 290, 298, Downton's victory 
over, 302, 303, 305, peai' 
305, not concluded, 312, sailors not 
to be employed in Publish ships, 

Portuguese in Japan, 10, n, in Ma- 
cassar, 31, 32, in the Moluccas 16, 
in Persia, 99, 146, 210, 242, 262, 
injurious to English trade, 276, Eng- 
lish not to fight, in those parts, 309, 
a friendly Portuguese merchant there, 
3>o, 3" 

Portuguese language, 104, 106, letter 
in, missing, 230 

Postle, John, factor in Tecoo, 2SS 

Pottany. See Patani 



Predys, Arthur, assistant merchant in 
second voyage to Japan, 237, 332 

Pregona, 106 

Preston, Ralph, left at Surat, 134, ab- 
stract of letter to E. I. C, 191, sent 
to Ahmedabad, 214, letter to Ox- 
wicke, 231, letter to E. I. C, 254- 

Priaman, pepper of, 1, 280, 318, 321, 
371 ; 82, 145, English in great 
danger at, 165 ; 291, 322, 323 

Prices current at Agra, 192, Ajmir, 
180, 181, 300, Ahmedabad, 151, 152, 
153, 196, 214, 231, 238, 241, 248, 
249, 250, 259, 260, 263, Banda, 
308, Bantam, 14, 32, 66, 86, 119, 269, 
274, 276, 277, 316, 319, 337, 339, 
Broach, 260, Cape of Good Hope, 
330, Coast of Coromandel, 337, 
Jambusar, 281, Japan, 3, 7, 11, 20, 
22, 25, 29, 30, 48, 50, 62, 71, 143, 
198, 199, 202, 203, Java, 331, Lu- 
ang Prabang, 113, 114, Lugho, Cam- 
bello, etc., 273, Macassar, 31, 32, 

34, 45, 66, 77, 78, Madagascar, 167, 
212, Makjan, 2, Masulipatam, 59, 
86, Patani, 39, 117, 124, 125, 127, 
128, 129, Persia, 98, 213, Philippine 
Islands, 205, Priaman, 1, Siam, 94, 
205, Socotra, 148, 212, 256, Suka- 
dana, 57, 58, Sumatra, 314, Surat, 
107, 164, 193, 213, 218, 229, 232, 
248, 253, 254, Tecoo, 288, 289, 

Private trading by E. I. C. 's servants, 

35, 83, 91, 118, 125, 126, 190, 192, 
274, 275, 278, 279, 290, 291, 309, 
310, 316 

Prowd or Prowde, Roger, related to 
Sir Thomas Smith, goes to Agra, 
176, 214, 241, 243 

Pulicat, trade of, monopoly of the 
Dutch, 83 

Pulo Ai (Poola Waya), 33, 78 

Pulo Cupas, 122 

Pulo Doei (Pulo Doy), 3 

Pulo Lingga. See Pulo Pon Lingua 

Pulo Pandjang, 56, 321, 324 

Pulo Penang, 115 

Pulo Pon Lingua, 122 

Pulo Sambolan, 115 

Pulo Tingy, 122 

Pulo Tioman, 122 

Pursers excluded from council, 184, 

190, 194 
Pussolucke, 113 

Quabicondono. See Ticus Same 
Queda, cloth from, 128 
Quedoquea Stibio Dono, 12 
Quinham or Quinhon, chief town of 
Cochin China, 197 

Rachado, Cape, 115 

Rack or arrack, 37, 57, 89 

Radaughe. See Redang 

Ramadan or Ramazan, the Moslem 

fast, 239 
Rana, the, of the Mountains, 104 
Randan. See Ramadan 
Rashbouts (Rajputs), 152, 260, 261, 

Rashell. See Reshire 
Raynawes, 263 
1 Red Lion the with the Pile,' Dutch 

ship, 71 
Red Sea, the, 103, 145, 153, 221, 246, 

Middleton's doings in, 104, 240, 260, 

trade with India, 241 ; 246, 253, 256, 

traders in, 275 
Redang Islands, 122 
'Remewe' taken by the Portuguese, 

213, 247, and burnt, 229, her value, 

Reshire, port, described, 146 
Resident for Agra. See Canning, 

and Edwards 
Rhine provinces, 165 
Rials. See Coins 
Roe, Sir Thomas (Ambassador from 

James I. to the Mogul) at the Cape 

of Good Hope, 184, 191 
Rogers, Rev. Peter, goes to Agra, 176, 


Romsie, , his wages, 56 

'Rose,' 147 

3 68 


'Roquan,' a junk, 27 
' Rotterdam, ' a Dutch ship, 80 
Rowe, Richard, master of the 
' Thomas,' his dissensions with 
Hawkins, 320, letter to the E. I. C, 

Rubies, price of, 61, balasse6, 301 
Rupees. See Coins 
Russia, 165, 263 

Sacadaney. See Sukadana 

Sacay (Sakeye). See Osaka 

Sadler, Richard, appointed a factor for 
Surat, etc., 134 

Safiandono, befriends the English, 230 

Sailing directions, for keeping company, 
23-25, for Jasques, 99, Baker's re- 
ferred to, 183, Arthington's referred 
to, 194, for 'Globe' and 'James,' 

Sailing times, from the Coast of Coro- 
mandel to Bantam, 49, from Japan to 
l'atani, 5, from Patani to Sukadana, 
77, from Patani for Pulo Ali, 78 

Sailing waggons in Korea, 201, 202 

Saint Augustine's Bay, 148, purchases 
in silver at, 167, 121, 256 

Saint George's flag objected to, on ac- 
count of its cross, 24 

Saint Helena, Island, 209 

Saint Lawrence. See Madagascar 

Sakuyemon, bis receipt in Japanese, 

Saldania, Bay of, (see also Good Hope, 
Cape of) 146, 148, 167, 183, old 
sails to be used there for tents, 184, 
the ' condemned men ' left ashore at, 
184, 192, 194 ; 185, 188, 189. 190, 
brass preferred to copper by natives 
at, 192 ; 194, 209, 210, 212, 250, 

255. 329» 333. 334 
Salmon, Nathaniel, master of the 
'Globe' (Seventh Voyage), 285, 290, 

Salt Isles, the. 332 
Salvador, Ferdinando, a Portuguese, in 

India, 257, said to be the Mogul's 

merchant, 259 

'Samaritan,' EL I. C's ship, 318, 319, 
320, 322, 323, 325, 326, 327, 328, 

332, 335. 337. 338, 339. 340 

Sambas, 34, 38, 58, Dutch and l.n- 
glish factories at, 66; 123, 79, 92, 
the King of, and the Landak expe- 
dition, 93, prospects of trade at, 278 

Same, a Japanese honorific. Cf. Ticus 

Samuel, Nathaniel, master of the 
' Osiander ' (Tenth Voyage), 118 

Samuel, Thomas, 113 

Sandcrofte, John, appointed a factor 
for P.aroda, 134, letters to E. I. C, 
191, 212-215, 214-215 ; 231 

Sandford, Melchior Van, 68, 114 

Sangora. Set Sungora 

Saris or Sayers, Edmund, or Edward, 
left in Japan, 5 ; 8, 9, his trade re- 
ports, 22, 47 ; 75, 1 96, 'goes to Siam, 
200, 203, and is to be instructed, 
206 ; 215, 216, 222, 223, 227 

Saris, Captain John, of the Eighth 
Voyage, ship 'Clove,' his visit to 
Japan, 1, 3, 4, 128, 221, 323, 345, 
goes to Tidore, 2, his memorandum 
for Cocks, 4-9, with orders as to 
payment of wages, 5, 6, and opinion 
of William Adams, 6, 7, at Bantam 
homeward bound, 14, arranges the 
factory, 15, 16; 65, 148, his orders 
for the Siam expedition, 196, 197, 
315, his specimen kerimon, 198; 


Sarkhej, indigo of, 152, 153, 188, 214, 
247, packing of, 249, prices, 250, 252 

Satsuma (Satchma), 235 

Savage, Robert, taken on board against 
orders, 320 

Savoy, the Duke of (Charles Emanuel, 
the Great), 165. 

Sayer, Sayers. See Saris 

Saywell, Matthew, of the ' Globe ' 
(Seventh Voyage), his wages, 129 

Scooich, Wickham's man. 76 

' Sea Adventure, ' junk of E. I. C. bought 
for the Siam expedition, 196, her 
lading, 200, 203, 207, leaky, 215, 
216, 217, 222, her disastrous voyage, 
223, 227 



Seamanship bad, 64, 185, 192, and in- 
ferior crews, 184, 190 

Seemon, Zezay, of Osaka, 143 

Seer. See Weights and Measures 

Segora (possibly Sungora), 39 

'Seilan,' the, a Dutch ship, 315 

Seilan. See Ceylon 

Separate Voyages, inconveniences of, 
15, 60, 83, 117, 119, 120, 249, 317 

Seran. See Ceram 

Serkese. See Sarkhej 

Sestos river (called De Cestos and Ses- 
tros), 319, 327, commodities of, 329, 

333. 334 
Seventh Voyage (161 1), 22, moneys of, 
41, 68, 306; 112, silver sent on 
account of, 206, 208, goods of, 316, 

317, 335. 336 

Shabunder, the, of Bantam, 318, 
of Masulipatam, Meer Shumelo, 17, 
of Surat, his ship taken, 137 ; 

Sheppard, William, and the ' Globe's ' 
stores, 41, goes to Siam, 44, 45, 
joint letter to Jourdain and Cobb, 
49; 82, 119, 121, 122, 123, his 
accounts sent home, 273 

Sherley, Lady, 209 

Sherley, Sir Robert, receipt from, 16, 
at Sinda, 99, 106, and Agra, 99, 
106, on opening trade with Persia, 
99, returns thither, 107, 141, his 
trading in cloth, 107, 180, 181, gifts 
to, 108, a note of his observations on 
Persian ports, 145, Steel to be sent 
to, 171, Downton's letter to, on 
Persian trade, 209-211, and attitude 
to Persian trade, 241, 242, 248, 252, 
262, 266, 267 

Sherongo (Shrongo), in Japan, 5, 10, 
12, 13, 18, 21, 22, 25, 26, 48, 52 

Shimeneseak or Shimenoseki, 46 

Ships' surgeons mere boys, 184 

Shiraz {called also Sherase), 146, 193 

Shrongo. See Sherongo 

Siam, 3, English trade with, 5, 16, 19, 
27. 39. 44. 45. 65, ships of, 31, 47, 
67, expedition to, 68, 76, 79, 80, 81, 
82, 94, 95, 112, local wars with 
Pegu, 82, S4, S7, James I.'s letter 

Y 1268. 

delivered and factory arranged for, 
113 ; 114, 115, 117, 119, 121, com- 
position of the expedition, 123, 124; 
145, 165, 196, 197, 199, presents to 
the King of, 200, 203, 205, 206, in- 
voice of the goods sent to, 204, 207 ; 
217, expedition unsuccessful, 233, 
23S» 315. factory in, 325, 335, 338. 

Silver, , cooper of the ' Clove, ' his 

name inscribed on Penguin Island, 


Simma Dono. See Tome Same 

Simon, a juribasso in Japan, 27, 227 

Sind, 153, 171, land transit difficult, 
177; 199, 209, 237 

Sind river. See Indus 

Singagerie, 127 

Singapouren, Strait of, 115 

Sirgoes. See Sarkhej 

Sixth Voyage (1610), 14, 118, goods 
of, 120, 313, 317, 336, moneys of, 

Skinner, John, master of the ' Globe ' 
(Seventh Voyage), 60, complotter 
with Marlowe, 114, 115, is careless, 
293, becomes master of the ' Osi- 
ander' (Tenth Voyage), 294, 295, 

310, must be kept under supervision, 

311, becomes master of the 'Con- 
cord,' 322, 336 

Slavery (see also Caffro) in Japan, 72, 
in the Malay Archipelago, 36 

Small ships derogatory to the dignity of 
E. I. C, 45, desired, 81, 83, to be 
also roomy, 191, for visitation pur- 
poses, 326 

Smith, Henry, nephew of Sir Thomas 
Smith, goes to Agra, 176, 214, 241, 

Smith, Sir Thomas, Kt., Governor of 
the East India Company, alleged 
letters from, 60, abstracts of letters 
from Edwards, 183, Holmedon, 183, 
and Keridge, 183, 185 ; letter from 
Blitheman, 328-333 ; letter from 
Brockedon on wages, 63-65 ; letter 
from Downton on the difficulties of 
commanders, 174-177 ; letter from 
Edwards, on his appointment as 
lieger, 243-246 ; letter from Gourney 

B B 



on Marlowe, etc. , 88, 89 ; letter from 
Ilerode, on his voyage, and the ex- 
pedition to Landak, 91-95 ; letter 
from Keridge, of exculpation, no, 
III ; letter from Larkin, on the 
voyage of the 'Darling,' 65-67; 
letter from Mitford, 236-238 ; 122, 
139, 239, 243, Brighurst's slanders, 
245, his good opinion of Welden, 308 

Socadanya. See Sukadana 

Socotra, and its King, 148, 167, 212, 
251, his good disposition, 255 

Soldania. See Saldania 

•Solomon,' E. I. C.'s ship, 151, 156, 
192, 212, 247, 251, 279, 286 

Sombase. See Sambas 

Sombaye, 112, 123, 129 

Soronga. See Sherongo 

Spain, the King of (Philip III.), his 
alleged suit for Elizabeth, daughter 
of James I., 165 

Spain, 155, truce with the Low Coun- 
tries, but not in the East, 165, war 
with the Dutch in the Moluccas, 166 

Spalding, Augustine, or Austen, 41, 42, 
86, and the porcelain, 92; 117, 122, 
and alleged private trading, 27S, 279 

Spaniards, in the Moluccas, 2, 68, 166, 
in Japan, 6, 7, 10, 11, seize a run- 
away, 228, and why, 230, a rene- 
gado instigates the destruction of the 
'Trades Increase,' 279, fighting 
with, to be avoided, 309, why, 340 

Spanish money refused at St. Augus- 
tine, 167 

Spanish wine in Japan, 23 

Speck, Jacob, Dutch Merchant, 34, his 
new ship, 71 

'Speedwell,' a pinnace of the E. I. C. , 
285, 294, 314, 322 

Speight, Arthur, instructions for ships 
keeping company, addressed to, by 
Downton, 23-25 

Sphan or Sphane. Set Ispahan 

Stapers, Richard, 98, 262 

Starkey, Anthony, steward of the 
' Dragon ' (formerly of the ' Osi- 
ander') his allowance, 101 ; 103, no 

Starkey, Richard, dies, 184, 194 

States General (of Holland), 19 

Steel, Richard, and trade with Persia, 
98, 104, and Midnall, 105, is sent to 
confer with Mukarrab Khan, 135, 
advises a non-mercantile resident for 
Agra, 136, signs consultations at 
Surat, 137, in connection with the 
proposed opening of trade with Per- 
sia, 153, 154, 169, 170, 171, 172; 
182, 208, 209, commended to Sher- 
ley by Downton, 209-210, 211; 213, 
237, 242, 243, 248, 249, 252, 257, 
262, 267, 26S 

Stillero wanted, 256 

Stores bad, 187, 190, and needed, 

Stowaways forbidden, 208 

Sturton, — , 23 

Sually. See Swally 

Suetonius, a copy belonging to Wick- 
ham, 75 

Sukadana, 16, 28, 29, goods for, 32, 
33> 34, 37, 3 8 > 39, 4°, 46, report 
from, 55, 56, dissensions at, 57, 65, 
poor state of, 66, 92, sailing times 
for from Patani, 77 ; 79, 82, lack of 
money at, 94, 121, 123, 279, Dutch 
at, 271, trade at, 278, 309, 323, 326, 

332, 336, 333, 340 

Sumatra, 118, 119, trade in, 314, 318, 
322, 325, 328, 332, 335, 337, 339 

Sunda Straits, 14, the longer route to 
the ' Coast, ' 64 ; 80, called ' Sun- 
day,' 319; 331, 334 

Sunday observance by E. I. C.'s ser- 
vants in the East, 21 ; 130 

Sungora, 39, 94, 124, proposed factory, 
125 ; 129 

Surat, 19, 42, 43, 59, 60, 61, 91, trade 
report from, 96, threatened by the 
Portuguese, 97, 99, 101, 103, 104, 
106, the bar of, 107 ; 131, question 
of keeping as sole market, 131, 
decision, X32, factors appointed for, 
134, councils held at, 136, 137, 
138, 140, 141, the Shabunder's 
ship, 137, English at, 142, 

148, 149, Portuguese fighting at, 

149, 186, the sub-governor of, 150, 
goods of, 151, 188, 193, 194, 337, 
338, 340, value of its money, 152 ; 



*53» 155. »S9, 164, '168, river of, 
168, Viceroy of the Portuguese ex- 
pected at, 169; 170, 171, 173, 174, 
176, bar of, 178, 187, 251, merchants 
desire trade with English, 179, the 
late Governor, 180, goods for, 180 ; 
182, 183, 184, 185, 187, 188, place 
for sending ships from, 190, small 
ships for, 191, trade prospects, 193, 
194, 208, 211, 212, 218, 219, custom 
house in, 225 ; 228, 232, 236, 237, 
2 3 8 > 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 246, 
ship taken by Portuguese, 247, 251 ; 
248, 249, 252, 253, 256, 257, 258, 
259, 261, prices at, 263, sandal-wood 
sold at, 27S ; 1S7, 2SS, 290, 295, 
Portuguese collect at, 296, 298, 305, 
Dutch at, 297; 299, 302, 303, 311, 
317, fleet of, 323, 338; 336 
Swally, 130, 149, 156, 167, 168, 172, 
185, 192, 212, 236, 239, 247, 249, 
251, 254, 257, 295, 296, the defeat 
of the Portuguese off, by Downton, 

303-305; 3" 
Sweden and Denmark united, 1 65 
Synda. See Sind 
Symons, Thomas, surgeon's mate, at 

Tecoo, 2S8 

Taels. See Coins 

Tahanna, a free port in Makjan, 2 

Tamburlaine, 138 

Tannassary. See Tcnasserim 

Tatta (Tutta), 143, 172 

Tattamy. See Weights and Measures 

Tecoo, 118, 147, 287, 289, 322, 323 

Temor, Timour, Tymor. See Timor 

Tenasserim (Tannassary), 86 

Tenth Voyage (1612), 123, its stock, 

177, accounts of, 193, 271, 2S9, 

Tematta, or Ternate, Spaniards at, 2, 

3, language of, 272, King of, friendly, 

272, 307 
Ternattan, a, governor of Lugho, 307 
Thoharton, 129 
•Thomas,' E. I. C.'s ship, 1, 318, 320, 

322, 325, 328, 332, 335, 337, 338, 


' Thomasine,' E.I.C.'s ship, 31S, 320, 
322, 325, 328, 332, 335, 337, 338, 
339. 340 

Ticus Same, or Quabicondono, Empe- 
ror of Japan and predecessor of 
Ogushama, 201, attempt on the life 
of the Emperor of China, 202, 221 

Tidore, Spaniards at, 2, Dutch losses 
at, 80 

Tient river, charted, 95 

Timor, factory desired at, 277, 309, 
336, 338, 340 

Toba, a bad harbour, 52, 53 

Tobacco prohibited in Japan, 20 

Tombaz, 105 

Tome Same (called also Semi Dono 
etc. orMatsuura Ilizen no Kami), the 
young King of Firando, a bad pay- 
master, 7, loans to, 9, 10, 12, 52, 
53, 54, his governor, 18, 25, and 
secretary, 20, his purchases, 48 ; 62, 
his military preparations, 230 

Toshtro, and the key, 216 

Towerson, Captain Gabriel, marries 
the widow of Captain William Haw- 
kins, 210 

'Trades Increase,' ship of the E. I. C. 
(Sixth Voyage), 60, 90, 94, destroyed, 
102, 165, 201, in what manner, 279 ; 
328, 335 

Trange, cloth from, 128 

Tsushima (Tushma), 5, 22, trade at, 
107, its independence, 201 

Tucker, John, left at Surat, 1 34 

Tuning, Gisbright, a Dutchman, enters 
E. I. C.'s service, 200 

Turkey and the Turks, 169, 20S, 24S, 
trade with likely to fail, 261, 275 

Turkish language, a knowledge of, 
desirable for English resident at 
Agra, 108 

Tushma, the boy, and Iris writings, 216 

Tushma. See Tsushima 

Tutta. See Tatta 

Twelfth Voyage (161 2), 14, 16, 60 

Tyddore. See Tidore 

Ukfington, George, letter to E. I. C. 
(abstract), 1S5 



Ufllet, Nicholas, appointed a factor for 

Agra, 134, 214, 241 
Uringo, 12 
Ushian Dona, governor of the old King 

of Firando, 1 7, 20 

Van Berghen or Vanburchen. See 

Variao, 249, 296, 304, 305, 311 
Varrada, Jeronimo de, letter from, to 

the English at Firando (missing), 

Vataw, 250 

Velour, the King of, 83 
Venice, cloth of, 50, 86, 108, 180, 

202, 219, 225, 300, 312, drinking- 

glasses, 195, and looking-glasses etc., 

Veriaw. See Variao 
Vernon, William, left at Surat, 134 
Viceroy of Cambay. See Mukarrab 

Viceroy of Goa. See Goa, Viceroy of 
Visapur. See Bijapur 
Visitador General of the Dutch, 165 
Viss. See Weights and Measures 

Wages, references to, 4, 6, 8, 56, 63, 
80, 89, 91, 95, 109, in, 121, 129, 
136, 154, 173, 176, 183, 200, 244, 
262, 266, 277, 289, 290, 301, 315, 

Warne Hall, Cumberland, 130 

Watkins, David, 139 

Wading Street, 265 

Weights, required, 187, 256 

Weights and Measures, Eastern and 
English, instances of, bahar, 2, 35, 
287, 288, equivalent in pounds, 289, 
308 ; candy, 59, 86, equivalent, 337; 
catty, 1, 13,69, 288, passim; corge, 
32, 45, 58, 86, 120, 283, 311, 312, 
etc.; covad or covado, 97, 1S0, 181, 
214, 220, 225, equivalent in yards, 
229, 241, 263, 305 ; coyan, 34, 46, 
77 ; haste, 127 ; kintal, 256 ; matt, 
7, 25, 26, equivalent, 198, 202 ; 

maund, 140, 181, 193, equivalents in 
English pounds, 215, 238; 248, 
equivalents, 260, 281, 282 ; pecul, 
20, 22, passim; pisa, 181, 250; 
seer, 123, 127, 231, 250, 253, etc.; 
tattamy, of Japan, 198, 202 ; viss, 
Welden, Richard, 35, letter to Jour- 
dain, 35-36; 45, a good linguist, 
2 7 2 > 3°7» we ll thought of by Sir 
Thomas Smith, 308, stays at Banda, 


Westby, Richard, 44, at Bantam, 277, 
signs letter to E. I. C., 279, and re- 
port on Cobb, 285, letter to E. I. C, 


White, Edward, dies, 185, 192 

Wickham, Richard, of the Eighth 
Voyage, left in Japan, 5, his wages, 
6, 315, alleged insubordination, 8, 
misrepresented as cruel by the Dutch, 
23, 72, letter from Adams, 75-76, 
letter from Cocks to him and Adams, 
9-10, to him alone, 10-13, other 
letters from Cocks, 17-18, 18-19, 
21-22, 22-23, 26-27, 46-47. 5*> 53' 
54, 67-69, 70-71, 215-216,216,217, 
222, 223, 223-224, 227, 227-228, 
230, letters from Eaton, 20, 25-26, 
29-30, 30-31, 48, 50-51 , 62-63, 74- 
75, letter from Nealson, 71-73, 140, 
to go to Siam, 200, 203, commission 
and invoice of goods shipped in the 
* Sea Adventure ' for Siam sent to, by 
Cocks, 204-208 

William, 68 

Williams, John, 32, dead, 37, 57, 94, 
his debt, 54 

Wilson, Ralph, his trespass against the 
Articles, 320 

Wilson, William, 126 

Withington, Nicholas, at Agra, 100, 
106, appointed factor for that 
place, 134, letter to Aldworth, 
140-143 ; 138, 139, 158, 181, 298, 

Wood, Timothy, left at Surat, 134, 
dead, 156, 213, 236, 248, 252, is 
edifying end, 265 

Woodall, , 184 



Wootton, Thomas, surgeon, 89, 126, 

130, his skill, 292 
Wootton, , 6 

Xavier, Francis, 96 

Ximenes, Ilamando, 18, 20, 202 

Yarspur or Yarsurpurpeta. Ste Nar- 

Yasimon Dono, or Zanzebar, 18, 19, 

47. 5 1 * 5 2 * 69* 2 »5 
Yates, John, letter to his master, We 

Greenwell, Deputy Governor of the 

E. I. C, 319-320 
Yedo. Set Jeddo 
Young, John, Aldworth's servant, letter 

to E. I. C. (abstract), 1S3; 251 

Younge, Robert, appointed a factor 
for Agra, 134, 214, 241, goes to 
Broach en route, 213 

Yousen or Yoosen, John, a Dutchman, 
68, 113, 114, 197,206 

Yshew. See Iksbiu 

Zangomaye or Zhangomaye or Jan- 

gama. See Kiang-mai 
Zanzebar. See Yasimon 
' Zelandea,' Dutch ship, 128 
Zendoque Dono. See Andreas 
Zeyea Street, in Osaka, 143 
Zezay Seemon, of Osaka, 143 
Zinde. See Sind 
Zoccatra. See Socotra 



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